Privacy and Security Issues in IoT Smart City Assignment -
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Topic - Privacy and security issues in IoT smart city
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Abstract: The advancement of technology as well as emergence of the various network system has eventually resulted in the development and creation of the smart cities that are fundamentally associated with the integration of Internet of Things (IoT) within all the different aspects of the daily activities, thereby making the manual labor a minimalistic requirement. The development of the smart IoT enabled cities have the qualities that ensured that there are various technologies that have evolved the proves of technology cities and we shall arrange for suitable arrangements that shall benefit the operational processes. The current research study aimed towards identification of the various threats and issues associated with privacy and security, in the context of organizational processes, have been explored. Based on the same, further research is advised so as to determine the same shall be over prior to the next month.
Keywords - IoT, Smart City, Cybersecurity.
Internet of Things, otherwise known as IoT, has varied kinds of application in the current technologically advanced world and several new products are eventually being created with the help of the technology of IoT. The primary applications of the IoT within the modern world comprises of the smart wearables, smart grids, connected health like telemedicine, digital health or the telehealth, smart homes, smart farming, smart retail and smart supply chain (IoT Analytics, 2018; IoT Analytics, 2015).
The different applications of IoT as enabled in the development of smart cities that are based on the foundation of the IoT technologies and aids in the simplification of various daily processes of the modern times such as smart traffic, environmental monitoring, public safety, utilities and lighting (IoT Analytics, 2018).
However, there are various issues associated with the integration and use of IoT technologies and the same are majority associated with the privacy and the security issues. The current research is focused towards the identification of these threats and issues so as to develop suitable measures of mitigating them.
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1.1 Research question
The research questions that shall be answered include the following:
What are the security issues in adopting IOT for smart cities?
What are the privacy issues in IoT that can impact on smart cities?
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Internet of Things
The function of IoT is based on those technologies that basically define the existing world of technology. The various abilities that are facilitated by IoT include sensors, devices, machines, and similar other kinds of every things within the intelligent network. The different technologies that are utilized in IoT encompass the varied kinds of networking topologies, wireless protocols, interoperability standards and varied kinds of networks (Shankar, 2017).
Despite the use of varied technologies associated with the applicability of IoT within the smart city, there are certain problems that have been identified to be majorly affecting the applicability of the IoT technologies for the upgradation of the smart cities or development of any city into a smart city. The various major issues associated with the IoT technologies and its applicability in the smart city are as follows.
2.2 Presence of Constrained Devices at Perception Layer
There are a varied range of networks that can be integrated in smart cities such as Field Area Network (FAN), Wide Area Network (WAN) and Home Area Network (HAN). These are present along with other associated technologies such as 6LoWPAN, Low Rate Wireless Personal Area Network (LWPAN), Near Field Communication (NFC), Zigbee, and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) (Talari, et al., 2017). It has been reviewed by Burhan, Rehman, Khan, & Kim (2018) that there are several mechanisms that are applicable to provide solutions for the problems relevant to the attacks that take place on the security of the layered IoT architecture, from the layers' perception.
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2.3 Botnet Activities Related Security Threats in IoT Smart Cities
It has been mentioned by Koroniotis, Moustafa, Sitnikova, & Slay (2017) that majority of the attacks that cause economic indemnities and security hazards are mostly supported by the botnets due to the commercial tools being dependent on the varied kinds of signature based approaches that fail to determine and track the prevailing methods of botnets.
It has been mentioned by Makhdoom, Abolhasan, Lipman, Liu, & Ni (2018) that the major threats related to the vulnerability of the IoT technology enabled devices are primarily due to the malware attacks that also pose the peril of physical compromise of the devices and hence significantly threatening the IoT sustenance.
2.4 Leakage in Data Sensing
It has been determined by Zhang, et al. (2017) that the privacy leakage with respect to the data sensing in the smart city is prevalent and executed by the attackers from external environment, with the motive of attaining private and confidential information, and transmitting and processing the same, thereby compromising the location and identity of the users of the smart city, along with several other sensitive information of theirs.
Similar insights have been provided by Elmaghraby & Losavio (2014), whereby it has been mentioned that matching the intimidating security vulnerabilities regarding the smart city systems presents the threat associated with the power of these sensitive information amongst the hands of ignorant users, along with the laws and rights that are associated with those data.
2.5 Threats of AI in smart cities
As per Falco, Viswanathan, Caldera, & Shrobe, (2018), the artificial intelligence (AI) poses the danger of cyber threats on the privacy and cybersecurity of the smart cities. It is complicated because of the highly technical nature of different tools and techniques need to evaluate these risks. It was identified by Cui, Xie, Qu, Gao, & Yang (2018) that AI, although is a significant component of smart cities, poses threat of mechanism and system of smart cities.
