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How many types of prejudice or stereotyping can you think of?

Where does prejudice against each group come from?

Are you afflicted with cognitive dissonance?

Social Psychological Research to examine social perception, social interaction, and social influence

Attitudes and Behaviors

It is often observed that the social perceptions, social interactions and social behaviors often vary between different groups of people in a given environment. As per the research reports, it is found that people often follow different social psychological theories to develop their stereotypes for different classes of people in a given environment (Baumeister & Bushman, 2017).

They will be formulating their generalized beliefs for a category of people and hence will be acting accordingly in a given community. These generalizations can be used for making certain decisions when applied in certain cases of individuals (Baumeister & Bushman, 2017). It is often observed that the attitudes and the behaviors of the whites toward the black during the 17th and 18th centuries were completely different. They were dominating in the community and as a result were not allowing them to have an access to their basic rights.

It thereby becomes necessary to address this issue from the perspective of modern society. There are no such factors that could result into demonstration of such behaviors in a given environment but it seems that in search of power and influence, the whites were dominating the black people in a given community.

Implications of not addressing stereotypes

One must note that stereotypes will lead to development of prejudice over one another. There are explicit and implicit stereotypes wherein people will be admitting such issues for other people in the community. One group of people will consider them as having high status in the society and thus will like to gain more attention compared to other group of people as the other group has low status and also lower dominance in a given community.

It seems that the norms of the community are formulated based on these different stereotypes as developed by the people. Since ancient times, there are people from different groups who are following different religious stereotypes in their daily lives. As a result, their daily practices and other beliefs often vary with each other. They develop their sense of understanding based on these theoretical assumptions and thereby follow the same rituals as they believe in their current environment. The issue will arise when these stereotypes will not be addressed with proper rationale by a group of proper researchers in a given community. It could lead to both positive and negative side impacts on the entire community.

Stereotypes thus help in making sense of the world through such categorizations of different classes of people. The social functions will be thereby constructed on this basis and people will thereby behave and interact with each other (Baumeister & Bushman, 2017).
They will be formulating their norms that will later allow them to develop positive feelings, negative feelings, and even stereotyped beliefs for different classes of people in a given environment (Pirchio et al., 2018). It is thereby necessary to justify the rationale provided for the stereotyping procedures and construction of other beliefs in a given environment.

Social Psychological Research to examine personal, professional, and social issues

Portrayal by Media

Social psychologists have started to understand the real-world problems through a scientific approach in a given environment. The different perspectives of social cognition, socio-cultural aspects, social learning, and evolutionary mechanisms allows researchers to understand values, ethics, moral principles, and other legislations in a given environment (Pirchio et al., 2018).

There are problems when it comes to study these prejudicial attitudes of the people toward others by the media. Media is not able to justify on the aspects such as racism, discrimination, sexism, nationalism, and religious prejudice (Shaver et al., 2017). It seems that media has developed self-beliefs on irrational basis and without taking into consideration any of the social and psychological constructs.
As a result, they will formulate perceptions for different classes of people. They will also portray them in a wrong way among other community groups in a given environment. It could thereby lead to clashes and disturbance between different community groups. There are several examples of discrimination by the Whites over the Blacks in the US as mentioned in different media articles (Shaver et al., 2017).

Each of these examples demonstrate different social challenges faced by the people of a given community. It was due to these reasons that Civil Wars occurred in different parts of the world. The Blacks and other weaker sections of the society started a campaign against the Whites and other higher groups with an objective to overcome discrimination and gain an access to all the rights in their respective nations (Shaver et al., 2017).

Sources of Prejudice and Controversial research studies in psychological research

When prejudice occurs, discrimination, stereotyping, and bullying will also result in majority of the cases. Researchers define this process wherein a group will be formulating certain beliefs and assumptions about another group of people based on prior experience. However, these researchers also claim that prejudice and stereotyping are mental mistakes as people are defining social functions without support of any logical, methodical, and rational arguments (Sonnett, Johnson, & Dolan, 2015).

The different sources of social and psychological researches confirm that people are not following ethical rules in a given environment. As a result, they are not providing fair treatments to other groups of people in the community. As observed in the cases of Blacks and Whites, the whites denied the blacks of several civil rights.

