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EUB020L007A Management Research Methods Assignment - EU Business School, Germany

Learning outcomes -

Knowledge: You will be able to develop a deep understanding of the epistemology and ontology bases for research, as well as research methodology in the field of management. You will appreciate the different phases of research, and the nature and characteristics of each of them.

Intellectual/transferrable: You will be able to (1) critically examine scholarly literature and to select, focus, and reflect on choice literature that motivates your (business and management) research to write up a critical review of your chosen literature; (2) understand research design issues, and conceive, frame, and articulate one or more personal research questions that motivate(s) your research; (3) critically evaluate, draw on, and present, orally and in writing, appropriate research methods to collect empirical data for your research project; (4) critically evaluate, select, and draw on quantitative and/or qualitative data analysis methods for your research project.


Task - Demonstrate your knowledge of management research methods and to prepare you for writing your research proposal to meet the requirements of the dissertation module.

1) An introduction that provides a brief commentary of key relevant literature. Be sure to justify your choice of these references in introducing the existing knowledge on your topic.


This paper investigates on the Management Research Methods and provides a descriptive analysis of each point relevant to it. Management is nothing but the science and art of gathering people in sync to achieve the desired goals and objectives. This process involves coordinating and implementing the resources available and perform the the work effectively. Every organization should have well balanced management team to handle the resources of their organization. The most important part of management is managing the people, planning structural methods, organizing the methods and leading to success. Management of an organization includes their CEO, floor managers, team leaders, supervisors and other persons in supreme positions who deal with the effects of people in the organizations. Every personnel in control have a separate and key role to play for the objectives of the organization. To implement and integrate the resources properly, the managers are required to conduct a planning conference where the steps to be taken and the solution methods for each issue are discussed. Moreover, they need to have an extensive approach to the analysis of the methods and drive the team based on that analysis. This research is a descriptive analysis of the methods used in Management Research. The research below provides a qualitative and statistical tool analysis of the management research and shows each sections of evaluation by implementing a mind map of an issue related to the topic. The method includes description of qualitative interviews, focus on team performances, historical and data analysis, ethnography, the process of managing the project and research review.


2) A further section discussing particular conversations taking place in the relevant journals you have selected with a map of the literature using a visual presentation in the form of either a mind map, Venn diagram, or grandfather, father, son literature map. The map should show the relationship between key knowledge contributions.

Discussion on management research methods using a mind map data

Various research methods are implemented in the field of business management to resolve issues and cooperate with the organization to achieve its goal. As management plays a very crucial role in every company, the persons involved in it are required to be more sensible and proactive towards the tasks. Management starts from the recruitment, controlling the people recruited and ends at fulfilling the task appointed at a specific time (Hitt & Duane Ireland, 2017). Though it seems a simple process, but the whole system faces many issues in implementing the plans and overcoming those critics. The most appropriate way of solving those issues is to follow a management research tool and properly execute it in the overall process. In business sectors, the most common issues that arise during any failure is the effective communication of the peoples from employees, staffs to the manager itself. Communications ensures smooth and reliable work performances resulting in a friendly and responsible work environment.

According to Symon, Cassell & Johnson, 2018 the journal Evaluative Practices in Qualitative Management Research review states the Qualitative management research is a method for a number of approaches to management research which is observed from different epistemology, intepretivism and other logical operations. The review provides points of two differences which is between process wise applications for epistemological issues and criteria and also a description of management instruction publications for normalized criteria. The journal also evaluates the distinction between the production criteria based on cultural views and standardization of the criteria. Human Resource management is the backbone of any organization as it leads to recruit peoples with proper examination and efficiency analysis. HRM directly function in the encouragement of the employees of the organizations to achieve the goal of that very organization. Apart from the hiring of people, the HR manager also regulates the employees in maintaining and motivating them. A mind map of the management methods and its effects has been provided for further analysis of the topic.

The qualitative approach provides the information based on the interviews and the information of the Management team. The interview results in immature conflicts between the Human Resources Managing authorities and the team members. Lack of collaboration and communication between the employers and management will act as a performance fall of the organization.

According to the Ameyaw, Hu, Shan, Chan, & Le, (2016). Application of Delphi method in construction engineering and management research: a quantitative perspective. Journal of Civil Engineering and Management, The qualitative research method is mainly used to get the management data. The numerous data regarding the recruitment, selection and the communication levels within organizations are described. As per the analysis the Delphi technique is one the major procedures in the primary and secondary research method. The initial data collection procedure trimmed via visual examination. The success of Delphi studies in management research are mainly relies upon the the careful and objective selection of expert penalties. Various organizational issues like internalization, corporate financing, corporate competititiiveness and business related issues are properly highlighted in the Delphi technique. Delphi technique helps an researcher in contrast to other data collection methods, and also employs many interactions designed to highlight on a specific issue. The major advantage of this technique that it helps to avoid the freely interacting groups through feedback and anonymization. There is one drawback in the application of Delphi technique in management data researching activities are it does not follow any systematic procedure. There are various kinds of Delphi technique that can be used to understand the various dimensions of management study. Though many researchers found that Delphi technique can be used as a reliable source in management research study.

