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ICT106 Data Communications and Networks Assignment



The concept of data communication and networking is the communication of certain digitalized data transmission which helps in connecting two or more networks or computers. The telecommunication between this networks helps in communication and exchanging data. In the process of making connection between this networks there are many mediums that rea utilized they are cables and wires, or by the helps of wireless mediums. In the respective report, there will be demonstration of wireless network connectivity and the understanding of various concepts understanding the networks, along with the examples of protocols to manage data traffic. The further analysis will be done on the basis of IP addressing, routing and sub netting to ensure an interactive environment in a business organization. The report will also state the buildup of a local area network(LAN), to understand the connectivity with the specification of topology and division of networks in the various departments of the company. The company has various departments and it needsa to connect to connections to other departments, the connection will be shown along with the hubs, switches , servers along with the specific IP addresses will be given.

Question 1: Discuss fundamental concepts of computer and data networks

Solution: Networking is a platform were two or more device created connectivity by sharing important data's the data can be public or it can be confidential (Miyamori and Toshiba Corp, 2017). They are built with the combination of hardware and software, and operates in both ways to help in sending and receiving data for then host. There are many types of computer networks, they are as follows:

  • Network can be defined according to demographic location
  • It can be defined according to the topology

There are two type of equipment in hardware and software, they are generally developed in building making home networks, which includes the buildup of networks on the basis of adapters, routers or wired access points. The following types of connections are also used in small and large organizations as well; they are as follows:


Wireless Local area networking(WLAN)

It is most used wireless communication and are generally applied in the local area network. Nevertheless, most used in networks and public hotspots to connect computer and mobiledevices or else one computer to another one.


It is a technological site that provides millions of people connectivity and a platform to extract data. This can be acquired by the installing of the following equipment's in home, office or colleges, they are Digital Subscriber Line (DSL), cable modems, fixed broadband internet services.


It is data link connectivity which connect the local devices or networks, it can be said that it can be applied only in LAN (Unbehagen and RPX Clearinghouse LLC, 2016).

TCP/IP protocols

This is the primary network protocol used in the connectivity of internet. It is the short form of transmission Control Protocol, that implements in surfing emails, browsers and communicate through various medium to get information and data.

Network, Routing, Switching and bridging

This helps the protocols in sending and receiving direct messages. Routers are necessary in getting exact addresses of the user and providing them with the information. Switches work in the exact manner like routers and are generally supported by local area networks.

Question 2: Explain how protocols are used to link computer networks and manage data traffic.

Solution: The allowance of physical pieces of computer networks are necessary but also the medium of communication is necessary. The communication medium is generally referred to as protocols connecting network or network oriented devices. The usage of protocols in connecting network devices are necessary as there will be no understanding of electronic signals if there is lack of devices to connect the network from one device to another.

Therefore, the basic functions in connecting network is as follows:

  1. It helps in addressing the information to the correct user using the IP addresses
  2. The physical transmission of data is necessary to reach the desired destination for the successful extraction of data
  3. The protocols help the device to use physical message and respond to them respectively

Data traffic are also an important factor when there are numerous data transmitted through a single source, this is the time when the messages go to the waiting position. In case of solving this dilemma and successfully reaching every data to the receiver from the sender there are usage of protocol. The most dominant protocol type is the internetworking protocol used in the internet layer and is specially implemented on IPV4 (Wang, and Tsai, 2017). The number 4 is the number which is considered in very IP datagram.


Question 3: Apply IP addressing, routing and subnetting in the design of a network

Solution: There are two types of topologies applied in a Local area network, they are physical network and logical network. A physical network is a kind of layout given to a LAN which connects the system and other parts as well. The Lan design described here for all the departments are will be Physical. The physical topology has also variants they are like star, bus topology. The star topology is the most preferable one for the LAN network, which has been set up in various departments.

ICT106 Data Communications and Networks 1.jpg

Star Topology is the one which is most applied in the working areas and are installed in offices and home networks. It has the ease of trouble shooting and is cheaper than other set up. The best advantage of the star topology is that if one of the interconnected computers they can operate with other computers until and unless another network is set up.