2.6 RFID Tags of Smart cities cause Data Privacy Issues
A smart sensor based on RFID communication techniques have been designed by Mora-Mora, Gilart-Iglesias, Gil, & Sirvent-Llamas (2015) for protecting the data privacy of the smart cities. As per Ijaz, Shah, Khan, & Ahmed (2016) that the rapid urban growth was achievable due to IoT boosts, although the same caused emergence of different security issues related to data privacy.
3. DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS
Multi-tenancy has been a serious concern, creating complications, limited processing expressivity of choreographed IoT programming, where User sharing and accessing personal information from local and shared networks has been observed to create complexities in user priorities and access rights in the interconnected system of smart cities, where users and attackers are connected to same network, or even same physical machines in some cases (Cherrier, Movahedi & Ghamri-Doudane, 2015). This fact develops the need for developing a separate virtual LAN to detach users from each other. Leakage of data has been common in present situations, where the information about one's health and personal identities can be misused by the ones acquiring it, since the data fed into the smart city system are non-homogenous in nature and various cyber attacks like cross-site scripting are yet common (Odun-Ayo, et al., 2017).
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Sometimes the attackers simply exhaust the data bandwidth of the network thus invoking threats or malicious codes in the layer based IoT architecture of the smart city systems. The need for strict regulations and condemnation for the cyber attackers is evident specially to protect the non-tech savvy individual in smart cities (Talari, et al., 2017).
Smart cities involve storing of patient related information as well as real time GPS related details of cars are also at threat from the external cybercriminals. AIs attack the CCTV of the smart cities and steal password using the associated devices and technologies. AIs assume the identity of the users to gain authorization and access to the confidential data (Falco, et al., 2018).
Cui, et al. (2018) AI of IoT infects the various smart devices like Webcams, IP cameras and so on and spread infection on IoT devices, cause DDoS as well as gain access to private information. Mora-Mora, et al. (2015) RFID reader can be manipulated by hacking into the schematic architecture. The key to address this issue lies in the designing of the patterns and architecture that will ensure privacy and security of RFID based devices. Ijaz, et al. (2016) have RFID reader being sabotaged using electromagnetic waves. Tag's EPC is easily trackable by hackers, compromising user privacy. Burhan, et al. (2018) have mentioned that data loss and network disturbance due to transmission of massive bandwidth of data, bandwidth exhaustion through irrelevant data, with business logic and zero- day attack and Denial of Service attack, Main-in-the- Middle Attack, storage and exploit attack. Odun-Ayo, et al. (2017) have mentioned that situation of users and attacker having common access to the physical machine is a major cyberthreat of the smart cities. Furthermore, situation of users and attacker having different virtual machines, being hosted over different physical machines but connected over same Cloud Service Provider are also vulnerable to external attacks (Odun-Ayo, et al., 2017).
Burhan, et al. (2018) have mentioned that unauthorized real-time attack of data eavesdropping and prohibiting transmission of real information by inputting fake data through fake node or capturing the gateway node. Ijaz, et al. (2016) have mentioned that better identification to the readability and accessibility of the RFID tags. Mora-Mora, et al. (2015) have mentioned RFID tags about user's location and RFID sensors can be transmitted to the Sensor network which can store personal details.
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Cui, et al. (2018) have mentioned AIs have been posing serious threats on the security and privacy of the smart cities and its confidential information. Falco, et al. (2018) have mentioned attacking the CCTV by AIs jeopardizes the internal security and that of the surrounding the house. The AIs have the potential of infecting the autonomous vehicles and result in traffic accidents. Talari, et al. (2017) mentioned that misuse of ones' healthcare related information and risk of violations various online governance programs are the major cyberthreats associated with smart cities. This is often amalgamated with cyber-attacks and data heterogeneity becoming a hurdle for developing smart cities.
Burhan, et al. (2018) have added that unauthorized real-time attack of data eavesdropping and prohibiting transmission of real information by inputting fake data through fake node or capturing the gateway node are major resistance of the development of smart cities.
Based on the discussion that has been presented above, it is evident that there are various privacy and security issues associated with the IoT integrated smart cities and therefore, it is important to develop suitable measures that would protect the data and privacy of these smart cities. Furthermore, it is also necessary to identify the various weaknesses associated with the existing security systems that are being used so as to ensure that the same can be enhanced for improved security and privacy. However, it can be stated that there are numerous advantages that the existing IoT based smart cities have been experiencing and the same is expected to provide better results in the later stage as well.
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