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1. In what ways do the readings answer important "So what?" questions in the field of leadership and organizational change? How are these readings potentially valuable for research in the field?

2. What concepts of leadership and power do you perceive to be the weakest in the model(s) or paradigm(s) presented? Why? How could they be strengthened?

3. Are the model(s) or paradigm(s) primarily theoretical or applied? What are the implications of this for future research?

4. To what extent do the model(s) or paradigm(s) present a clear set of measures for assessing leadership and determining group or organizational outcomes? What suggestions do you have for enhancing assessment metrics?

5. Are there any important contradictions, arguments, disagreements, or divergences within this set of readings that point to potential areas for future research? How would you follow up to extend or explore these gaps?

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Relationship makes up very important paradigm in deciding the operational effectiveness as well as organizational effectiveness. The following part of the report is about the critical evaluation of the relationship between the leader and the member of the organization as discussed in the article by Scandura & Pelliegrini (2008). The article is titled Trust and leader-member exchange: A closer look at Relational vulnerability. It is collected from the journal of Leadership & Organizational studies, 15(2), 101-110.

Article Summary:

The current article is based on studies conducted on more than 228 full time working employees and the investigation is conducted to understand trust in the relationships. Trust is often considered as uni-dimensional features in the studies reported earlier, however the current investigation based findings indicate that the trust is multi-dimensional in nature. Further it is indicated in the article that the quality of the leader-member relationship (LMX) is positively related with the identification based trust as well as calculus based trust. Quantification of the relationship between the calculus based trust and LMX is done in the article and it is informed that the relation between both of them is non-linear in nature. Hence LMX relations are highly related with the element of trust and its vulnerability is evident even in very high quality LMX relations as per the author. The key aspects emphasized in the current discussion include the facts like justification of the consideration of Trust as uni-dimensional element in the previous literature analysis and how realistic it is to consider the same as multi-dimensional element in LMX. Also the key question is contained in the discussion whether trust is the antecedent or the outcome of LMX. There are diverse sources of literature available in this regard with varying opinions in this aspect. The article outlines the evidences for both these considerations and also provided with an evaluation of different types of trust dimensions present in LMX quality relations. A hypothesis presented based on the LMX models presented and the argument is tested based on the discussion made with about 228 employees in the validation studies(Scandura & Pellegrini,2008).

Leadership and Organizational change:

Leadership and member exchange (LMX) is the most important element of the organizations that works on to influence the element of trust in the organizations in general. At the same time there is also evidence to prove the connectivity of the trust on LMX and discussion on the characteristics of trust and its relevance with LMX is discussed. An organizational change can occur at any aspect of the organization and the implications of such change can be very serious. An organizational change can be routed and managed by the organization. The change will be enforced by means of the trust contained in between the leaders and the members in the organization. For an effective organizational change to happen in the organization a high quality LMX need to be established and this infact will be possible with a well sustained and strong trust factor in the organization. As per the previous research studies, mostly the trust is considered to be one-dimensional and the implications of the environment on the trust are not actually considered very keenly. In most of the instances the vulnerability of the trust and the dynamic nature of trust is not very much considered in evaluating the LMX and subsequent inferences of the same in enforcing the organizational changes and change management are not studies in detail. However the current article explored the relationship of the trust in the dyadic work-relationships and the implications of such dynamic factors on the organizational LMX are emphasized as important elements to be considered in the study of implications of the same to the organizational change processes. More specifically it is indicated that the trust and its behavior more specifically in the context of dynamic environmental influences as well as in the context of its non linear relationship with LMX to be considered in taking up the decisions for organizational changes. Even in the high quality LMX, the significance of the trust factor cannot be forgotten and the organizations are expected to consider the significance of trust in deciding the possible effectiveness of the managerial actions and decisions in accomplishing a safe organizational change process(Bauer & Green,1996).

Concepts and the strength evaluation

The most significant concept presented in the current discussion is the element of the trust and its impact over the LMX and subsequent implications to the organizations. As long as there is good trust present in the organization between the leader and the member stakeholders, It is possible for generating better outcomes of drawing in the better empowerment as well bringing out better focus to provide right decisions backed by legitimate power and responsibility relations in the organizations. Hence the key concept presented in the discussion is that there is need for considerable focus on consideration to the trust and there is need to take up appropriate measures to reinforce the same between the stakeholders. However the weaknesses of the model are present in the following aspects.

