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ITECH 5500 Professional Research and Communication Assignment Help

1. Determine the role IT research plays in contributing to organisational innovation, and success.

2. Critique advanced communication theory for organisations.

3. Identify appropriate research philosophies for IT projects, which match organisational approaches.

4. Identify appropriate methodologies and methods, for an organisational IT research project.

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Introduction

The technological development that have been taking place across the world have been gaining its application in almost all kinds of industries and sectors, including the health care industry. Several technologies have been introduced within the health care sector that have facilitated the entire process of health care services and improved the care and treatment delivery processes. One such technology is the Artificial Intelligence (AI) which has been identified to possess the qualifications of revolutionizing the entire health care operational systems. AI offers the machines the kind of capability of learning and responding in the manner similar to that of the humans. The technique is fundamentally used to train any machine in assisting the humans in the activities that are based on the efforts and thinking of humans. As a result of the same, this technology is also known as machine learning (Sharma & Seth, 2017).

AI has been rapidly evolving in the area of medicine and particularly in cardiology. Artificial Intelligence can also be defined as the development as well as theory of the computer system that are able to perform those tasks that generally required human intelligence (Miyazawa, 2019). By the creation of algorithms with the help of varied neural networks, the dynamically deep machine learning can be enabled (Constantinides, & Fitzmaurice, 2018; Tajik, 2016). AI aims towards aiding the cardiologists in enhanced decision making, improved flow of work, productivity as well as cost efficiency that eventually results in boosted patient outcomes (Constantinides, & Fitzmaurice, 2018; Johnson, et al., 2018;Krittanawong, Zhang, Wang, Aydar, & Kitai, 2017).The promising role of artificial intelligence and machine learning in cardiology provides a set of tools for augmenting and extending the efficiency of the cardiologists (Johnson et al., 2018). The use of the artificial intelligence focus towards relieving the doctors from the hurdle and thereby extend the better quality of care and treatments to the patients.

Research Aim

The aim of the current research project is "to study the application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in cardiology."

Research Objectives

The objectives of the current research study are as follows:

- To understand the need of artificial intelligence in cardiology

- To understand the extent to which artificial intelligence has integrated into the health care sector, especially in cardiology

Research Questions

The questions that shall be addressed through the current research study are as follows:

- Why does cardiology need artificial intelligence?

- What is the extent to which the artificial intelligence has integrated into cardiology?

Literature Review

Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence is fundamentally considered as a branch of engineering which implements new concepts for resolving complex challenges. Bonderman (2017) has mentioned that as biology as well as medicine are rapidly and largely becoming data intensive, along with deep learning algorithms, an accumulation of the automated algorithmswhich are associated with extraction of meaningful patterns from the accumulated data and the same have been applied in various areas and have demonstrated breakthrough advantages over the prevailing machine learning algorithms. As a result of the same, it can be stated that within the area of medicine, the broad application of deep learning algorithms would result in actionable knowledge as well as changes with respect to the manner in which the treatments are developed, patients are categories, diseases are studied as well as in decision making processes (Bonderman, 2017).

Artificial Intelligence in Cardiology

Artificial intelligence (AI) has made gradual penetration within medicine as well as biology, however, despite the same, majority of the cardiologists perceive that the term AI is associated with extraterrestrial phenomenon and are unable to associated the same with an engineering tool which has the ability of conquering the medicine, including cardiovascular medicines (Bonderman, 2017). It has been published by Dawes et al. (2017) that a cardiac magnetic resonance imaging based algorithm of the 3-dimensional pattern of the systolic cardiac motion have aided the researchers in predicting the outcomes of the pulmonary hypertension amongst patients with great accuracy. It has been demonstrated by Shah et al. (2015) that who used varied algorithms for establishing novel phenotypic classifications of the patients with preserved ejection fraction and heart failure. It has also been mentioned by Bonderman (2017) that one of the most significant functions associated with the use of artificial intelligence is the absence of human errors.

Relation of Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning with Statistics

Physicians have been largely requiring identification, quantification and interpretation of relationships amongst variables for improving the patient care. The machine learning and AI encompass of varied methods which allow computers to do the same with the enhanced efficiency of the algorithmic learning, for the representation of the data (Johnson et al., 2018). It has been mentioned by Johnson et al. (2018)that the primary focus of statistics is conducting inference regarding the population or sample parameters, while on the other hand, the machine learning focuses towards the algorithmic representation of the data structure as well as making classifications and predictions. As these two aspects are ultimately intertwined, therefore, these cannot be placed on any definite boundary and be classified as separate entities as the same are perceived to be analogous, although the application is associated with answering varied questions.

Need of Artificial Intelligence in Cardiology

AI has emerged primarily due to the more familiar algorithms that can be enhanced in the real world tasks. Machine learning algorithms are usually used without the need for making any kind of assumptions with respect to the underlying data. Despite the hindrance that is associated with this statistical inference, it leads to algorithms which usually are more accurate, with respect to the classification and prediction. Therefore, it can be stated that cardiovascular medicines have the potential of benefitting from the incorporation of machine learning and AI (Johnson et al., 2018).

