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Topic - Evolution of cars in geometry

Investigating the effect of varying wavelengths of light on the growth of bacteria.

To what extent do the varying wavelengths of light affect the growth of bacteria?

Determine cars environmental impact measured by CO2 output and fuel consumption.

Answer - Car weight Vs Fuel Consumption and CO2 Emission

Abstract

The consumption of energy of vehicles depends upon various factors such as topology of the road, style of driving, weight of the vehicle, power of engine etc. The primary objective of Automobile industry and consumer of vehicles is to get energy efficient vehicles. The energy efficient vehicles lead to healthy environment thereby reducing the carbon dioxide emissions. The emission of carbon dioxide creates health hazards. The aim of the research is to find the correlation between car weight and energy consumption as well as emission of carbon dioxide. This study also examines that, the correlation between the fuel consumption and the emission of carbon dioxide.

Introduction

Cars are becoming now the most essential element in our day to life. In the Market we have variety of different types of cars from different manufacturers. Hence the buyer has a great flexibility to make a choice. The buyer choice shall depend on vehicle design and performance parameters.

The Vehicle parameters that would influence in making decision will be Vehicle fuel efficiency and how it will be best suited for green environment. The Fuel efficiency would depends on vehicle various parameters. The parameters would be Vehicle design aspects including vehicle weight, Vehicle engine parameters depends on various other subsystem parameters to calculate the associated performance characteristics. In-depth analysis is being done based on the vehicle key parameters, like Engine power (hp), power to weight ratio. It was also observed that data for various engine rating is taken and compared for objectives. The data can be collected from different sources including the following

1. Open data sources from Car manufactures.

2. Data collected from the Dealers

3. Data collected from the various internet sources.

Vehicle performance are clearly defined with few criteria only, namely acceleration in specified time, brake and control capabilities. For this work we are mainly looking at engine performance with overall weight and fuel efficiency

Vehicle engine performance is purely based on the power and torque with the fuel consumption less. Best way to show the correlation between engine power with torque and speed with performance curve characteristics

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Literature Review

Evolution of the car engine

The engine has undergone numerous transformations in the past century and is still doing so. The changes have been brought by: customer demand, the amount of space it occupies in the car, its environmental friendliness and that of the products associated with it such fuel, friction rate among others.

Customer demand

Use of the car has been a major determinant of the kind of engine a customer will demand. For heavy-duty vehicles, the 1980s model has been a preference as compared to that for lighter cars. Customers that use a rough terrain also demand stronger engines for that purpose.

Space

Over time, the engine has reduced in size to correspond the car's reduced size. This is after car manufacturers noticed that a bulky engine will increase the weight of the car and thus hinder its effectiveness.

Environmental friendliness

The rate of carbon emission in an engine is a factor that every dealer must take into consideration. Models from the 1960s and 1970s emitted a considerable amount of carbon. From the 1980s until present, engineers have managed to come up with more environmentally friendly engines that emit less carbon to the environment.

The evolution of the car engine has been studied and considered by observing the customer demand and comfort, space and environmental friendly product. Apart from that another thing that has been changed over the years is "stopping sight distance"/"available sight distance". The elevation for the driver's eye has also changed from 4.5 feet in 1940 to 2 feet in 2001. Another important factor that can be noticed is the declarations rate/ friction. From the study, it has been found that the rate of friction factor has significantly changed for the horizontal curve design. In recent years, the rise of high performance truck has caused the change of "maximum grade/length".

Statement of Intent

Energy saving is one of the most important factor for saving cost as well as saving our environment. Harmful pollutants will be released to the environment while burning the fossil fuels. Some of the harmful pollutants are carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide and so on. The primary objective of the automobile industry is to design and develop energy efficient as well as environmental friendly vehicles for customers. In relation with this context, the aim of our research is for analysing the most influential factors for more energy consumption for car. The research extends the analysis for finding the impact of more energy consumption for vehicles.