Management Research Methods Assignment.png

Distribution of research interests through Delphi Technique

There are some papers regarding management study on various factors like recruitment, selection, organizational decision making , customer relationship approach are evaluated with each other. Through the table the years of 1990 to 2012 signifies the effectiveness of various issues like problematic project planning and design, labor and personnel issues, issues in information technologies, cost and schedules and so on. Through the table it can be seen project planning and designing and contracting are the major obstacles that changes the managerial approach of an organization. It can also be seen that these two factors are the major obstacles that hampers the decision making process as well in the organization.

Results and reviews of the mind map analysis

A mind map is a conceptual graphical representation of the ideas out from the brain. The mind map is provided on the basis of ideas and theories collected for the management research methods. It includes significant brainstorming of the entire analysis and provides a mapping of the data (Balaid et al., 2016). The mapping shows the effective role of the Human Resource Management and points the functions of the HRM in the subject of resolving issues. The Communication problem is the issue reflected in this context and the mapping shows the implementing points of the issues. This mapping shows how we can resolve communication conflicts which can lead to serious breakdown of an organization. It briefly point outs the methods to be implemented in case to avoid any communication barriers in the task and represents higher relativity of the employers in performing and achieving the task.

The map provides a effective solution for the managers and busy peoples in the way of bigger picture thinking, resolving those issues and managing; thus motivating the entire team to work in a unity. Since mind mapping is a visual representation of our thoughts, it helps to understand the situation in a very easy text. Moreover, management research always requires a visual outline in the form of brainstorming or mind mapping the ideas to efficiently generate the outputs. Thus with the help of this mapping the Management can solve out several issues related to the organisation's failure (Zupic & Cater, 2015)

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3) An analysis section which documents the research questions, theories, and methods used in the literature, including at least one table to show the extent of use of alternative research methods.

Research analysis theories

The research analysis has following theories based on effective communication:-    

Actor network theory is about the human and non-human factors and considered as influential in success of innovation related to technology and creation of scientific knowledge. This theory focuses how networks are formed and lead to success. It says that a single individual or thing cannot be hold responsible for such developments. Hence, an actor and a network is needed for gaining these outcomes. 

Communication accommodation theory describes how people use and control their styles in communication to others. Verbal and non-verbal changes in styles are obtained through two ways that is convergence and divergence. Convergence is applied by defenseless individuals for approval in society and tries to adapt the communication styles of the person with whom they are communicating. Divergence is used for focusing on identity of group with the help of showing differences of the group. It is mostly used by the groups of strong racial pride or ethnic (Gallois, and Giles, 2015).

Linear model is a one way model in order to communicate with others. It has a sender having a message sending it through a medium to the receiver in the presence of sound or noise. However, it has limitations, the model suggests about clear communication in beginning and there is an end to it. It has no response or feedback from receiver. For example, a letter, lecture. Interactive (Sorooshyari. and Baccus, 2018) model is two linear models put on top of each other. In this model the sender through channel sends message and receiver then becomes the sender and creates and send message back to the original sender. For example, in instant messaging sender sends message to receiver, then the original sender reacts to original receiver.  In this generation of global business leaders, there are many challenges as well as opportunities of internal business. The global marketplace is expanding and has become more interconnected and accessible; however, the risks that are involved in an international business cannot be taken lightly. Businesses evolving overseas that we are able to connect to more customers and clients and potential profits. There are many issues; the major two issues faced in international market are effective communication and worldwide environmental issues. Top down communication is very much necessary for managers. It is considered as prominent methods of communication as it helps to get dense information both from externally and internally (Rangachari et al., 2015) .

Effective communication is very essential for an effective international business strategy. It becomes difficult to communicate when there are a lot cultures involved. Effective communication needs a communication with clients, customers, and employees in abroad for potential success in businesses done internationally. Being aware of business etiquette in abroad, and how it can influence cultural and religious traditions, and would help to understand major communication problems.

Research questions

  • In business global strategy what are the possible outlook for top down communication for maintaining the business function?
  • What is current status of employee engagement in top-down communication?
  • In which ways communication can be effective and improved in an organization for better engagement of an employee?


