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Child Protection 

Critical Analysis Essay 

1. Select a topic within the child protection field, such as fostering, adoption, abuse, and any issue directly pertaining to child welfare in the United States. 

2. Research this topic in detail utilizing peer reviewed journals and text books. Valid governmental websites are acceptable but not Wikipedia or news articles. 

3. Provide history on the topic, including statistics to demonstrate the nature and extent of the issue. 

4. Examine the issue from four perspectives: Social, Psychological, Economic, and the Impact on the Family System.

5. Include a final section on recommendations for positive change on this issue in the system. 

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Introduction

Despite the widespread improvement in child welfare practices over recent decades, child abuse remains a substantial issue in the United States. The paper will help in evaluating various aspects of child abuse issues that have affected the lives of children throughout United States. Day by day wellbeing and safety of children across the whole world are threatened by the issue ofchild abuse, and this is increasing at a rapid rate within the United States. The paper will demonstrate the impact of this issue because it has affected the child welfare practices too.

In other words, the history of child abuse will be discussed with the help of some statistical analysis. Moreover, these issues can cause a negative impact on the social context as well as psychological problems to the children. It is seen that the child abuse issue, also affects the family system throughout different parts of United States which causes negative prospect on economic condition and wellbeing of people. Furthermore, some crucial recommendations will help in reducing the abusing issue of children in the United States in the future.

Main context

Child abuse in the United States

In today's society, especially in the United States, various issues related to child protection has been addressed of which child abuse is one of them that have pertained to the child welfare system. According to Van der Kolk, (2017), child abuse is considered as an important societal concern with significant consequences for the children, their families as well as for the society. Throughout the United States, this issue is increasing in an epidemic proportion. It is seen that in 2014, approximately 702,005 numbers of children below 18 years old was abused by various procedures (Straus, 2017). Due to this, many children faced psychological problems, and it gave rise to various health issues. Although the US government took necessary steps to reduce the negative impact of abuse over child prospects but yet in the current, they do not achieve much clarity in this area, and thus it is an ongoing challenge for the government.

In the words of Turcotte Benedict, Vivier&Gjelsvik, (2015), the United States of America possesses a shocking record in terms of this issue which demonstrates that in between the last ten years more than 20,000 numbers of children were believed to be killed for this problem. The children of the US most likely had been killed in their homes as a result of malnourishment, poverty, abuse as well as due to neglect. Hence by this prospect in the current day the US consider to be the worst rate in terms of child abuse country among all industrial nation. As stated by Taillieu, Brownridge, Sareen&Afifi, (2016), child abuse can be caused by four basic forms, and they are neglect, physical abuse, emotional abuse, and sexual abuse. After reviewing various articles it is noticed about 8% of abusive aspect over child takes place due to abusive emotional nature and thus it is considered to be the most destructive and cruel aspect for child that can generate various psychological problems to children.

As evaluated by Rajindrajith, Devanarayana, Perera&Benninga, (2016), the child abuse cases in United States is tremendously increasing as because the poverty level has been increasing day by day throughout country. Due to the over increasing level of poverty, child maltreatment is generated and thus it enhances the abusive system of children within the country. In the opinion of Kim, Wildeman, Jonson-Reid & Drake, (2017), the adverse impact of child abuse creates a direct impact on the child welfare practices in the United States, and for reducing their effect the Federal Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment act have been followed by the governed. With the help of this legal procedure the child abuse rate has decreased minimally from the past decades, but still, more than five child is losing their lives every day due to this issue.

As cited by Maguire-Jack & Showalter, (2016), the CHILD USA unit takes necessary steps to reduce the adverse impact of this child abuse issues. The main role of CHILD USA is to investigate, inform and impact the laws of America so that every child can be protected from the adverse impact of this issue. It is seen that by following these legalities as well as civil liberties, the CHILD USA can save the children from various offensive prospects. According toHolt, (2016), in the United States, millions of civil rights related to children are violated every day, and this causes enhancement of these issues in this country. Hence, to reduce the negative impact of abusing prospects over children proper measures should be needed by the government of the United States so that the effects can be reduced in the future.

History of child abuse

Child abuse is a universal issue that provides negative impact on the whole nation of which among all the industrial country the United States affected the most. As per Spinazzola et al., (2017), in the United States the child abuse aspects generates from about forty-two years ago and from this it creates various social, economic as well as a psychological problem to the children of this country. In order to reduce the adverse impact of this child abuse prospects, the Prevent Child Abuse America had been established in1972 in Chicago.