Issues and Challenges

The major issues that are associated with the use of artificial intelligence in cardiology is the ethical issues that are associated with it. The health care professionals and physicians are required to swear to the Hippocratic Oath prior to their practice. However, it has been arguedby several physicians that using the artificial intelligence breaks the oath as the patients are technically left to remain under the care of machines instead of the doctors themselves. Furthermore, the machine can malfunction at any time thereby affecting or endangering the safety of the patients (Miranda, 2016). Therefore, it is important to ensure restricted use of the artificial technology so as to ascertain the safety as well as appropriateness within the medical practices.

Methodology

One of the most important aspects of research is the research methodology that defines the procedures undertaken for completing the research. Rather, methodology illustrates the path chosen as the course of the project for gathering insightful remarks and validating results that can stand out as the research outcomes. This section describes about the guidelines that will be followed in this research. For a better understanding of the research stages, the research onion structure has been presented by Saunders, Lewis,& Thornhill (2011).

Research Philosophy

It is the process that explains about the source of the information or data along with defining the concept or creating knowledge that will be used for the research. There are three types of research philosophy namely, ontology, axiology and epistemology. The research that deals with ethical and moral characteristics of the theories to be used in the research. Ontology deals with studying the reality, while epistemology focusses on considering the knowledge constituents and scope thereby justifying the contemporary situations within the research (Mackey, &Gass, 2015). The current research will follow the epistemology philosophy, which is further sub divided into pragmatism, interpretivism, positivism and realism. While realism focusses towards interpretation of the data collected on various scientific logic, positivism deals with clear observations on the driving factors related to the research topic (Tuohy, Cooney, Dowling, Murphy, & Sixsmith, 2013). Since the current research is about application of Artificial Intelligence in cardiology, therefore the positivism research philosophy suits appropriate for the current research.

Research Approach

This part aims towards defining the procedure that the researcher has undertaken in order to justify or validate the research aims, thereby assessing the literature frameworks and theories already written by scholars and researchers, who had reviewed in the similar research area. Deductive and inductive are two types of research approaches, where a researcher adopts inductive approach while creating new theories and equations in a particular research field, thus establishing new forms or frameworks in the research topic. On the other hand, deductive research approach concentrates on validating the existing theories and frameworks to the concerned research area, thus deriving conclusions that contribute towards research findings and results (Flick, 2015). Deductive approach is useful for deriving meaningful logics and insightful conclusion from a wide variety of proven theories thus rationalizing the appropriateness of this approach in the current research.

Research Design

Out of the two forms of research designs, namely explanatory and conclusive, the current research deals with collecting relevant data or information form reliable sources for deriving unswerving research conclusion (Creswell, & Poth, 2017). While conclusive research focuses towards analyzing relations among the factors related with the research topic through descriptive and casual methods, the explanatory research concentrates on analyzing the qualitative form by illustrating the individual effects of each of the factors, therefore in the current research, the exploratory form of research deign will be preferred.

Research Method

This part describes about the nature of the tools that will be used for analyzing the data collected for the research purpose. There are mainly two forms of research methods, which are qualitative and quantitative. While qualitative deals with the collection of the non-quantifiable data using SPSS tools, the quantitative analysis can be conducted using various statistical tools that include bar graphs, pie charts, histogram etc. (Robson, 2011).In the present research the qualitive research method will be used in the form of semi structured processes, which will guide the research findings in accordance to the chosen research aims and objectives.

Data Collection

Based on the formulated research objectives the data for the research is gathered from various sources that may be primary or secondary in nature. While primary data refers to the raw data to be collected through surveys and interviews, the secondary data refers to the information available from previous researches and publication in the research area (Palinkas, Horwitz, Green, Wisdom, Duan, &Hoagwood, 2015). In the current research, the secondary information from credible sources that include websites and publications, along with the published research articles in the relevant field of Artificial intelligence application will be reviewed for research purpose.

Discussion and Implication of the Research

The research study that shall be conducted to study the significance of artificial intelligence in the cardiology would focus towards gaining the knowledge that is associated with the area of applying the technology of artificial intelligence within the health care sector, especially cardiology. As the study shall be qualitative in nature, therefore, the information and the data for the research shall be acquired from the different secondary sources, thereby eliminating the necessity for gaining any kind of ethical approvals which are usually needed for conducting primary researches. Furthermore, as secondary sources of information like the peer reviewed journal article, online medical journals and similar such articles and sources shall be referred for the current study, therefore, the same eliminated any kind of ethical clearance. However, it shall be ensured that all the information that are acquired from the secondary sources are appropriately credited for with the help of in text citations and bibliographies. The findings that shall be acquired from the current research study shall provide more insight into the various aspects that are associated with the application of the artificial intelligence in the area of cardiology and how the same has the potential of evolving the health care and medical care and treatment systems, thereby revolutionizing the modern medicines. It is expected that the findings from thecurrent research study shall be insightful for the other researchers that shall be conducting similar research in the future.

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