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The aim of the research article is to understand the issues and challenges in the website and online security and the way routers and smart phones are changing the way people communicate over a larger network of servers. Along with the advance of internet and information technology, the issue of attacks also comes into the forefront. These attacks are mostly virtual but they have the ability to affect a larger area of internet and computer networks. It has often been observed that the way people behave over the internet leaves them vulnerable to attacks which can cause losses of millions of currencies and render most internet servers susceptible to dangers from potential phishes and hackers.

As the online world has virtually shrunk into the palm of our hands, there have been instances when the framing packets, as well as routers through which the data is transferred over layers in devices and servers, are the most affected. The concept of tap-jacking and geo-localization attacks have been intriguing the Smartphone and home routers for long. Tap-jacking refers to the screen overlays on Smartphone's which have the ability to gain important information and enable users to ‘tap' onto fake passwords. Geo-localization attack happens when the wifi password of both the router and the Smartphone hotspot gets affected by any malicious threat.

Keeping location history on and through the tracking of GPS, such attacks are carried out by hackers and potential online villains. Therefore, through this research article, the issues of framing attacks on website security, tap jacking on android phones and geolocation vulnerabilities are to be discussed with the proper approach, results, methods and examples.


Website framing attacks are one of the most serious issues that need to be evaluated and resolved to gain better internet security. Most of the vulnerable attacks that occur on websites are termed as click jacking. The framing attacks thus happen when there is a malicious website frame opens and the victim is tempted to click or open in the browser. This actually processed during iframing of the websites, which allows external malicious sources to be embedded in HTML source (Marforio et al., 2016). This issue can seriously hamper the connectivity to the internet and thus loading of the websites. The user will face multiple issues on opening the malicious frame which in turn will give access to the hacker to have control over the website user logging in.

Rather than click jacking, tap-jacking in mobile handsets also have devastating effects. Tap-jacking not only get access to the Smartphone browser, but it can also have more impacts on the total security of the internet connectivity on the Smartphone. Website linking and framing allows the user to view and access the contents of other websites, thus it is surely avoiding the legal laws and trademarks of the other websites (Wu et al., 2016). Every websites and internet communication links have their own certification and copyrights which cannot be misused or mishandled in any way. The routers we use in the home actually act as a dumb router as because they have no internal protection technique which can be helpful on framing attacks.

Thus the victim routers face a number of challenges in addressing malicious attacks that are taking place in the routers. The most common issue that our home routers will face is surely the location processing system of the victim's which is termed as the Geo-localization attacks. The Geo-localization attacks are not happening only on home-based routers, it has a significant impact on smart phones as well. The smart phones also have the common GPS location application which can be used and hacked by UI redressing technique high to gain access to the victim's area easily. Graphical inlining is also a major issue which actually occurs when the hackers insert any link to hack the webpage of a user.

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This helps the hacker to view graphical content of the victim's webpage as well. These attacks thus allow one to have full access on any website and even Smartphone of any user, which can be even a high authorized body of the nation as well.


The issues of tap-jacking and geo-localization will always have a devastating impact on the current website security. Since the evolution of Smartphone, the JavaScript enabled system was not processed. The absence of JavaScript embedding actually helps that the Smartphone remain protected from frame busting and other attacks (San Lim et al., 2016). Thus the hackers are now well aware that injecting the frame lining or frame busting is only applicable or possible with any recently launched iphones and Android Smartphone and will have no impact on the older phones. The frame busting or even Geo-localization techniques can only be accessed on Android-based Smartphone, so cyber security should be highly encrypted and protected for such attacks.

Wi-Fi routers that are used these days vulnerable to the UI redressing attacks mainly the tap-jacking which can expose the secret WPA key of the router and enable the hacker to have access on the same wifi router. Several approaches have been taken to ensure that the cyber security system prevents such malicious activities. Opera Mini is a JavaScript enabled mobile access browsers but still, there is very less chance to steal the contents of the browser by any external means mainly reflecting the XSS attacks (Felt et al., 2016). Stealing or hacking via internet sources or even by application implementing is always illegal and thus every single person should know the impact of being exposed on another computer without their permissions.

Websites are the major storefront and the most effective communication with the customers for any business bodies. Thus, the lack of awareness in the webpage security could lead others to manipulate their webpage with vulnerable applications. The importance of website security is reflected in every stage of the article above and the methods are clearly discussed in the article effectively.


Recent studies of popular websites show that only a few of the websites use frame busting methods to protect themselves from any kind of framing attacks. The research article studies the approach of framing attacks on mobile phones, precisely Smartphone, and routers of home users. It is observed after studying the approach that Smartphone and home routers are more susceptible to attacks from malicious sources more than public domains or regular web browsers. It is also discussed how Facebook and a few other known social sites have adopted approaches to protect them from framing vulnerabilities but in another way they leak user information, thus attacking the very base of privacy (Niemietz & Schwenk, 2017).