The main role of this act is to promote the healthy development of children and protect children from abuse. With the help of this act from the late '90s, the government takes necessary steps to help a child to grow up and contribute to their communities. Apart from this, the US government is unable to control the abusive nature of child over the years and thus it is continually causing a huge challenge for the survival of children in this country. According to Van der Kolk, (2017), in the past decades, fatal cases of abusing aspect of the child were common in the US and this disproportionality affect the youngest children of the family.

A statistical review shows that in the early decades about 71% of child fatalities abuse has occurred in this country. To reduce these fatality issues in 2016, the Congress who is the commission at that time Neglect and Eliminate Child abuse Fatalities and thus after this time the rate of these particular abusive aspects has been decreasing. In the opinion of Gardner, Montgomery &Knerr, (2016), for decades it is seen that developmental psychologists have recognized that both child community, as well as surrounding economic condition, affected the Microsystems related to child's development and growth. In order to demonstrate this, the American Academy of Pediatrics has published a policy statement on child health and poverty in 2016.

With this policy statement, the country has reduced the poverty level for children which diminish the health disparities including language development, infant mortality and injury (Sumner et al., 2015). A statistical analysis has been done on determining the frequencies of death related to this child abuse context among 0 to 4years children of US. The frequencies have been calculated on the basis of annual rates of an abusive aspect of child fatalities by an individual demographic variable such as sex, age and race and by the community concentration of poverty. In order to determine this a multivariate analysis has been done which shows a negative binomial regression rate in terms of fatality aspects(Batzer, Berg, Godinet&Stotzer, 2018). The following figure demonstrates the statistical analysis of this frequency related to the child abuse aspect of the US.

image 9.png

Figure 1: Multivariate analysis of the Child Abuse fatality Rates including the demographic variables of sex, age, and rate along with the community variable of poverty concentration from 1999 to 2014

(Source:Batzer, Berg, Godinet&Stotzer, 2018)

From the figure, it is analyzed that according to the US population the rate of death due to child abusing aspects are more in comparison to child abuse fertility rates. Hence, with the help of this multivariate analysis, a clear idea regarding the nature of child abuse aspect in the US can be generated. It is seen that the analysis focuses on community-level variables to show the respective rate of abusive nature over a child(Nadan, Spilsbury& Korbin, 2015).

A secondary statistical analysis has also been seen on this abusing prospect over a child in the US. According to this statistical analysis a binomial model has been created which demonstrates a precise linear function whose knots are placed at 2000, 2002, 2003, 2005 and 2011. With the help of this model comparison of the slope relating to the rates of child abuse fatality aspects for the years between 1999 and 2014 has been found.

image 10.jpg

Figure 2: The child abuse fatality rates by overall state poverty level and state
(Source: Sumner et al., 2015)

The figure depicts that the fatality rates from 1999 to 2014 shows recession rate in terms of economic prospects. In other words, from the figure, it is quite clear that the fatality rate of the child abuse in terms of each state over the year between 1999to 2014 generally graphed over the overall state poverty concentration level.

Social issue of child abuse

Child abuse is considered to be a social problem in the United States since the past few decades. In the opinion of Jud, Fegert&Finkelhor, (2016), the abusive context of a child not only harm the child physical as well as mental growth, but it also can develop various social issues such as drug use, struggles at school and juvenile delinquency. All these social issues can cause an adverse impact on child health as well as growth, and due to this reason, some children lose their mental power and thus suffer from various health-related problems. Many scholars suggested that child abusive context generate various harmful events over a child. As stated by Finkelhor, Turner, Shattuck & Hamby, (2015), the children become suffered from abusive context suffer greater emotional pain rather than physical harm which causes mental disorder in some child. The main social problem that has been generated due to this offensive prospect is that the abusive children cannot perform well in the school and sometime they must be dropped out of school.

Another issue is that the abused children must have a higher rate of juvenile delinquency which means they run away from juvenile home, engage in criminal behaviors such as assault, and also they become violent with other children. In the words of Onders, Casavant, Spiller, Chounthirath& Smith, (2016), another social problem is that the child who is abused possess a greater tendency to use alcohol and drugs. Hence these causes various negative effect over children such as higher rates of mental health issues like anxiety, depression as well as social thoughts. From this fact, it is quite evident that child abusive concept can create a long-term emotional and social problems and this proper measures should be taken by the government in order to reduce these types of social issues over children in future.