- There is indication of the dynamic factors of influence on the trust and it is non linear relationship to LMX is presented, however the underlying factors responsible for such behavior and the underlying drivers creating such situation are not actually discussed in detail, this is a weakness of the model presented in.

- Also there is hypothesis presented based on the model, that there is need to consider the trust for creating positive LMX, however the ways and means in which it can be done, the metrics of the same and the exact relationship of these factors with the end trust are not actually quantified or presented with a logical reasoning.

- The model is presented with a reasonable and rationale conclusions drawn based on the collection of the samples of opinions and interactions from the employees of the working industry. However there are no much justifications and considerations made based on more logical and rationale insights into the quantified factors identified in the discussion. This is another key weakness of the model presented in the discussion.

- The exact manner and ways in which the relationship can be empowered is not actually discussed in detail in the discussion provided here in the article. The article concept is weaker in this model. Hence by providing much deeper insights and if necessary by creating more intense and more wider research into the literature and research, above questions need to be addressed and this will make the concept more versatile as well more stronger in these aspects.

The model and discussion of its nature as theoretical or practical:

The model is actually applied in nature. There is no any one particular theoretical perspective taken as basis to draw the hypothesis or the conclusions presented in the article. However the discussion and the justification presented in the article are based on accumulation of different theoretical presentations made in the literature as well it is also based on the observations collected from practical interactions with the wide number of practically working employees in different organizations. An integration of these two perspectives of observations resulted in the presentation of a new concept. Hence it is not totally theoretical as well there are no theoretical rationale exist in the postulation, it is an applied model however the findings and the inferences are presented in statistical view which is based on theoretical reasoning for drawing inferences. The future research study need to focus on well modeling of these findings to fit in a more realistic and well modeled framework, where in the findings will be present the actual scenario of LMX and its relationship with quality in more meaningful manner. Also in future the multidimensional nature of LMX and its relations with the multi-dimensional aspects of the trust are to be investigated in more details and the findings can make the outcomes more versatile. LMX multidimensionality itself is a vast domain that can be explored to fit the findings for variety of organizations. Also LMX when observed and studied with the focus on the multi-dimensional study aspects of trust, the findings pertaining to the intercultural operational domains and globalized work scenarios can be well presented and well understood. They can be of good benefit for the organizations to explore these aspects to strengthen their operational features and characteristics more vehemently in the context of leadership, empowerment and directing the changes.

Model and the clarity in setting the metrics of outcomes

The model is very primitive in contributing to the exact assessment of the outcomes and for providing detailed metrics of factors of assessment. There is very limited focus on the metrics of the trust or its dynamic characteristics. There is reference to the actual conditions of trust and its varying prepositions discussed in the article; however there is no much focus on the actual axioms of the trust and its metrics in the discussion provided in the report. Also there is no much discussion presented about the characteristics of the leadership and the relationship metrics with the trust. The nature of the relationship between identification based trust and the calculus based trust with LMX is presented broadly, however the exact measurement and the quantification of variety of factors responsible for developing such relationship is not discussed in detail in the current article. However the report works on to provide a basic framework which can be developed further to include well established and well stated metrics for assessing the future interactions and relationships between the trust and LMX elements.

Focus on contradictions and future research

The entire literature on the relationship between LMX and Trust is full of contradictions and diversity in understanding. When some of the researchers identified trust as an enabler of dynamic conditions in LMX some of the researchers identified the same as a creator of stable LMX. In any case, trust nature itself is unexplored and there is much to do to study the same. Still there can be scope for exhaustive study of LMX and thereby it is possible to understand the relationship of trust with LMX either as antecedent or as a consequence. In what circumstance it will be like former or like latter. Whether there is need to consider the environmental factors in deciding their state and implications as well whether there is need to understand any other performance factors in this regard? These are some of the several research questions that can be explained in much detail with further research. Also there is need to extend research for much wider framework to include factors like cultural compatibilities, intercultural differences etc. All these aspects will contribute to make the research study more versatile and can result in much useful inferences to understand these relations and apply the same for future considerations more effectively. Also the nature of trust in relationship models is different from the work ship environments. How they are different? What factors do propel these changes? What causes can be attributed to these aspects are some of the several other factors that need to be discussed in this regard and only future research can work on to provide more clarity in this regard(Bauer & Green,1996).

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