It was due to this reason that the Blacks started a revolt against the Whites to gain their rights and other privileges in the community. Similarly, one can also find that women are granting equal status to that of men across all the fields in today's environment. The sources of prejudice and stereotyping are related to race, religion, and ethnicity, and thus majority of the information will be obtained from the researches carried out in this direction (Sonnett, Johnson, & Dolan, 2015).

Critical thinking skills to resolve conflicts and issues in the field of social psychology

Based on different researches conducted, it is observed that due to prejudice and stereotyping, people are suffering from social disadvantages, mental disability, lack of political beliefs, racism issues, discrimination at the workplace in the organization, and also criminal conviction (Schulzke, 2016).

The upper group of the society believes that the lower group of the society is not capable of performing any major tasks and hence should not be provided with equal status in the community. In addition, they are prone to committing criminal events and thus should be severely punished under the Court of Law (Schulzke, 2016).

The differences of linguistic background, gender identity, sexual orientation, religion, ethnic, and even age result into multiple challenges for the people that are suffering from the problems of prejudice and stereotyping (Schulzke, 2016). It is found people commenting that older people have nothing to offer to the new and young generation; they have limitations in their beliefs and hence will not be able to match with the modern-day era.

In other cases, beliefs for other cultures have changed a lot. With increased incidents of prejudice and stereotyping, it has become more challenging for the regulatory agencies, religious institutions, and other organizations to solve these issues. It is thereby necessary to overcome these problems and thereby allow equal status and equal rights to all the people of the community (Schulzke, 2016).
Types of Prejudice and Group Influencing in a given community

There are different types of prejudice and group influencing in the community such as - racism, ethnocentrism, ageism, heterosexism, classism, elitism, ableism, anti-Semitism, and several others. People are discriminated in the society based on each of these types of prejudice and hence have several negative impacts on the people (Schulzke, 2016).

For example, some of the effects found include - limiting the labor pool, not allowing lower class of people to get promoted in the organization, decreased productivity, increase in conflicts and misunderstanding, and also increase in the likelihood of discrimination claims and litigation in a given environment (Lindsey et al., 2015).

Thus, it is a moral responsibility of the government and other social organizations to make people understand about these negative impacts and thereby control demonstration of prejudice and stereotyping in the community (Lindsey et al., 2015). It will thereby allow people to work together on equal platforms and with equal status.

Further, it will allow the lower class to get promoted in the organization and thereby serve senior positions in a given working environment. In addition, the organizations will be also providing opportunities to the women staff to become the Board members of the organization. In other cases, the blacks will be working in similar way to that of whites without any discrimination and bias (Lindsey et al., 2015). It will thereby assist the government in achieving the desired social objectives in a given environment.

Affliction with Cognitive Dissonance

Cognitive dissonance refers to a situation that involves conflicting attitudes and behaviors among two individuals or two groups. It thereby produces a feeling of mental discomfort among the people leading to alteration (Stern, West, & Rule, 2015). People will often find inconsistency in the attitudes or behaviors of other people and thus will lead to conflicting situations as both the entities will disagree to each other.

For example, even in the case of smoking, there will be two types of people who will possess different beliefs for this issue. One group will be preferring to smoking while the other will be denying it considering the harmful effects of smoking. Since the opinions and beliefs vary between these two groups, it is found that they might enter into conflicts with each other. It is thereby necessary to resolve this issue to overcome other disagreements in a given community environment.

Ethical Implications and Conclusion

It is observed people form preconceive notions about others based on their ancestral theories, religious traditions, and other cultural beliefs. As a result, it might happen that the thinking and the thought process at the subconscious level will change a lot and could impact positively and negatively on the minds of other people in the community (Pedulla, 2014).

To overcome these challenges, researchers recommend following ethical principles and becoming aware of the different forms of prejudices. People need to stay mindful and take accountable decisions, eliminate time with prejudiced people of the community, broaden the horizons to improve the thought processes, and finally improve socialization among different community groups in a given environment (Othman & Hamid, 2018). It will thereby strengthen the social values, decrease stereotyping in a given environment.

Even, the government will be required to pass laws and regulations regarding this issue to ensure providing fair and equal treatment for all the people of the community. It will thereby allow people to have confidence in the system and subsequently overcome their stereotypes beliefs. They will thereby be able solve the problems of racism, discrimination, and other forms of bias in a given environment.

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