The disadvantage of star topology is that each network is connected with hub, switches, therefore, if the switches and hubs fail, the whole network fails.

In the first step of the network design there have been setting up of an office network, this is simple design of a local area network set up in an office with 20 users and 15 users on both sides, the devices will be put according in each sections to understand the interaction between the networks.The administration will have supposedly 69 Workstations as the administrative level has X workstation, it will have X=69 Workstations, therefore according to that customer support department will have x+15=69+20=79 workstations, and hardware department will have 84 workstations, Human resource department will have 94 workstations and the sales department will have 99 workstations.

ICT106 Data Communications and Networks 2.jpg

ICT106 Data Communications and Networks 3.jpg

In the second step, the computer are being set according to the departmmets, there has been seperatio of two departmemts namely theadmostrative departmemt and the technical departmmet, Each system has been supported by a hub , which connections to the other area of devices and has bheen connected with a high fiber optic cable. The high fiber optic cable helps in cponnecting fast transmisiin of informationnand therefore have ben connected to make changes in the dat transmission. The disdvanatge of just indtalling a medoum wire can cause huge traffics. Therefore, the indtallationb, of sweitches , rouers and Servers have been installed. The arrow in the yellow hioghlight shows the connectivity among the two sections.

ICT106 Data Communications and Networks 4.jpg

In the third stage there has been installation of switches, servers and routers which will considerably lessen the data traffic as now it has the servers which helps in successful data transmission which will make both the divisions avoid data traffic.

ICT106 Data Communications and Networks 5.jpg

Table 1: The range of subnet mask in setting up a LAN (Local Area network)

The protocol used in the LAN is Ethernet as it is the most highly used protocol in LAN (local area network). The protocol is used to make a numerous system work together, it is used in offices and home networks which brings integrity in the operations of the specific organization.

In the referencing of the IP address in the above designed LAN network, the private address is 10.0.00/8 bits that means it is a 8 bit network and have s subnet mask of, the subnets being null the number of hosts that will be using this network can range from 16777214.

ICT106 Data Communications and Networks 6.1.jpg

Network Design

The above diagram shows the fulfilled diagram of LAN (Local Area Network), the core of the network design consists of the router, switch and servers which completes the total Network Operating Center(NOC), where all the connections to various departments are going form the core , the computers are attached with hubs and are is connected with switches for the server to provide connections. The IP address chosen for the network is, where the4 subnet mask is according to the customization, as is a class A network. The network address or the IP address is, which will have a subnet mask of 255.0.0. according to classful addressing.

The addressing calculation is given below:

If the network bit is 8 bits the host bits will be 24 bits, the calculation will be

255. 0. 0. 0/8
Number of subnets=2 Subnet bits
Hosts per subnet=2 host bits-2
Therefore, total subnet =24 bits=2^24= 16777216 IP addresses
Nevertheless, the IP address of is a block of IP address ranging from

ICT106 Data Communications and Networks 7.jpg

Question 4: Apply networking concepts to solve a business problem.

Solution: There are many networking concepts used in setting a local area networks be it in an office or in a school or setting up a home network. The various situations in the business world with the usage of local area network to solve business problems will be stated in this part of the report. The usage of duplicate IP addresses, there are tremendous number of errors. It happens due to the defect in the DHCP configuration. The DHCP gives space for addressing new IP but they are already register with another network. This creates some huge problems in case of connecting devices and getting data (Hari et al.,2016). The disabling of the DHCP can refresh the network and can get productivity to the existing network.
Secondly, there are issues in trouble shooting and therefore there is existence in IP Address e4xhaustion, this can be solved by using the ipconfig command. This will further be solved by the correct use of standalone router installing and reviving the IP Address.



In this report, there has been explanation of the basic concepts of computer networking and the usage of LAN in setting up network integrity in better working and functionality in the business organization. The setup of a LAN has also been shown by step by step procedure with the installation, of server, switches to make better understanding pf the usage of protocols d devices in controlling data traffic to make a successful data transmission. The further analysis has also been done by the effective understanding the problems in the business world by the use of networks.

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