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BCO5501 Business Process Engineering Assignment - BPM Review Essay, Victoria University, Australia

Task - From the International Conference on Business Process Management (BPM), select and review one paper from one of these Proceedings. The paper you select must be directly relevant to business process engineering or business process management.




Business process management is basically how business is planned, created, operated and executed. To start a business, proper planning, modeling, preparation of presentations are also involved and each of the department is responsible for making up of core of the business. To run a company and to start a company, investors, employees and many more people are required. A proper management is required to operate the operations involved in the management. In this study, different probable problems that might happen while running a business would be discussed. Some of the problems might happen like the behavioral ambiguity in textual process or regarding the understandability of business models by the audience. One more problem might happen in the quality of translation of activity centric process to guard stage milestone. Misunderstandings might happen in between the employee and the clients, which might be the result due to the misinterpretation of textual description. This miscommunication might result in the client relationship to ruin.

Dealing with behavioral ambiguity in textual process descriptions

Various business organizations mainly conduct all their communication through textual processes which might result in some misunderstandings (Rosa et al. 2016). The widely use of textual process in organizations is due to the virtual understandability of everyone. Further, these sometimes might create a situation of misconception or ambiguities in the understandability of the language of the text. Sometimes the reader might not understand the language or they could not relate to the activities or the topic, these results in a situation of ambiguity. As argued by van der Aa et al. (2018) This situation of ambiguity refers to "Behavioral Ambiguity". Further, these issues might occur when one person interprets the message incorrectly or is unable to make out what is needed to be done and what not then a situation of ambiguity arises. Moreover, as per Houy et al. (2016), there might be some textual description based on queries, so it might happen that the queries are not clearly decidable like what to do and what not.

These situations might result in taking wrong decisions due to wrong interpretation of the questions. So, there must be more than one interpreter to evaluate the correct meaning so as to make the correct decision. On the contrary, Leopold et al. (2019) stated that a company might have only one trustable interpreter who does the conversation with the clients and takes decisions in the favor of the company. These situations of ambiguity or misunderstanding might hamper the relations with the clients or the stakeholders or the shareholders. Moreover, the wrong interpretation of the description might result in a generation of wrong decision which would leave a negative impact on the clients and as well as on the hierarchies of the company (Rosa et al. 2016).


Hence, according to Leofante et al. (2018), in order to overcome such situations, automated reasoning techniques should be taken into account. Automated reasoning is basically an area of computers where the result could be interpreted with 100% perfection (Rosa et al. 2016). As per stated by Galmiche et al. (2018), like when the automated system is provided with assumptions and a goal the system would analyze the situation and the assumptions logically to infer a perfect result. Further, this behavioral ambiguity could also be checked by behavioral space (Pryor et al. 2016). The behavioral space provides with the base reason for the ambiguity, it also represents the causes and effects of behavioral ambiguity. This tells a proper way how to execute a business plan or how it should be executed. The behavioral space gives reasons for the ambiguities which are being captured in a structured manner (van Zeeland and Henseler, 2018). These are certain ways to capture the misinterpretations or the behavioral ambiguities in order to provide a result with high validity.

The use of behavioral space could be evaluated by conducting an evaluation which would make it easy to learn how well the behavioral space could provide a balance between loose and restricted ways to deal with behavioral ambiguity (Christopher, 2016). Therefore, the behavioral ambiguity due to textual description could be overcome by using behavioral space which focuses on using automated reasoning system rather than using a single-process oriented interpretation (Rosa et al. 2016). This would help to decrease the rate of behavioral ambiguity due to textual descriptions. Moreover, using automated reasoning would be an added advantage as it would analyze the description logically and would give a result with high accuracy, provided the automated system is given with the assumption and goals are mentioned.

Further, this behavioral ambiguity might create a clash between company employees and the clients and might also destroy the relationship with the clients. These could be avoided by usage of proper languages, simple use of words and avoiding complex words.

