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Kashmir Conflict : Relationship between India and Pakistan Assignment Help

Essay Topic: Without a resolution of the Kashmir conflict can the relationship between India and Pakistan improve?

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The relationship between the two countries, India and Pakistan had been a complex series of hostility due to certain historical and political situations. It started in the year 1947, during the British Partition. This was the initiation of Kashmir conflict which remained marred with suspicion and hostility. At the end of the dissolution of the British rule in India, there were two nations that were formed which were India and Pakistan. The partition resulted in the loss of life where several thousand were killed in the name of religion. At the end of the partition, India emerged to be the country with a majority of the Hindu population while Pakistan emerged to be a country consisting of a majority of the Muslim population. In spite of maintaining a diplomatic relationship between the two countries, there were several territorial claims. Three major wars were fought by India and Pakistan with Kashmir being the centre point for all the hostility. The governments of the two countries since the partition have been taking several attempts in improving the relationship between the two countries, however, failed to restore peace and harmony in the borders.

Factors that resulted in conflict

The territorial disputes for the Kashmir state had been containing since the year 1947 to 1965. In spite of the cease-fire decision, in the year 2003, a regular exchange of fire in between the borders was observed. Both the countries accused each other in violating the cease-fire clause accepted by the two countries at the Line of Control (Javaid and Sahrai 2016). And both had claimed in shooting due to the neighbouring countries military attack. There were scopes and opportunities in the resolution of the issues in between the two countries when the Indian Prime Minister invited Pakistani Prime Ministers in an inauguration program to build the ties between India and Pakistan. However, after the report of the Pakistani officials making contacts with the Kashmiri separatist resulted in India cancelling all the peace discussion with Pakistan.

While the bilateral discussion was going on in between the two governments the Pathankot attack in 2016 that resulted in unrest and several military confrontations sparked disruption in bilateral discussions in between the two countries. Further, the trade relationship between the two countries was revoked during the Pulwama attack in 2019. Both the countries are found to claim the state Jammu and Kashmir entirely. The state Jammu and Kashmir area wise is controlled 55% by India consisting of 70% of the population, 30% by Pakistan and 15% by China. According to the researchers, the conflict related to the Kashmir state has been originated from unfulfilled promises that were made by India (Ashraf, Akhir and Salyana, 2017). Several efforts were been taken up by the two countries in both international levels as well as bilateral level do that the issues in between the two countries are resolved. On the evaluation of the various reasons that have given rise to this conflict was due to the lack in the military and economic balance between India and Pakistan.

Identification of the pitfalls that resulted negatively impacted the resolution

It is crucial to identify the various pitfalls in the resolution of the conflicts between the two countries so that the relation between India and Pakistan can be restored. One of the pitfalls that resulted in the conflict was the interdependence gap in between the two nations. It had been pointed out by the researchers that there had been a lack of coordination when it comes to leadership in society (Khan 2017). The lack of adequate leadership in conflict resolution resulted in the slowing down of the peace-making process between India and Pakistan. Both the government failed to be on the same page while involving in the bilateral discussion. This added to the negativity of the population reflected by the media (Bali and Akhtar 2017). The elite leaders of the two countries including military officials and leaders, for both the countries, failed to in work together with equal wavelength.

In addition, the Pulwama attack in 2019 sabotaged the years of efforts that were put in building up the already disturbed relation between the two nations. In exacerbating the situation, media play a huge role in amplifying the issue in live coverage of the attacks and war between the two neighbouring countries (Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. 2019). This resulted in further aggravating bitter sentiments amongst the mind of the citizens. One such example was the Mumbai attack. While on the positive side when Pakistan released one of the captured Indian pilot post-Pulwama attacks was applauded by both the media of the two countries. This could have effectively helped in the peacemaking process helping in meeting the political objective. Another pitfall that can be added that posed a barrier in the peacemaking process in between the two countries was the gap in the authenticity.

The lack of peace-process, as with the increase in the bitterness, both the countries were determined to remain in the conflict. Under these circumstances, both the countries requested a third party intervention in the conflict resolution process. When the United Nations intervened in the conflict resolution process it was observed that in the Kashmir state there were repeated uprising and independence movements which added to the unrest and attacks in between the countries (Global Conflict Tracker. 2019). These uprisings were basically due to the militarized zone created in Kashmir. The Kashmir valley was found to be occupied by a large number of soldiers. These soldiers, as per the report of the United Nations violated the human rights of the population.

This resulted in the mass uprising of the people in Kashmir against India. To provide an incentive to this uprising Pakistan played a very important role. The government of Pakistan was observed to be supporting the violence in Kashmir. According to the UN reports, the population in Kashmir believed that the Pakistan government was helping in the Kashmir movement for their independence. This resulted in the growth of different militant groups. Several non-Kashmiri infiltrations in the borders accelerated in the violent operation from Pakistan.