Psychological issue of child abuse

According to Rehkopf et al., (2016), child abuse can cause various psychological issues of which lifetime mental health problem is the most effective one. Other psychological problems that generates due to abusing contents of the child are changes in behavior, speech related problems and negative action on parents. According to the Childhelp organization, it is seen that about 6.6 million children of the United States have mental illness due to the abuse. As stated byHertz, Everett Jones, Barrios, David-Ferdon, & Holt, (2015), child behavior is considered to be the outward manifestation of inner security and stability.

When this security and stability aspects are affected then serious mental issues generates in a child. Many researchers suggested that due to excessive, abusive nature many children lost their mental stability, and this has occurred due to some changes in the brain structure. In the opinion ofSeymour, (2017), due to high, abusive context, many children chose to smoke and to drink for reducing their mental trauma, but instead of going towards a better life they often lose their mental stability and become psychologically very ill.

The economic impact of child abuse

Children suffering from abuse generally lose their self-esteem, faith, and trust over other people that causes a negative impact on the economic prospects over the nation. As evaluated byPascoe et al., (2016), therapy, love to replenish as well as support can reduce the economic effect of abusing context over the child but with the advancement of technology the economic costs of various treatments related to child abuse are increasing at a high rate. Child abuse not only effects long-term mental as a well physical health issue but it also affects the victim's education, work performance. Besides this, if proper treatment is not taken then various risks has been generated in a child such as aggression, criminal offense, and violence. The cost of every treatment in the United States is much higher than that of the other industrial country in the nation. As proposed byVaughn, Salas-Wright, DeLisi & Larson, (2015), the costs of every treatment related to child abuse context are quite higher, and therefore all people cannot afford to cure their children properly. Due to this reason, the rate of children suffering from any abuse context has been increasing day by day in the United States.

Impact on the family system

In the words ofYang, (2015), the family structures of the United States are more complex growing from the single-parent families to nuclear families, foster families, stepfamilies, and multigenerational families. Therefore, this child abuse prospect can generate huge impact over the families. The people of the United States are familiar with the negative impact of abusive child context, and due to this reason in today's environment, they take necessary steps so that their children do not facesany problem. These procedures can generate a positive impact on the children in this country and hence it is estimated that if the family system goes on in this manner then within some years the child abuse rate in the US will decrease from present days.

In other words, as stated by Tiyyagura, Gawel, Koziel, Asnes& Bechtel, (2015), for the presence of complex family structure the child abuse context has also been generated in this country. When small children watch that the love between their family members is broken, then it causes a negative impact on children's mind, and they face many mental problems. Due to this fact it is quite evident that the family system causes both positive as well as negative effect on children.

Recommendations

Many scholars suggested that child abuse issues damage the whole environment of the US and thus proper steps should be initiated to reduce the negative impact of this issue. Hence a mental health problem has been generated among the children. Therefore, to reduce the negative impact of these issues some recommendations are provided that may bring positive change on this issue. The recommendations are as follows:

It is recommended that a child protection agency should be formed by each state government in the US. The main role of this agency will be to prevent the child from this abusive aspects, and they will also allow permanent protection custody for every child who is suffering from abusive context. In other words, this protection agency should report each case related to abusing context over the child as per the Victims of Child Abuse Act and the National Child abuse and Neglect Data System respectively. Hence by following these legislative procedures, the agency can build strong protect for a child in terms of various abusive context.

Another recommendation is that the United States government should introduce a Prevent Child Abuse center where can they take actions to protect child abuse and provide necessary facilities to a child so that he or she cannot be abused by any people. This non-profit organization enables to protect the child from abusive aspect and hence these type of non-profit firm should be made by US state government to reduce the negative impact of child abusing context. The main role of this firm is to advocate for improving and expanding programs as well as policies to prevent every child of the Unmuted States. Hence, by following these recommendations, the US government can easily provide a positive change on this child abuse issue in future days.

Conclusion

By analyzing the complete research, it is noticed that child abuse is a serious issue in the United States that directly affects the child welfare practices. The 2014 report related to this abuse shows that about 702,005 numbers of children were abused in this country. Historical data shows that in every day about 5 children suffered from this abuse issue. It is seen that for this abusive nature over children,causes various social and psychological issues that may generate negative prospects over the economic aspects of people. Therefore, it is necessary that the US government takes the necessary steps by implementing various laws to reduce the child abuse issue in the future.

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