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Energy Systems

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Question 1: There are two options to run a water pump using a wind mill.

Option 1: • Direct coupling the windmill using a mechanical belt drive to run a centrifugal water pump. Mechanical efficiency of the drive system is 0.80 and the efficiency of the centrifugal pump is 0.8.

Option 2: • Use an in-built wind turbine and generator to generate electricity and run the pump connected with the generated electricity.
Combined efficiency of the turbine and the generator is 0.80, efficiency of the electrical installation is 0.95 and the efficiency of the electrical water pump is 0.75.

i. Compare the two options for the overall system efficiency and recommend an options which mostly suited for the application

Answer: a) Overall efficiency = 0.8x0.8= 0.64= efficiency of drive x efficiency of pump

b) Overall efficiency = turbine gen 0.8 x electrical inst 0.95 x electrical water-pump 0.75 = 0.57

From overall efficiency point of view, option 1 is preferred

ii. What are the drawbacks associated with the selection?

Answer: drawbacks: belt can wear out easily, and overheat, slip etc eventually reducing output and requiring maintenance.

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Question 2: In an energy systems installation, following financial requirement was identified.

• Capital cost of equipment and installation - $ 120,000

• Recurrent cost of maintenance - $ 3,000 per year

• Replacement of parts - $ 4,000 per year

• Life time of the system - 12 years

• Income through energy generation - $ 22,000 per year

i. Calculate the payback period of the system.

Answer: let payback period be "x " years. This is defined as the Breakeven point.

Hence outgoing cost = $120000 + $3000x + $4000x = incoming revenue $22000x

X = 120000/(22000-7000)=8 years

ii. If the scarp value of the equipment is $ 5,000, what is the net profit expected to be collected for the investment?

Answer: after 8 years a profit is expected. If the remaining life is 4 years, net income = $22000x4 -$(3000+4000)x4=$ 60000

Add scrap value , net profit = 65000$

iii. Explain how this profit is affected by "cost of money" or "interest". No calculations needed.

Answer: If cost of money is included, the net profit decreases, since the real value of income every year is factored down.

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Question 3: List four design approaches recommended in improving energy efficiency of a new building

Answer: a) use daylight instead of artificial lighting

b) Use solar heating instead of electrical geysers etc

c) Passive cooling and ventilation, including evaporative cooling, thermal mass etc

d) Building design, windows to wall ratio etc

Question 4: When transmitting electricity across a long distance, significant amount of energy is lost.

i. Explain how the transmission line losses are quantified. What are the main variables?

Answer: Losses are quantified by amount supplied tom consumers - receipts from billing=

(Energy Input to feeder (Kwh) - Billed Energy to Consumer (Kwh)) / Energy Input kwh x 100

Losses can be due to transformers heating, demagnetizing, joule heating of conductors, permanent load from measuring etc.

ii. What are the possible approaches to reduce this loss?

Answer: Approaches to reduce loss are to improve conductance and reduce joule heating, optimize usage and load, improve dielectrics

iii. What is preferred method (or modifications) of reducing line loss?

Answer: Preferred method of reducing loss: improve power factor using capacitors

iv. What are the additional devices and features of such a modified transmission system?

Answer: Reduce line lengths and loss due to inductive load, connect power capacitors appropriately.

Line losses can be reduced up to 10% thereby.

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Question 5: Draw a block diagram to illustrate the energy conversion of hydropower. Label the form of energy in each state and indicate the losses where necessary.

Answer: 

Energy System.jpg

Question 6: i. If the energy density of Petroleum fuel is 45MJ/kg, how much of fuel needed to contain 1GJ of energy?

Answer: 1Gj/45 Mj= 10^9 /(45x10^6)=1000/45 = 22.2 kg

ii. If the conversion efficiency of the engine which uses this fuel is 0.40, how much of mechanical energy is generated if this fuel is burnt?

Answer: Net energy = 0.4 x 1 GJ= 400 Mj

iii. If the same amount of mechanical energy is to be generated using an engine runs with natural gas (efficiency 0.45 and energy density of natural gas has 36MJ/kg), how much fuel is needed?

Answer: Amount of energy reqd = 1 GJ = 10^9 J, for natural gas of energy density 36 MJ/kg require

1000/36 kg = 27.79 kg. If efficiency = .45, require 27.79/.45 kg = 61.73 kg

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