4) A detailed critique of at least two well-used research methodologies in the literature you have reviewed. Discuss a) how they are applied; b) how the methods were deployed to provide a worthwhile contribution to theory and research and c) what gaps the methods may leave that could lend the area to further analysis.

Explain the need for alternative methods

Qualitative research methods allow to go in depth and to ask questions to respondents based on responses, where researcher or an interviewer tries to understand their feelings and motivation.

From the literature review point of aspects, qualitative research analysis has been taken as an example from the scholar point of view here from the perspective and the opinion generated by three managers working in a reputed organization it has been found that the managers have a high opinion regarding effective communication and have different view on it, manager 1, 2 and 3 has a thing in common and that is connections. Whether it's 5 c's of communication or being empathized or maintaining a body language , these 3 things need connections to form with others in a communication.

Manager 1

Manager 2

Manager 3

 According to me, it is important to focus on 5c's of communication that is consistency, clarity, content, creativity, and connections. Applying these qualities in daily work will enhance personal and business relations and hence it will be improved.

It is important to have empathy in communication as it is very useful. It means to understand the things from other person point of view and putting our self in their position and not being judgmental in any sort of beliefs. It may appear to be difficult, empathizing with other groups or individuals can lead to great communication

While having a communication, the body language holds a great impact on others like how they think of you in the workplace. Having a friendly nature, with co-employees and friends it let them know you better and forms a good image. Body language has a big role in encouraging and being empathetic. Maintaining an eye contact when your speaking with others, using of proper hand gestures to introduce yourself to others, being more gentle all these adds up to be seem more as trustworthy and approachable to others

The alternative methods is the quantitative research methods, these research methods are connected with numbers or anything that is measurable in a systematic format of investigation of any phenomena and relationships related to it. Quantitative study is based on confirmation and disconfirmation of the hypothesis that is been tested. Researchers identify few variables with the help of quantitative methods in their research work and then move with data gathered that are related to variables. The researcher conducted a quantitative analysis and took help of questionnaire that contains 4 to five questions. The survey was performed with the help of 40 employees. The researcher asked the employees whether they think consistency is important factor for effective communication in their organization or not. 25% employee agreed that it's important. However 14% respondents felt that consistency is not enough for effective communication. The next question was based on like is it necessary to have a good body language to present ourselves to co-workers. 19% agreed that it is important and 28% respondents believed that having a body language is not enough, because it needs others factors too like creativity and clarity in communications.


Two research methodologies review

The two research methodologies are qualitative and quantitative analysis methods. Qualitative methods ensure researchers to go through the studies of cultural oriented and social phenomena. Qualitative method and analysis has extended in many areas of research fields. It involves data sources that include observation and observation gathered from respondent, questionnaires and interviews, researcher's perception and impressions (Morse, 2015) This method involves collection of data of personal experiences, interactions, and visual texts that are relevant to people's life. The researcher took interviews from 3 managers and collected their view to analyze regarding how communication can be made effective. Each had their own opinions which were correct with reference to the question asked on effective communication. There case studies to understand about a topic more in a better way. Ethnography is a qualitative method for ICT based research and is used in large firms and includes proper investigation of an entity that has relevant to specific context. Participant observation is used in data that involves unstructured interview and field notes.

Quantitative method starts with data collection related on a hypothesis or theory and application of inferential statistics. Observations and surveys are common examples and it is widely used with association of statistics. Survey is conducted by researcher to learn from a large population by surveying a sample of selected population, it can be in a normalitive survey or descriptive survey (Naddeo, Cappetti, and D'Oria, 2015). In this method the researcher puts a series of questions to respective respondents, after that their responses is summarized in percentages and statistical approaches. As per the analysis, qualitative analysis method seem to be more relevant and important as with the help of interviews, views will help to form a structured data and implement to make decisions. The interviewer can select a formal or informal approach; enable the speaker to speak freely about a topic or issue.

Application of the methods

Qualitative research goes for the explanation and exploring the world with observation by going through the experiences of social factors and searching of data that are not easily gathered from quantitative methods. Quantitative methods are applied when factual information is needed to be answered in research questions. Qualitative methods reveals about potential issues in different types of implementation needed in a field. Qualitative method is more focused with quality or experiences of human and how theses phenomena describe about individuals. Qualitative research starts with how, why, what type of questions instead of 'how may' or 'how much' questions. Quantitative analysis tool is generally applied for identifying the underlying factors such as size of the market, the demographics factors which helps to provide the significant decision for maintaining the business functions. It is mainly the mathematical representations of the data that can be utilized as the problem solving techniques. Hence comparing the qualitative analysis tool as well as the quantitative analysis tool, the quantitative analysis tool is more effective as in every organization a science expert in quantitative management is needed for performing the research in the operations that helps to solve the problem.

