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ITECH7410 Software Engineering Methodologies Assignment - Formal Specification of a Library System Overview, Federation University, Australia

Task - Develop schema that will model a library - containing only books - and be able to perform the following tasks:

• Add a book

• Add a borrower

• Delete a book

• Delete a borrower

• Lend a book to a borrower

• Return a book from a borrower

• Enquire about a book

• Reserve a book

• Enquire about a reservation

• Cancel a reservation

• Buy a Book

• Receive a Book

• Report of Books on Loan

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Answer - Z schema: Library system

Introduction

Library system has a complex structure and involves multiple datasets which need to be linked properly.

The best method to establish a structure is to apply a Z schema and test it with different inputs to find out if the library system is efficient to handle the customer queries.

Background

The proposed library system is expected to perform 12 operations related to 4 major states - borrower, lend, book and reservation.

Before drafting Z schema, it is essential to know the types of data to be handled and the roles played in this system.

In the subsequent slides, this will be discussed.

Datatypes

Objective is to develop a Z scheme for a simple library system that performs basic operations.

User defined types - [BOOKID, BORROWERID, LENDID, RESERVATIONID, NAME, PHONE_NUM, DATE]

Free types: STATUS :: AVAILABLE LEND SOLD WAITING CONFIRMED CANCELLED

REPORT :: SUCCESS BOOK_ALREADY_KNOWN BOOK_NOT_KNOWN

BORROWER_ALREADY_KNOWN BORROWER_NOT_KNOWN

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State spaces

There are 4 states in this library - book, borrower, lend and reservation.

Z schema - Library System Assignment.png

Error handling schemas

There are multiple instances of errors and the Z schemas are mentioned here:

Success: result! : REPORT

result! = SUCCESS

Already_Known_Book: Book

bookID? : BOOKID

result! : REPORT

bookID? books

result! = ALREADY_KNOWN_BOOK

Example: 54

Already known book

Already_Known_Borrower: Borrower

borrowerID? : BORROWERID

result! : REPORT

borrowerID? borrowers

result! = ALREADY_KNOWN_BORROWER

Example: 982

Already known

Not_Known_Book: Book

bookID? : BOOKID

result! : REPORT

bookID? books

result! = NOT_KNOWN_BOOK

Example: 9223

Not known book

Not_Known_Borrower

 Borrower

 borrowerID? : BORROWERID

 result! : REPORT

borrowerID? Borrowers

result! = NOT_KNOWN_BORROWER

Example:

28

Not known

Book_Not_Available

Book

 bookID? : BOOKID

 result! : REPORT

status(bookID?) AVAILABLE

result! = BOOK_NOT_ AVAILABLE

Example:

53

Not available

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Tasks

Operation 1: Add a book

Add_Book

 Book

 bookID? : BOOKID

 title? : TITLE

 authors? : NAME

 publisher? : NAME

 price? : bookID? Ï books

 title = title{ bookID? title? }

 authors = authors { bookID? authors?}

 price = price { bookID? price?}

 publisher = publisher { isbn? publisher?} status = status { bookID? AVAILABLE }

RAdd_Book (Add_Book Success) Already_Known_Book

Example: Input: 54, A guide to the project management, PMI, Pearson, $7.99 Output: Already known book

Operation 2: Add a borrower

Add_Borrower

 Borrower

 borrowerID? : BORROWERID

 name? : NAME

 location? : NAME

 phone? : PHONE_NUM

borrowerID? Ï borrowers

 name = name{ borrowerID? name? }

 location = location { borrowerID? location?} phone = phone { borrowerID? phone?}

 RAdd_Borrower (Add_ Borrower Success) Already_Known_ Borrower

Example: Inputs: 854, Jonathan, Queensland, 765128 Output: Success

Operation 3: Delete a book

Delete_Book

Book

bookID? : BOOKID

bookID? books

title = title{ bookID? }

authors = authors { bookID? }

publisher = publisher { bookID? } price = price { bookID? }

status = status{ bookID? }

RDelete_Book (Delete_Book Success) Not_Known_Book 4.