Effect of modularity representation and presentation medium on the understandability of Business Process Models in BPMN

Business process modeling is the study of the status of the business which can be represented in the form of flow charts or graphs or models as well (Buh el at. 2015). This is done in order to know the workflow of the company with a proper revenue status. The mapping is done in two processes. One would represent the present status of the company without implementing anything for the sake of improvement and the other would represent the future status of the company after the implementation of the procedures for improvement. The fundamental activity is to communicate and make the audience understand about the business and its work process and their goals (Rosa et al. 2016). The representation of models should be done in such a way so that it becomes easy for the audience to understand the business strategies and the work plan. The complexity in the business models should be avoided in order to make the audience grasp the information that is represented by the model. As per Wang et al. (2017), business modeling is done through software applications thereby providing more information about the models in a stepwise format would decrease the load of the model reader. Further, hiding a lot of relevant information would result in increase in the mental effort of the reader which makes the reader to switch attention between the different fragments (Rosa et al. 2016). This leads to the decrease in the quality of modeling and thus a proper way is needed to follow for the modularization which would make it feasible for the reader to understand (Aversa et al. 2015). Moreover, the medium of presentation should also be considered while making the models. The efforts made on the presentation of the model would result into zero outcomes if the medium is not understood by the audience or the reader. So, it the medium of presentation needed to be maintained so that the audience could reciprocate with the professionals.


According to Spruytte et al. (2016), modularization is the method of constructing models, so construction of different models plays a vital role in the field of understandability. Different modularization yields in the production of different structural models, some are easily understandable while some are not. The models that made with full adherence to the provided conditions are more understandable (Rosa et al. 2016). For instance, it could be identified which model is more understandable and the model that is easily understandable by maximum number of audience members. Further, which model is would be highly effective and efficient for the readers. Moreover, these business models also help in understanding or predicting the present and future productivity that a company might produce.

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Hence, a proper modularization is required in order to get positive feedback from the model readers or the audience. As per Rosa et al. (2016), the proper sketch of modeling helps the readers to better understand and to work maintaining the chart which makes their work process easier. It's not that while starting a startup, the predicted plan would work, for that there should be a proper strategy. This could be met with the help of new business models that are being released periodically. This helps the company to check its performance periodically and to take required actions to achieve the goal of the company.

Towards quality aware translations of activity-centric processes to guard stage milestone

While doing business planning, it is mandatory to focus on the quality of the products it develops. Like for example, to accomplish the goals of a company there should be proper planning as well as there should be proper productivity in order to run the company. In order to achieve positive outcomes, the management quality should also be met with the expectations of the employees working in a particular company (Rosa et al. 2016). This helps the employees to work with a positive motto which would result in a high-quality outcome. So, the business professionals use an operation called GSM (Guard Stone Milestone) to check the quality of their management as well as their product quality.


GSM (Guard Stone Milestone) is a business based operation that is used to check the quality of the performance of the company. It is also used in keeping the tracks of the data for a long period of time and hence, regarded as GSM life-cycle (Eshuis and Van Gorp, 2016). A guard means a stage when a particular period becomes active and a milestone is a stage when the task of the period is completed. For meeting the quality, first the meaning of quality should be clear which could help to maintain the quality of the management as well as the product is all respect the quality of the products developed by the company could be checked or maintained by taking proper feedbacks from the customers on a regular basis. The problems with the quality that are found could be fixed and the customers should be ensured with the security of the product for future purpose. Further, the company should keep good terms and conditions with its employees such that the work which they are being doing, they would do it with more effort and with a proper teamwork.

The quality depends on many aspects, like planning long term goals, keeping quality on the priority, maintaining proper relation with the employees as well as the clients and customers. Creating long term goals involve breaking of the objectives to small steps in order to make them easier and quickly achievable (Cluley, 2016). Further, maintaining a proper relationship with the employees, keeping transparency in the communication in order to avoid misunderstandings. The mode of communication should be made easier for better understandability of both parties. Maintaining the quality increases the accreditation of the company with a recognized standard among the public (Rosa et al. 2016). The standard quality of products delivered by a company becomes the reason of its name and fame. This results in its popularity in market as the company fulfils the expectations of its customers thereby increasing its performance. For this, a perfect teamwork is required with an efficient team members having positive energy. Also, more of investment could be done in maintaining the quality of the products that are being developed by the company as this would take the company towards success.


The process of creating a business plan, analyzing the deficiencies in the present situation of the business and also an analysis of the probability of the outcome is called Business Process Management. It also looks after the operations that are carried out while running a business. The business is carried out with the help of different personnel such as the investors, clients, stakeholders, employees, customers and many more. Sometimes, a situation might arise due to the communication gap or misinterpretation of messages. Further, for better business strategy or for a better outcome, there should be a proper business model in order to make the audience understand. The models help to make out the workflow of the company as well as its revenue status. From these predictions, further goals could be set for the betterment of the company and to build a successful business. Moreover, the quality of the products and also the management needs to be maintained so as to get positive feedback from the customers. This takes the company to a high level standard and also makes it popular in the market. This results in name and fame of the company and also the company earns huge revenue.


