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Describe the central dogma of molecular biology, briefly describe the processes of transcription and translation.

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Central dogma and description of the processes of transcription and translation

The central dogma demonstrates the two-step procedure, transcription and the translation that helps the information in genes to flow within the proteins: DNA to RNA then to the Protein. The transcription is defined as the synthesis of an RNA copy which comes from the segment of a DNA. The protein helps in determining the structure as well as the function of the cells in the human body.  The development of the protein begins with the sequence of the concerned amino acids. The concepts refer that the DNA is effectively found within the chromosomes and within the eukaryotic cells, the chromosomes remain within the concerned nucleus. It has been seen that the proteins are built at ribosomes within the cytoplasm (Duncan, Castro-Faix& Choi, 2016).  The nucleic acid is further referred to as the RNA, and it is a small molecule which can effectively squeeze through the pores within the nuclear membrane. The discovering of the sequence of the events are denoted to as the central dogma.

Within the prokaryotic cell, the transcription and the translation are effectively coupled. The translation starts, whereas the mRNA still gets synthesized(Koonin, 2015).  On the other hand, the eukaryotic cell, the transcription process happens inside the nucleus, and the translation occurs within the cytoplasm.  Since there is no nucleus for separating the procedure of transcription as well as translation, the transcripts can be easily translated as soon as the bacterial genes get transcribed.   These two processes are spatially and temporally separated within the eukaryotic cells. The transcription within the nucleus for producing a pre-mRNA molecule.  On the other hand, the pre-mRNA is critically excited for producing the mature mRNA that leaves the nucleus and then it is transformed to the concerned cytoplasm.   

The transcription procedure helps to copy the DNA to mRNA that contains the desired information for the synthesis of the proteins(Bakshi, Choi &Weisshaar, 2015). The mechanism includes parallels in that of the DNA replication. In this, the partial unwinding of thedoublehelix should take place before the occurring of the transcription process. Moreover, it is considered as the RNA polymerase enzymes, which effectively catalyzes the entire procedure. 

The mRNA developed within the transcription is then transported to the concerned nucleus within the cytoplasm towards the ribosomes(Yan, Hoek, Vale & Tanenbaum, 2016). It helps to direct the synthesis of the proteins. T needs to be understood that the messenger RNA is not directly responsible for the synthesis of the proteins. The ribosomes are considered to be a huge complex of the RNA as well as the protein molecules.

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