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SLE111 Cells and Genes Bioinformatics Assignment, Deakin University, Australia

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Q1. What is the process by which information is transferred from a DNA to an mRNA?

Answer- The process is known as transcription. In this process, the DNA is mimicked to mRNA, which transfers the information necessary for protein synthesis. This process is divided into two steps. First, partial-mRNA is created, where the polymerase enzymes of RNA are involved. The process depends on a method of base pairing known as Watson-Crick base pairing, and the single strand RNA is formed which is the reverse of the original DNA sequence. The partial-m RNA then gets "edited" for the required mRNA molecule by a process which is known as RNA splicing.

Q2. What is the process by which polypeptide molecules are made from an mRNA?

Answer- The process by which polypeptides are made from an mRNA is known as translation. The sequence of the nucleotides that are present on the RNA are changed into the amino acid sequence of proteins and the process that takes place is done by the ribosomes. The ribosomes and the tRNA dock and list several enzymes in an energy efficient process that occurs with the use of ATP and GTP.

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Sequence

 

Type of BLAST search chosen and why (2 marks each)

 

What is the protein (coded for by the gene for a nucleic acid sequence) and in what biological process is it involved? (2 marks each)

 

      A

 

Protein BLAST search was used because the gene code was a protein sequence query

 

Ribosomal protein-Any protein that conjugates with rRNA make up the

Subunits of ribosomes involved in the cellular process of translation.

 

      B

 

Nucleotide BLAST was used because the gene code was a nucleotide of a DNA sequence

 

Kinesin protein- It moves along with microtubule filaments. The active movement of this protein supports many cellular functions for example

Mitosis and many more.

 

      C

 

Nucleotide BLAST is used because  gene code was a nucleotide of a RNA sequence

 

Poly(rC)-binding protein-It plays an important role in defence response to virus such as polio virus and also helps in the metabolic processes of mRNA

 

      D

 

Nucleotide blast was used because the gene code sequence was a partial mRNA

 

Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase NM domain-like protein-It is used in flavin adenine dinucleotide binding and also helps in oxidoreductase activity

by acting on the CH-CH group of donors.

 

Sequence

 

Organism scientific name(in correct binomial format) (1mark)

 

Is the organism proprokaryote  or an

Eukaryote?(1 mark)                               

 

Stop codon(write

In cDNA format)

(write N/A for

Protein sequences)

(1 mark)

 

No. of nucleotides in coding

Sequence(write N/A for

Protein sequences) (1 mark)

 

No. of amino

acids

In translated

Sequence

(1 mark)

 

 

     A

 

 

Arabidopsis

lyrata

 

Eukaryote

 

     N/A

 

 

17,352

 

 

16,606

 

 

     B

 

 

Chlamydomonas

reinhardtii

 

 

Eukaryote

 

 

      N/A

 

 

       263,645

 

 

   37,754   

Summary- This work explains how the DNA is converted to RNA and then how the formation of polypeptides takes place from RNA. Different examples have been used to explain the process.

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