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Network Protocols


Question 1: A station running TCP/IP needs to transfer a file to a host. The file contains 1024 bytes. How many bytes, including all of the TCP/IP overhead, would be sent, assuming a payload size of 128 bytes and both systems are running IPv4? (Also assume that the three-way handshake and window size negotiation have been completed and that no errors occur during transmission.)

i) what is the protocol overhead (stated as a percentage)? [3 marks]

ii) perform the same calculation, this time assuming that both clients are using IPv6. [2 marks]

Answer: Given,

The size of file = 1024 bytes

Payload size = 128 bytes

Total size of TCP header = 20 bytes

Total size of IPv4 Header = 20 bytes

Therefore, TCP/IP overhead = (20+20) = 40 bytes

So, total number of segments formed = 1024/128, i.e. 8 segments

Therefore, total number of bytes sent = (payload + TCP/IP Overhead) * Segments

i.e. total bytes = (128 + 40)*8

i.e. 1334 bytes will be sent from the sender side including the TCP/IP overhead.

However, on the receiving side, because TCP follows 3-way handshake, it has to send the acknowledgement back to the sender. The acknowledgement packet does not contain any payload; it only contains the protocol headers. So, the number of bytes sent from receiver to send as acknowledge is 40 (TCP + IP Headers).

Again after reading the 1334 bytes the TCP receiver has to send the window update, so that the sender can send another packets if any. The window update packet is also of 40 bytes long (TCP + IP Headers).

Finally after processing the data, it must be echoed on the receiver side. The size of this packet will be 1334 bytes.

On analyzing the above calculations, total overhead incurred due to the protocols is (40*8) + (40*8) + 40+40 = bytes.

Total data transmitted from sender to receiver and echoed back on the screen is = 2048 bytes

Therefore, the protocol overhead in percentage is (720/2048)*100. i.e. 35.1 %

b. If the same data is transmitted using IPv6, following will be the calculations-

Because the size of IPv6 header is more than that of IPv4 the protocol overhead involved in data transmission is naturally with be on the higher end. The header size of IPv6 is 40 bytes.

So, the calculations for transmitting the 1024 bytes of file from host to another host are as follows:

The size of file = 1024 bytes

Payload size = 128 bytes

Total size of TCP header = 20 bytes

Total size of IPv4 Header = 40 bytes

Therefore, TCP/IP overhead = (20+40) = 60 bytes

So, total number of segments formed = 1024/128, i.e. 8 segments

Therefore, total number of bytes sent = (payload + TCP/IP Overhead) * Segments

i.e. total bytes = (128 + 60)*8

i.e. 1504 bytes will be sent from the sender side including the TCP/IP overhead.

And as per the above explanation about the acknowledgement and window updates the packets transmitted will be of size 60 bytes.

On analyzing the above calculations, total overhead incurred due to the protocols is (60*8) + (60*8) + 60+60 = 1080 bytes.

Total data transmitted from sender to receiver and echoed back on the screen is = 2048 bytes

Therefore, the protocol overhead in case of IPv6 in percentage is (1080/2048)*100. i.e. 52.7 %.


Question 2: IP is a connection-less protocol, whereas TCP is connection-oriented. How can these two protocols coexist in the same protocol stack?

Answer: IP stands for Internet Protocol is a layer 3 protocol operating at the internet layer of the TCP/IP model. It is a connection less protocol means that the path to the destination is not established before transmitting the actual data. All the data packets can follow their own independent path. On the other hand, TCP stands for Transmission Control Protocol operating at the Transport Layer of the OSI model. It takes the data from the upper layer and divides it into segments. Before transmitting the data segments to the next layer, the TCP establishes the connection between client and server using the process of 3-way handshaking. Once the connection is established then the segments are transmitted over to the network layer, which then uses the IP protocols to decide the path through which the packets must be routed through the network.

The TCP and IP both works on the same protocol stack but with a different role and responsibility. All the data transmission takes place through the internet. It is considered to be the biggest connection-less network for data communication. All the data packets are handled and transmitted by the IP protocol. TCP only does the task of maintaining the connection type above the IP protocol. TCP is responsible for upper level sessions during which the data will get transmitted. So in this way, both the TCP and IP work hand in hand to successfully transmit the data packets.

Question 3: Mention one advantage and one disadvantage of Agile method.

Answer: Agile is one of the software development life cycle frameworks which is used in the development of any software product. Agile in simple language means quick.

Advantage: One of the biggest advantages of agile method is customer satisfaction. It leads the development process in such a way that the customer always remain in interaction with the development team. It generally works in sprints, the customer and developers decide on the length of the sprint which is generally considered as 15 days or 2 weeks. At the end of every sprint the customer and developers come together and the final deliverables of the sprints are discussed and deployed. In this way, the major focus is on the interaction among various stake holders and not on the tools and processes.