Solution 2 - User centered process approaches


Every business attempts to formulate a process that can maximize the efficiency and productivity by simplifying the operations. When the business targets customers at the end, the processes turn to be customer-friendly. The sole purpose is to enhance the technology usage and integrate with the day to day operations of the organization. The idea is to benefit the stakeholders and recreate the process that can mitigate risks and failures and maximize profits. User centered business approaches are highly viable and guarantee a better quality of service to the targeted users though the initial investment towards technology is high. With the need for continuous improvement in the deliverables by every business, it is never a bad idea for an organization to invest in its information system. In this paper, a number of literary sources shall be studied to understand how business processes follow user centric approaches and the benefits associated with it. There are also case studies discussed in this paper to learn about the effectiveness of the user centered process approaches.

Literature analysis

Patterns and models in business processes

According to Rodriguez et al (2014), businesses use technologies to utilize datasets and models that can create business patterns on its own. Data mining is the key technique used here to process the available data and mine the mashup model structures to suggest best practices to the organization. For example, Yahoo search engine tries to enhance the user experience by following a mashup model pattern. Right from the search keyword used by the user to the result fetched by the search engine, the data mining is crowd-centered so that the accuracy is improved and users benefit from the results. Not just stopping with Yahoo, more crowdsourcing websites like make use of attractive UI where the crowdsourcers receive data and process with simple algorithms. This form of machine learning is expected to even trend in the near future and promotes business intelligence and semantic search.

Ribeiro et al (2014) suggests a recommender system that can guide the organizations in discovering the process that requires improvement and can be turned even productive. This system works based on portfolio based algorithm where machine learning is applied to store and retrieve data as accurate as possible. While this comes as a plugin and can be embedded into software to enable better transactions, the purpose is to enhance the quality of the results. The recommender system pays importance to event logs and experiment results. The results are fetched by training the available machine model by creating a ranking algorithm and extracting features that will enrich the accuracy rate. All these will be stored in a separate database. This collaborative approach encourages the users to access the system repeatedly.

Sukaviriya et al (2007) has analyzed the business process models and realized that the traditional design will no more be of use due to fierce competition in the market and the need for better UI designs. When a business tries to focus on users, it is essential to build rapid prototypes that can simulate the entire process. This should include UI design, UX functions and data to assess experience, real business engagement and satisfaction of the users. The prototype model driven approach appears to simplify even lengthy processes and widens the scope of the business.


Out of the several models mentioned in this section, the best way to reengineer the business process is to listen to user feedback. Klinkmuller et al (2014) state that reengineering the business process based on the feedbacks issued by users tend to promote matching quality. Right from the similarity of words to strategic derivation of results, it is a mixed initiative approach that will reduce the workload of the internal members and investigate the database to yield the best business outcomes at the end.

User centered design approach

Gould et al (1997) has experimented about usable system design that can improve the business process and the end results. According to the authors, a good interface is all that is required to bring back the customers to the same system and achieve a better user satisfaction rate. When usability is the whole idea to make the system usable, companies like IBM follow specific principles.

- Constant focus on the user metrics like behavioral, cognitive and attitudinal tenets and impart the results in the design and outlook of the system

- Integrated design where usability is taken to a higher level

- Iterative design is mandatory as it lets the administrators to test, retest, redesign and improve the overall performance of the business process.

- Empirical measurement is used to model the prototype and simulate the outcomes based on upgraded variables.

The present business development process has several shortcomings.

- The waterfall model insists greater dependency on every previous step to do the next step.

- Usually, the use case model is fixed and it then becomes difficult to change at a later time.

- Users are selected from the wrong base and hence, the focus does not derive accurate results.

- When the prototype is modeled, the formal structuring tightens the possibility to change and risks peep in at odd times.

These are the reasons for user centered design to follow the principles mentioned above.

Vilpola (2008) has discussed the application of user centered approach in the implementation of ERP. Every organization that develops ERP for usage in B2B and B2C companies places user centric design approach first. The sole purpose of business process engineering is to rethink the objective of organization and plan towards functional improvement that can directly influence the process focus and scale the business over a period of time. The authors state that this design process follows key principles such as:

- Multi-disciplinary design

- Design solution iteration

- Efficient function allocation between technology and the user

- Continuous participation of users to understand task requirements better.


