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Question 1 - Using the layer models in Figure, describe the ordering and delivery of a pizza, indicating the interactions at each level.
The requesting and conveying of Pizza is appeared hierarchal route in the above figure. The visitors interface with host first , the highest layer is the client/customer , where the customer utilizes its physical method for data trade and requests a pizza , this data is taken by host in the characteristic method for correspondence , the host at that point decipher this message from crude information to bundles or data that is reasonable by request representative. At that point the host utilizes phone which is base most method for correspondence and sends its data in electrical on off way. The phone line is known as the physical layer in systems administration where the phone line exchanges the data from host to arrange agent. After this the opposite end of phone changes over electrical information into sound which is characteristic method for correspondence reasonable to agent utilizing speakers. The request agent gives this data to Pizza cook who cooks the pizza and when it is prepared it is conveyed to the visitor.
Question 2 - The French and Chinese prime ministers need to come to an agreement by telephone, but neither speaks the other's language. Further, neither has on hand a translator that can translate to the language of the other. However, both prime ministers have English translators on their staffs. Draw a diagram similar to Figure 1 to depict the situation, and describe the interaction and each level.
In this layered methodology of correspondence, the data trade occurs as the normal mechanism of correspondence is English. The French leader talks in French it is then taken up by the interpreter who disentangles it into English language , as this is the regular language or methods for correspondence reasonable by the other interpreter . The French interpreter at that point exchanges the English data through receiver and phone changes over this into electrical signal. The phone line at that point exchanges the electrical signal to opposite end, Chinese PM. the phone changes over the electrical signal to sound signal which is in English language then the interpreter changes over this to Chinese, which is justifiable by the Chinese head administrator. Along these lines the layered methodology tackles the issue of data trade between the head administrator in spite of the fact that they utilize diverse encryption system for encoding information.
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Question 3 - From the figures, compute the maximum amplitude, frequency, time period and phase for each of the wave. The x-axis represents the time in sec and y-axis represents the amplitude.
Maximum amplitude, V: 15 V
Time period, t: 3sec
Frequency: 1/3 = 0.33 Hz
Phase: -2*pi*frequency*t, timeat signal =0,
So, phase = 0;
Maximum amplitude: 4 V
Time period: 7sec
Frequency: 1/7 = 0.14 Hz
Phase: -2*pi*frequency*t time at signal =0,
So, phase = 0;
Maximum amplitude: 7.5 V
Time period: 2.5sec
Frequency: ½.5 = 0.4 Hz
Phase: -2*pi*frequency*t time at signal =0,
So, phase = -72;
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Question 4 - Compute the amplitude, frequency, time period and phase for each of the following equations and also draw their respective waveforms.
Frequency: 100 Hz
Time period: 1/100 = 0.01 sec
Phase = 0
Amplitude = 20
Frequency = 30 Hz
Time period = 1/30 = 0.033 sec
Phase = 90
Amplitude = 5
Frequency = 250 Hz
Time period = 1/250 = 0.004 sec
Phase = 180
Amplitude = 8
Frequency = 200 Hz
Time period = 1/200 = 0.005 sec
Phase = 270
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Question 5 - Suppose that a digitized TV picture is to be transmitted from a source that uses a matrix of 480 × 500 picture elements (pixels), where each pixel can take on one of 32 intensity values. Assume that 30 pictures are sent per second.
a. Find the source rate R (bps).
Answer - Source rate in pixels/second = (30 pictures/s) (480 x 500 pixels/picture)
So, source rate is 7.2 x 106 pixels/s
Each pixel from 32 takes one value take therefore be represented by 5bits:
Rate, R = 7.2 x 106 x 5 = 36 Mbps
b. Assume that the TV picture is to be transmitted over a channel with 4.5-MHz bandwidth and a 35-dB signal-to-noise ratio. Find the capacity of the channel (bps).
Answer - Using channel capacity formula: C = B log2 (1 + SNR)
Where bandwidth, B = 4.5 x 106 MHz
So, SNR = 35 dB = 1035/10 = 3162,
C = 4.5 x 106 log2 (1 + 103.5) = 4.5 x 106 log2 (3163) = (4.5 x 106 x 11.63) = 52.335 x 106 bps.
Question 6 - Determine the isotropic free space loss at 4 GHz for the shortest path to a synchronous satellite from earth (35,863 km).
Answer - Frequency = 4 GHz
Synchronous satellite from earth=35,863 km Then,
Free space loss is:
PL = 20log10 (4x109) +20log10 (35.863x106)-147.56 dB
PL = 195.6 dB
Question 7 - Given a signal as follows, compute the fundamental frequency, spectrum and bandwidth. Also calculate the channel capacity using Nyquest criteria using M= 2, 4, 8, where M is the number of levels.
Answer - S(t) = 5sin(200πt)+sin(600πt)
Fundamental frequency = 100 Hz
Spectrum = S(F)= j5π(δ(f-100) + δ(f+100)) + jπ(δ(f-500) + δ(f+500))
Bandwidth = 500 Hz
Channel capacity = 2*B*log2 (M)
C= 2*500*log2 (2) = 1000
For M= 4,
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Question 8 - Explain how the data rate over a channel can be increased, without increasing the bandwidth? What is the disadvantage of this approach?
Answer - For a silent channel, the Nyquist bit rate equation characterizes the hypothetical greatest piece rate Bitrate = 2 * Bandwidth * log2 (L)
In the above condition, transfer speed is the transmission capacity of the channel, L is the quantity of flag levels used to speak to information, and Bitrate is the bit rate in bits every second.
Transmission capacity is a fixed amount, so it can't be changed. Subsequently, the information rate is straightforwardly corresponding to the quantity of flag levels.
Demerit of this is the reliability of system may decrease and noise increases as we increase the level.
Question 9 - What is the main difference between Packet switching Virtual Circuit and Circuit Switching? Also discuss the advantages of Packet switching Virtual Circuit over Circuit Switching.
Answer - Comparison of Packet switching Virtual Circuit and Circuit Switching
Packet switching virtual circuit
No dedicated path
Route is established for entire conversation
Path is established for entire conversation
Call setup delay as well as packet transmission delay
Call setup delay
Overload may block call setup and increases packet delay
Overload may block call setup
Overhead bits in each packet
No overhead bits after call setup
Question 10 - In a LOS communication, consider d = 40km, the requirement is to make two antennas (transmitter and receiver) such that the height of one antenna should be twice of the other. Considering this, find the appropriate heights of these two antennas.
Answer - Two towers of stature h1 and h2, the most extreme separation between them is the aggregate of every one of their separations to the skyline; that is,
d1 + d2 = √(2rh1) +√(2rh2)
Also given in question h1 = 2h2 and radius of earth, r= 6 378.1 km
So, h = (40/sqrt(2*r)(1+sqrt(2)))2 = 21.5m
So first antenna = 21.5 m
And second antenna is 43 m
Conclusion: In this assignment the digital and analog communication is studied using various theorems. Mostly Nyquist and Shannon's theorem is used to calculate the problems. The process of layered networking is discussed and analyzed using real life problem. Then the antenna system is studied using some mathematical calculations.
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