Possibility of Indo-Pak hostility resolution without Kashmir conflict

There has been a growing need in the transformation of the India-Pakistan dynamics to a constructive one from a conflictual relationship. Development of a sense of trust in between the varied adversaries is required for a constructive role in the peace building process. However, in the current situation, the Kashmir conflict has been recognized to be a hostile cycle of action and reaction between India and Pakistan (Leeza et al., 2019). Further, this has resulted in an escalation of confrontation which was driven by contesting nationalism. This contested nationalism was catalysed by bitter histories shared by the countries and exclusivity in the visions related to the future relationship between the countries.

With the repressing attitude of India result in the resistance among the Kashmiris, this is further fuelled by the long-awaited demand for freedom. While on the other hand, Pakistan claims to have Kashmir as a part of their own country thereby resulting in the restriction of their liberties amongst the population of Kashmir. This has resulted in the eruption of the armed conflicts by the population in Kashmir. In order to restore the peace in between the countries on of the important step that both the countries needs to commit to is a binding commitment against waging a war for settling any disputes in between the countries (Yusuf et al. 2019). The new measures related to article 370 where the state was divided into two units resulted in bring the state under the direct control of India. A no-war pact in between India-Pakistan is one of the ways a resolution in between the two countries is possible. This is a possibility where both the countries will be rejecting the idea of waging war in small pretexts. This same pact was agreed in between the then prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru in 1949 with the Pakistan Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan were both agreed to settle the conflict with a no-war policy declaration. This was accepted provided disputes in between the two countries related to the negotiation as well as arbitration can be settled.

But no outcome was observed since none of the countries in between the two agreed on the arbitrations. After the year 1949, the continuation of the wars reflected the loopholes of the No-War agreements signed by India-Pakistan. In 1966, under the influence of the Soviet Union, India-Pakistan decided on signing the Tashkent Declaration, in order to settle the disputes and committing to the non-interference of the affairs of each other. However, history shows that Pakistan persisted in their tryst in capturing Kashmir in 1971 with a humiliating defeat and violating the previous agreements (Kuszewska 2016). The no-war pact once again was brought in discussion in 2000, by the then Prime Minister Pervez Musharraf. When both India and Pakistan became nuclear-armed, things started changing radically. Pakistan understood they will not be able to wrest Kashmir from India that suffered promotion of militant activities in Pakistan and Indian borders.

The Islamic guerrillas resulted in international censure. This pushed Pakistan under intense scrutiny. The International Action Team for Task Force was taking severe measured in curbing the terrorism that could have exposed Pakistan from the withdrawal of getting aid from different other countries especially during the economic crisis (Haendel 2019). Currently, to foster a cordial relationship between the countries and to calm the India-Pakistan hostility, the non-war pact should be brought under consideration once again. It is crucial that certain factors to be included in the agreement which will be prohibited. The agreement should include the prohibition of the use of armed force as well as weapons in between the two independent countries, there should be no invasion or support of insurrectionary groups will be accepted (Zulfqar 2016). No blocking or obstruction in the civil life in between the territories should be accepted and both the country should commit is not taking any step that will sabotage or disrupt the lives of the common people of either of the countries.

In addition, adjunction commission is also crucial for inclusion in the dispute settling in between the two countries. The adjunction commission should include both the Indian and Pakistani representatives. These representatives can be from both the regional organization and international organization (Ganguly 2019). Further, in order to settle any arbitration, the International Court will be responsible and be the arbitrator. Thus, the Adjunction Commission will be responsible in determining whether the militant activities and the unrest in both the nations are responsible due to the cross border tension or due to the failure in the government policies in the country. This will also help in resisting the blaming of the two parties and concentrate more on controlling their domestic unrests. Hence domestic unrest can be resolved within the countries through democracy as well as politics.


Given the shared history of India and Pakistan of partition and several subsequent wars, it is inevitable there will be anger, fear and bitterness. One needs to remember that any kind of global conflicts creates enormous sufferings for humans. To avoid these conflicts it is crucial that the leaders consider human aspects rather than suppressive attitude using military forces. However, cessation of the violence in between the two countries will serve in the best interest for both the countries. An apt leadership with peace initiative will be able to succeed in the creation of a constructive path. With the growth of trust, there will be a door of opportunities in resolving enduring issues, for instance, Kashmir conflicts can be resolved. In addition, the no-war pact with the outlined agreement will be able to offer a stable secure framework for both the countries. Both India and Pakistan can successfully create a constructive relationship. Once the war is been taken off from the table, the fear and bitterness that has been nurtured in between India and Pakistan for decades will diminish slowly. The race for taking up the arm for any political resolution will subside. This will also enable the countries to focus on the culture, economy and politics instead of hostility or confrontations.

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