The customer centered business approach begins with diagnosis of situation and moves towards the action planning stage. Once the action plan is ready, the members get into action and evaluate the outcomes. The system constantly reinvents the process based on the learnings in the previous version. This is cyclic. Let's take the example of ERP.

The cyclic method can enable the company to maximize the turnover and implement in accuracy. Sometimes, these customizations are essential for the organizations to get structured.

While using portfolio model to build prototype is a good idea, a better option is to engineer the business process based on scenarios. McGraw and Harbinson (1997) state -

User performance improves when the business process focuses on appropriateness.

When a business tries to turn its existing business process in particular to the end users, the major steps to be carried out are mentioned here.

- Define requirements that are of high quality and are adaptable by nature

- Involve productive clients in the prototype model

- Buy-in clients who can offer test data and suggestions for development

- Upgrade functionality and study feasibility for corrections

- Work towards user satisfaction

The scenario based process primarily has to work on products and artifacts available in particular to the scenario. Sometimes, they need to be collected from the project managers and at many other times, they are available for public usage.

Negru and Buraga (2012) have highlighted that the usable products should be put to a knowledge based assessment where user requirements are communicated first and the behavioral patterns are analyzed next. Knowledge based approach basically means semantic analysis of user behavior and microdata processing to understand the properties of schemas and extract better features to enhance the user experience. The overall process is quite interesting and business friendly too.


Trends in user centered design for business processes

As already stated, majority of the businesses are becoming user centric and new technologies have evolved to upgrade the existing business processes. Interactive map is an excellent example to understand how user centric design has changed the experience of the users and brought in more businesses to the organization. Combining GI science, visual analytics and cartography, interactive maps have been constantly awarded for the conceptualization and extraordinary usability of the interface. As rightly pointed out by Roth et al (2015), new mockups are created everytime the users display dissatisfaction of the result. Alternatively, the feedback mechanism has doubled the business results.

User centric business processes are evident in the medical centers. Chokshi and Mann (2018) detailed that the health information technology offers a way for design thinking to reach the end users. In most of the academic health centers, there seems to be an innovation located in the academic medicine.  The integrated process model used in such locations is mentioned here.

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Ideally, healthcare systems make an excessive of technologies and the state of the art development in academic medicine department has insisted the internal stakeholders to discover the concept, conduct live pilot testing and deliver the results. The workflow elements flow easily and this structure adds quality to the user journey mapping. At the end, the digital assets are easily retrieved whenever needed and the iterative refinement of the digital tools makes it feasible for the healthcare workers to achieve accuracy in the laboratory and clinical diagnosis results. The presented model is also light-weight and this is the need of the hour as it does not complicate the system and portrays the huge volumes of data into an easily accessible one.

Looking into the latest trends of the user centered design approaches for businesses, Tonti (2018) highlights the importance of optimization. Agile structure in building the user-centric design is the key to a successful business. Lean thinking and continuous integrations are mandatory for the businesses in product development. These two aspects not only promote the overall business performance but also gain user acceptance by validating the product constantly and altering the design based on the feedbacks. On-the-fly planning is the trend and supports a structured approach of transferring technology from the server to users despite the multi-dimensional intervention in the business process (Davenport, 1993).

The final trend to be discussed here is the interaction design applied to the point of sale software. Fast processing and switching between accounts in the limited deadline are essential to enhance this data grid. All these years, point of sale software was implemented on a MS Windows interface with classic functionality. However, the GUI outlook with upgraded compiler, IDE and software libraries has made the entire system menu driven. The drawback observed after the change was that the number of clicks was high. Fluent and agile methodology altered this user centric design approach to optimize the controls based on behavior. Sroczynski (2017) highlights that the ribbon interface development is now enriched with new framework and cloud based data storage that will allow the users to fetch data without having to connect to a system or a complex processing behind. It is understandable that innovation is the key.



Business process demands an efficient team composition and sufficient IT infrastructure to facilitate continuous improvement and resist the changes. The conventional business processes were not adaptable and followed hierarchical models that affected the outcomes. Be it a service based or a product based business, the business reengineering trend has changed and has become user centric. Right from the planning to design to deployment to alteration, on-the-go processes are followed. The user centric design has allowed scope for new technologies in terms of data management, interface results and user operations. Search engines like Google focused extensively on machine learning, artificial intelligence and semantic search algorithms to manage knowledge and redesign the output system to the users. The process does not restrict to the display of results but the decision engineering has also been implemented.

From this literature analysis, it is evident that the business processes have developed over the years upon the implementation of the user centric designs. The commonly seen impacts were on operations, finance and human resource management.


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