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Hypothesis

In this research the following hypothesis can be formulated and it will be tested such as

H1: Is there any relations exists between the car weight and energy consumption

H0: Yes. Relationship exists between car weight and fuel consumption

H1: N0. There is no relationship exists between car weight and fuel consumption

H1: Is there any relations exists between energy consumption and emission of carbon dioxide

H0: Yes. Relationship exists between energy consumption and emission of carbon dioxide

H1: N0. There is no relationship exists between energy consumption and emission of carbon dioxide

Experimental Analysis

The data set collected for the research is from open source. The open source data set downloaded from the site Kaggle.com. Automobile data set is considered for our research. The data set is pre-processed for selecting the specific type of car "Mazda". The analysis is performed for the car "Mazda". The car includes two different body styles such as hatchback, sedan. The data set has the following variables such as car type, curb-weight, engine size, horse power, city mileage, highway mileage and price. In our analysis the primary variables are curb weight, horse power, city mileage and high way mileage. In our research, we have not includes the features such as body style, drive wheels, engine location, wheel base, length, width, engine type, number of cylinders, fuel system and so on.

The data set is represented below:

Evolution of Cars Assignment Figure.jpg

Result Analysis

The relationship between car weight and horse power is studied. While increasing the weight of the car, it requires more horse power to operate. Fuel consumption is also increased when increasing the horse power of car. The relationship between car weight and city mileage indicates that, weight increment of car also decreases the mileage while driving in cities. The relationship between car weight and high way mileage shows that, increasing the weight of the car which reduces the mileage of the car while travelling in highways also.

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The results are illustrated in the following figures:

Evolution of Cars Assignment Figure1.jpg

The results indicate that, minor increment in the weight does not affect the performance of the car. While increasing the car weight with highest variation, it impacts very well on the car's performance.

The results proved that, increasing the weight of the car decreases the mileage in both cities as well as high ways. It is also concluded that, the impact of curb weight is high on the horse power. The car required more capacity to operate the car with the designed weight. To achieve more capacity, car consumes more fuel.

Hypothesis Testing

In our research, z-test is performed to evaluate the given hypotheses such as whether any relationship exists between car weight and the fuel consumption and is there any relation between high fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emission.

Evolution of Cars Assignment Figure2.jpg

curb-weight

horsepower

1890

68

1900

68

1905

68

1945

68

1950

68

2385

84

2385

84

2410

84

2410

84

2425

84

2500

135

2670

140

The median value of the car weight is calculated. Based on the median value, the horsepower data is divided into two equal groups. The two equal groups represent that, before and after the horse power of the car at the specified median value of car weight. In our research we considered the median values as 2385. The z-test is applied on both groups to find the existence of difference between the two equal groups. The alpha value set as 0.05.

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The results of the z-test are illustrated below:

t-Test: Paired Two Sample for Means






 

Variable 1

Variable 2

Mean

68

105.4

Variance

0

861.8

Observations

5

5

Pearson Correlation

#DIV/0!


Hypothesized Mean Difference

0


df

4


t Stat

-2.84874358


P(T<=t) one-tail

0.02322739


t Critical one-tail

2.131846786


P(T<=t) two-tail

0.04645478


t Critical two-tail

2.776445105


The derived P values for one tails and two tails are 0.023 and 0.046. Both values are less than alpha value 0.05. It rejects null hypothesis. It also proves that, before the weight 2385 and after the weight 2385, there is difference exists in the horse power mean values. It conveys that, weight increment increases the horse power of the car. The horse power automatically increases fuel consumption to work in such as heavy environment.

Burring of more fuel releases more carbon dioxide into the environment.

Findings from the research

The experimental results provide more insights from the data set Automobile_data_mazda.csv. The research performs analysis specifically on the mazda data set. The results proves that, while increasing the weight of the car maize decreases the performance in the following factors such as high fuel consumption, low mileage.

Conclusion

The research conducted on the Automobile data set which is extracted from the source kaggle.com. The research narrows down the analysis for the mazda data set. The objectives of the research are achieved through analysing the automobile data set. The results and hypothesis test proved that there is strong relationship presents in between the concepts car weight, fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emission.

Future research Directions

The research gives path for the future research for increasing the performance of car while increasing the facilities of the car without increasing weight. Most of the automobile industries are manufacturing cars with lightweight materials such as aluminium and so on.

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