Establishment of the methods in Management Research

The qualitative approach to management analyses the views of managers and experienced persons to establish business performance growth. The opinions received are from their experiences of case studies or any issues in the organization. The qualitative approach differs from the quantitative approach as it has the answers of the and why questions arising from the conflicts (McCarthy & Muthuri, 2018). As communication barriers are our main focus in this study, we will elaborate the establishment of qualitative methods in the management research. Qualitative approaches that have been considered are ethnography and interview action analysis. Communication heavily depends on the cultures and practices that the employers are coming through to relate with the other top ranked authorities.

Ethnography is the most appropriate method that has been applied in the organization (Berthod, Grothe-Hammer & Sydow, 2017). The process is the effective study related to the behavioral aspects, cultural perceptions and frank interactions of the team members. Ethnography aims in providing holistic appreciation and rich views to the peoples in a group or team to make them feel comfortable and adapt with the work environment rapidly. This is achieved by conducting short and specific interviews highlighting everyone's point of view to find out the differences and solve it for further collaboration with others.

Beside ethnography, action taking plans and/or cases studies also provides satisfactory results on communication issues. Different case studies based on the communication issues and even of other issues helps to analyze the probability of the issue to decrease. The interview taken on the managers of different sections provides general information which helps to produce the ideas and effective solutions to the communications issue. As one speaks about maintaining the consistency, clarity as well as connections, whereas the other two speaks about the body languages and empathy of everyone in the organizations.

The gaps resulted from the evaluation requiring further analysis

Gap analysis is used in fields of management research and business integration as well. Actually, the gap analysis is a method that provides comparison of the actual situation that took place with its difference from the desired condition. So, on the basis of those comparisons the questions coming out are the description of the current situation and the situation that can be achieved from the analysis (Gordon et al., 2016).

The gaps that the above report left behind are the situation based analysis of the methods and how can the communication issue be prevented from further occurrence. These gaps are a vital part of the overall analysis and will surely be concluded as a factor needing further analysis. The qualitative approach does provide the understanding and the probable ways to deal with the issue. First thing that need to be implemented is the regular maintenance checkout of the task. On the basis of this, the managers can extract the employers working performances in the team and the obstructions coming in achieving the goal. Gap analysis provides relevant reports of the shortfalls of the methods that are implemented. The whole management should work as a unit to resolve the gaps and promotes the growth.


5) A conclusion with regard to those research question(s) you consider worthy of further investigation in the light of your analysis above, and a suitable research methodology for your own proposed investigation and potential research question/s.


From the above illustrations it can be concluded that, the communication issues is the major problem for maintaining the global business strategies. The main aim of the process mainly involves the proper coordination and utilizing the resources that will be helpful to solve the organizational aspects in order to work efficiently and effectively. The qualitative research methods has been taken for the research in order to identify whether the organization have well balanced management team for handling the resources in order to maintain the balance between the top down and bottom up communication. From the perspective of the research methods it is very crucial to manage people, planning structural methods, organizing the methods that will help to gain the competitive advantage in the market that will lead to successful business environment. From the analysis, it can be said that ethnography is the suitable tool which should be utilized to gain the behavioral aspects and gaining interactions among the team members. Hence, from the above perspectives, it explained that ethnography provides the broader perspectives to gain and understand the opinion of the people so that there would be the increase in the potentiality among to each member to work efficiently.

Apart from the concept of the ethnography Action plan and the cases study is also plays a significant part to carry out the effective research in order to generate the necessary outcomes for resolving the communication issues which is vibrant in the organization. The study was more focused on the qualitative analysis tool that has been explained as an example resolving the communication issues. The above tool helps to maintain consistency, clarity to generate the overall perspective of the managers in order to conduct the effective research. It can be noted on the fact that most of the responses are noticed from the process of interviews in which it help to generate the clear idea of the data and gaining the collective information that is required in maintaining the effectiveness of the research. The research methods implemented in the organization gives a brainstorming output as well in the form of mid mapping the probable effects and solutions. Moreover, the gaps of the research methods are investigated and analyzed that are need to be solved out. The resource manager who deals with the recruitment of new talents should herein manipulate a motivating environment in the workplace. Further engagement of the managerial team is require in the context of goal driven output of the entire team in the organization. The communication always a factor of concern in any context, and the perspectives of every employee should be prioritizing equally in the organization. This will enhance and encourage the people to proceed to the work and produce effective results as a unit. The qualitative approach thus coming out to be a effective research method in a organization where it can improve the perspectives of each individuals by providing exclamatory solutions to them. The communication issues and its resolving approaches are well defined.


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