Example: Input: 7991 Output: Success

Operation 4: Delete a borrower

Delete_Borrower

Borrower

borrowerID? : BORROWERID

borrowerID? borrowers

name = name { borrowerID? } location = location { borrowerID? } phone = phone { borrowerID? }

RDelete_Borrower (Delete_ Borrower Success) Not_Known_ Borrower

Example: Input: 854 Output: Success

Operation 5: Lend a book to a borrower

Lend_Book

Borrower

Book

Lend

lendID? : LENDID

borrowerID? : BORROWERID

bookID? : BOOKID

borrowDate? : DATE

borrowerID? borrowers bookID? books status(bookID?)==AVAILABLE

status(bookID?) = LEND

book = book{ lendID? bookID?}

borrower = borrower{ lendID? borrowerID?}

borrowDate = borrowDate{ lendID? borrowDate?}

RLend_Book (Lend_Book Success) Not_Known_Borrower Not_Known_Book

Book_Not_Available

Example: Input: 161, 54, 855, 250519 Output: Book_Lended

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Operation 6: Return a book from a borrower

Return_Book

Book Lend lendID? : LENDID

returnDate? : DATE

lendID? Lends

returnDate = returnDate { lendID? returnDate} status(book(lendID? )) = AVAILABLE

Example:

Input: 161, 2905

Output: Success

Operation 7: Enquire about a book

Enquire_Book

Book

bookID? : BOOKID

result! : STATUS

bookID? books

result! = status(bookID? )

REnquire_Book Enquire _Book Not_Known_Book 8. Reserve a book

Example: Input: 54 Output: Available

Operation 8: Reserve book

Reserve_Book

Borrower

Book

Reservation

reservationID? : RESERVATIONID

borrowerID? : BORROWERID

bookID? : BOOKID

reserveDate? : DATE

bookID? books borrowerID? borrowers

status(reservationID?) = WAITING

book = book{ reservationID? bookID?}

orrower = borrower{ reservationID? borrowerID?}

reservationDate = reservationDate{ reservationNumber? reserveDate?}

RReserve_Book (Reserve_Book Success) Not_Known_Book Not_Known_Borrower

Example: Input: 6716 Output: Not known book

Operation 9: Enquire about a reservation

Enquire_Reservation

Reservation

reservationID? : RESERVATIONID

result! : STATUS

reservationID? reservations

result! = status(reservationID? )

Not_Known_Reservation

Reservation

reservationID? : RESERVATIONID

result! : STATUS

reservationID? reservations

result! = NOT_KNOWN_RESERVATION

REnquire_ Reservation Enquire _ Reservation Not_Known_ Reservation

Example: Input: 17 Output: Confirmed

Input: 31 Output: Not known reservation

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Operation 10: Cancel a reservation

Cancel_Reservation Reservation

reservationID? : RESERVATIONID reservationID? reservations

status(reservationID? ) = CANCELLED

RCancel_ Reservation (Cancel_ Reservation Success) Not_Known_Reservation

Example: Input: 17 Output: Success

Operation 11: Buy a Book

Buy_Book Book

bookID? : BOOKID

bookID? books status(bookID? )== AVAILABLE

status(bookID? ) = SOLD

RBuy_Book (Buy_Book Success) Not_Known_Book

Example:

Input: 54

Output: Sold

Operation 12: Report of Books on Loan

Buy_Book

Book

lendBooks!: BOOKID

lendBooks! = {n:books | status(n)=LEND}

Example:

Input: 53 62 78 54

Output: 53

Predicates

x lends, borrower(x)

For every x in lends there is a borrower for x.

The statement is true

x lend, book(x)

For every x in lends there is a book for x.

The statement is true

x lend, borrowDate(x)

For every x in lends there is a borrow date for x.

The statement is true

Conclusion

The Z schema developed for 12 tasks has error handling efficiencies as well so that the user has a better experience.

Further, the variables are rightly chosen and integrated so that there is no redundancy and it is possible to eliminate data availability problems.

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