Disadvantage: The limitation of agile method lies in the handling of a large project in which it becomes difficult to find out the amount of efforts needed to put up at during the initial stage of the project. It may happen that the time decided for the sprint is not sufficient enough for the work to be done considering the length to the project. In addition, if the customer is not clear about the requirements of the project and the final output they are looking for at the end of the sprint.

Question 4: Compare and contrast the Agile method and Evolutionary software development process. Explain with an example.

Answer: Following are the key points for the comparison between Agile and Evolutionary software development process.

Both the models are used in SDLC but agile is based on the concept of evolutionary model.

1. In both the models the customer requirements changes with time.

2. Incremental development of software product is carried out in both the models.

3. Client can make certain major or minor changes in the software specification for improving the quality of software product.

4. Agile facilitates the customer with the final product, well tested with all the functional requirements.

5. Both the Agile and Evolutionary models are very flexible in terms of software development.

6. Cost involved in using both the method nearly similar. But it is on the higher side in case of Agile.

Example: Consider a school management as a client having some requirements for developing a product for student's task assessment. For the same they approached a software company who decides to develop a product for the school. Let us discuss the development process keeping in mind both the software development process model. In the initial stages meeting between the client and the requirements analysis team will be conducted. The client will discuss the requirements with the team. If the company is using evolutionary model or agile model, then the client will discuss the requirements which he can change in the later phase of the sprint. In case on evolutionary model, the team will first deliver the prototype and then discuss the same with the client whereas, in case of agile a fully functional and well tested product is delivered at the end of the sprint. Though the evolutionary model will reduce the risk the agile in addition will also reduce the time of re-developing the prototype and gives effective resource management. At the end of first phase the school will have a prototype available with them in case of evolutionary model, but they will have a complete working part of the final product in case of agile. Now, the development teams are formed for the coding the software product, in case of evolutionary model the development will be done first then the prototype will be tested, but in case of agile the pair programming concept works, where a group of team members can code the same application in parallel and also can test it simultaneously. The same process continues till the entire product is developed.


Question 5: Analyse the uniqueness of Apple design process.

Answer: The apple design processes focuses more on the innovation in the product rather than just a simple development process. And innovation in their design comes with the creativity of the people involved in the design process. The unique features of the apple design process are as follows-

1. Initial phase of design is about discussing the ideas in which the senior most members in the team discuss their ideas with the other members and try to visualize the product.

2. Second phase is the start-up phase in which all the teams work on the same product but separately, may be from different location also. This allows the teams to think individually and come up with various solutions for the same problems. This includes the creativity of every team member to get included in the final product.

3. Third step is prototyping, in this phase the better visuals are created for the products. The uniqueness lies in the fact that all the teams initially come with various designs, out of which the best designs are used in the final product development.

4. Next in the design phase they conduct review meetings of the executive members. In these meetings the achievements are discussed.

5. They also have the unique peer meetings where the peers from different teams discuss their work.

6. Finally, they test the product, and the same process continues for every prototype.

Question 6: Describe three reasons for a project failure.

Answer: Following are the key reasons for a project failure.

1. Poor and inappropriate analysis of requirements, it leads to incorrect design and implementation. Requirements analysis is considered to the kick start phase of any project in which the client has to discuss the product requirements with the developer team. If the client himself doesn't know what he want as the final output of the product the project will definitely lead to failure.

2. Inaccurate time and effort estimates: Many a times the team is not able to correctly define the time required for completing any task in a project. The task may be any internal task or major process task. But if it is not given sufficient time then it may lead to failure. In addition to time, effort estimation should also be done in an appropriate manner. So that, correct amount of resources can be utilized for the product development.

3. Lack of communication: This is another reason for the failure of any product. If the team members are not communicating on regular basis then the key information related to the product will not be percolated to the entire team and may lead the team members on the incorrect path.

Question 7: Your company owns several software and asked you to manage them within company budget constraints. What will be your goals?

Answer: To manage the software into companies budget constraints following goals are to be looked for-

1. As an owner of the company I must track the company expenses every month. Also I should keep the track of revenue generated from the specific software. For keeping a track of your monthly expenses you can make use of various software tools.

2. Calculation of the long term expenses of the company, this will allow me to spend the available amount wisely on the maintenance of the software.

3. The management should start making projections; check the functioning of the business under different situation. In other words, put yourself in the different zones to analyse what will be the financial impact on your business.

4. Financial meeting with the different teams using that software must be conducted to analyse the actual accountability of the software under maintenance.


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