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Write a short answer essay identifying the stages that labor relations has developed through and how they apply to human resources. Each of the stages has had a different type of impact on the labor unions; accordingly, in one sentence for each stage describe the particular impact of that stage. 

Create a timeline of the annual activity of labor/management relations from 1978 through 2014, providing a short synopsis of the major changes in Labor Relations and how they apply to human resources. Highlight the areas of most importance.



The primary purpose of the paper is to make a timeline on the labor-management relations from 1978 through 2014 along with it changes in labor relations related to human resources. It will also identify the stages of labor relations. Moreover, the impact of those stages on labor unions will also be discussed. 

Annual Activity of Labor -Management Relations from 1978 through 2014

1978 January: The Federal Hourly Minimum Wage was $2.65 per hour.

1978 6th March: President Carter has appealed for cooling off period of 80 days in a coal strike through the Taft- Hartley Act. After the coal firms demanded for cuts in wage and benefits, the miner went a three-month strike and refused to return to work (Addison & Teixeira, 2019). Later most of the firms dropped their demands, the miners ended their strike after 110 days.

1978 9th August: The workers of the warehouses of California based firm Teamsters went into strike.

1979 January: The Federal Hourly Minimum Wage was $2.90 per hour.

1980 January: The Federal Hourly Minimum Wage was $3.10 per hour.

1980 17th July:  Almost 6000 union staffs of the hotel began a strike against a dispute in their contract, and so they were locked in SF hotels.  

1980 11th August: Regulations was issued to prohibit sexual harassment on employees by the supervisors through the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.

1980 14th August: 17,000 workers of Poland led by Lech Walesa started a strike of 17 days at Lenin Shipyards in the city of Gdansk. 

1980 31st August: The Solidarity Labor Movement was created and ended the strike after 17 days. Solidarity launched by Lech Walesa was recognized as the first free trade union of Soviet Bloc (Ahlquist, 2017).

1981 January: The Federal Hourly Minimum Wage was $3.35 per hour.

1983: The age retirement was lowered from 65 to 60 by President of France, Francois Mitterand.

1986: A legislation on equal-employment opportunity was passed by Japan for removing legal barriers from women in workplaces.

1987 25th March: The Supreme Court of USA had ordered the employers that while recruiting and promoting, they might sometimes favor the women and minor groups members, over men and whites for maintaining a balance in the workforce (Becher, Stegmueller & Käppner, 2018).

1987 27th July: The US Senate has passed a trade bill which had a provision that the firms have to give notice of 60 days informing about the closings of plants and large-scale layoffs. 

1990 April: The Federal Hourly Minimum Wage was $3.80 per hour.

1991 April: The Federal Hourly Minimum Wage was $4.25 per hour.

1991 13th Nov: A bill guaranteeing 12 weeks of unpaid leave for the workers on emergencies in the family was approved by the House of Representatives. 

1992 2nd February: The maximum unemployment benefits in New York was increased to $300/ week.

1992 12th Aug: After negotiating among USA, Canada and Mexico for 14 months,  the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) was declared in Washington D C. 

1992: The Australian government of Keating has passed a law that ordered that the workers should keep aside a large amount of their income for their retirement (Bowman & West, 2015). It introduced a vast pool of public pension. 

1994 1st January: NAFTA came in effect.

1995 26th March: The Board of National Labor Relations has voted 3-2 banned the baseball owners as the strike of seven and half months by the players continued.

1995: 35 hours working week was started by Germany.

1996: The minimum wage was raised to 90% per hour, and it was approved by The House.

1996 October: The Federal Hourly Minimum Wage was $4.75 per hour.

1998 7th August: The Workforce Investment Act (WIA) was signed by President Clinton. The Job Training Partnership Act was succeeded by WIA. WIA improved the programs of employment, training, vocational rehabilitation and adult education by formulating a confined "one-stop" method of investment for the workforce and services of education for the workers, youths and adults.

1999: In Britain, the rate of payment for staffs under 22 fixed at £3.60/hour and 18-21 at £3.

2000 1st February: 35 hours working week became legally effective in France. 

2000 16th May: 5000 retired and laid-off employees clashed with police for protesting against non-payment of wages and pensions.

2002 8th April: A contract was signed in Mexico for improving the working conditions of female staffs.

2004 20th April:  The Labor Department of USA had set new rules of overtime payment. It increased the overtime payment of low-income employees and put a barrier on the overtime payment of high-income employees (Cowie, 2016). 

2007 1St May: The merging of Amicus and the Transport and General Workers Union led to the formation of the largest trade union in Britain which has 2 million private and public sector employees.

2008 1st January: A new Labor Contract Law (LCL) came in effect in China. It was aimed for providing strong contractual rights to the labor.

2010 24th January: A pension bill in the Parliament of France was passed by President Sarkozy where the age of retirement was raised to 62 years from 60 and the age for full pension was raised to 67 from 65 years (Osborne-Lampkin et al., 2018).  

2014 2nd June: 700 workers in San Francisco launched a sick out for a labor contract. 

Stages of Labor Relations and their Application to Human Resources

There are three stages involved labor relations, and they are as follows:

Union Organizing - It is a representative’s group which speak for the labors.  This group is developed through campaigns. After the workers become aware that a union will be formed and it will speak for them, they should authorize those unions. If the majority of the workers agree for representing the union, the union will get authorization from the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) (Fernandez et al., 2015). An election is also held where all labors determine whether the union is the best approach while dealing with the HR manager. If the majority of the workers agree for representing the union, then it will be certified by the NLRB, and collective bargaining could begin.

Collective Bargaining - It states to the negotiations among the union leaders and HR management. These negotiations cover different aspects such as workers' agreement, working days, working hours, wages and employee benefits (Frandsen, 2016). A new deal is approved when both union leaders and HR management agree with these aspects.

Contract Administration - It consists of upholding the standards fixed in the agreement. So, those associated in this stage will interfere in between the HR management and labor unions when some issues and grievances will occur (Helfen, Schüßler & Stevis, 2016). The primary objective of both the HR management and labor union is to make the contract work for their collective benefits.

Description of the Particular Impact of Each Stage

The union organization represents the interests of the labors. It helps the labors to deal with the employers for wages, working hours, employee benefits and other conditions of workplaces (Levi, et al., 2016).

The collective bargaining negotiates an agreement between the union's representatives and employers for determining the terms of employment (Hernaus, Pavlovic & Klindzic, 2019). 

The contract administration helps the labor unions to implement and enforce the contract of collective bargaining to avoid conflicts between the workers and management (Liu & Srivastava, 2015).


It is quite evident that labors and trade unions have a vital role in improving the rights of the labors in the USA. The unions have successfully achieved the advantages to the working public directly and indirectly and served in the progress of America. The paper has made a timeline on the activity of labor relations from 1978 to 2014. It has also discussed about the three stages of labor relations and its effects on labor unions.


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