The recent approaches which have been used to protect websites and social sites from tap-jacking and geolocation attack are frame busting. Although most of the websites rarely use this technique, frame busting is known to help websites from getting attacked. Frame busting technique can be enabled by a simple JavaScript technique but the catch is it will not work if users have their JavaScript disabled. Using X-FRAME options and denying attributes via internet explorer can help in removing framing vulnerabilities. Although the X-FRAME approach is highly effective in removing the framing mishaps through HTTP responses like DENY and SAMEORIGIN, it has certain limitations as well (Niemietz & Schwenk, 2017).

The limitations are as follows:

? If the person is not using any frames, then this approach will not work.

? The policy for frame busting needs to be specified for each web page when logged in from a web-browser. The step can complicate issues and there should be a mechanism which provides frame busting for the complete site.

? Proxies are infamously known for removing and adding HTTP headers. If any web-based proxy removes the X-FRAME options then it becomes susceptible to attacks.

? If the sites have multiple domains and hostnames, then it has to be white listed so that the frames could be protected. Currently, there are no resources for white listing domain names, and therefore the user has to use different domain names each time he or she is logged in.

Other approaches used to test attacks on websites and Smartphone used by researchers are the use of the scrolling technique where certain hash tags were used to expose the information of the framed webpage. Using dynamic scrolling and turning off navigation, attackers generally engage in tap-jacking. Use of JavaScript enables the attacked frame to be busted but the problem is in many cases there have been several bugs and lacks in the JavaScript code which has made privacy issues a concern. Geolocation attacks can be prevented by removing location history and not granting location permissions to applications from unknown sources (AlJarrah & Shehab, 2016).

Expected results

The expected results for the survey and approaches undertaken for prevention of tap-jacking and geolocation attacks are several. Over time, as information technology and communication gaps have been reduced, the vulnerabilities have been severe in online networks and servers. These attacks range from ransom ware, phishing, and crypto currency attacks, to malicious hacking of government and private sector websites. Not even Facebook, which is the largest social networking site, could prevent itself from being framed and hacked. Although Facebook adopted a frame busting defence, by placing a transparent ‘Div' over the page which caused the top window to load to the main site, attackers might still gain private information about the users by removing the headers and framing a fake web address (Luo et al., 2017).

It was observed that fourteen per cent of the top websites ranked under the Alexa ranking engage in a certain kind of frame busting which protects them from tap-jacking and geolocational attacks. The problem is the frame busting is used only in desktop sites and not in mobile sites. In mobile sites, tap jacking requires a browser, frames and JavaScript to work efficiently (Possemato et al., 2018).

The Android web browser is a prime target for tap jacking as it has opacity, scaling, Meta tags and IFrames which makes it susceptible to attacks from malicious groups or individuals. Surprisingly, it was seen that Opera mini had defence from tap jacking or geolocational attacks even after having JavaScript and frames as it uses a proxy system which renders web pages faster. It was seen that even traditional click jacking was not possible on Opera mini. Tap jacking through toast view was more or less not seen as the attacker is not able to redress the user interface (Alepis & Patsakis, 2017).

Materials and methods

The Internet is important in the world but it can be dangerous in many ways. Nowadays, lots of financial dealings are networked and communicated with the use of internet platforms. Cyber security thus will be on focus for the reason to prevent any unwanted authorization of third-party users, who can create a severe problem in the overall communication. The most probable reason that internet security is under checking is the hacking of the important from internet websites of many business owners thus allowing the hackers to steal the information and expose the business site in the public (Napitupulu, 2017).

To address these issues several effective methods are used by the business platforms and websites owners to stop further problems in the process. Mostly, Framing plays an important role in exposing the contents and information of the website.

Methods used to create barriers in tap-jacking are:

? URL bar security by hiding: This process was actually known to have an impact on iPhones, where it is used to stop other users to track and use the application debarring the main user consent. The address of the URL is hidden with a code of programme implemented on the address bar of the victim's website (Bauer et al., 2016). This process efficiently prevents from further click jacking the Smartphone.

? Frame Busting: This method is a well-known technique used to prevent framing and click jacking by hackers on our systems. The method is applicable to every website where there is a chance of the website to be loaded on various sub-frames thus creating a problem for the user. The most effective way to handle the issue is to disable the JavaScript on the Smartphone. JavaScript disability helps the user to encrypt the information and the contents of the site precisely and does not allow the external hackers to steal the information easily (Pawade et al., 2016).

? X-frame implications: The Internet Explorer is not designed with JavaScript inability anymore which is surely one of the best-modified ways to prevent any further problem on the website. The procedure helps in disallowing the frames to open or occur altogether which is a suitable way to access any information exchange through the internet these days. Beside of the Internet Explorer, it is noticeable that the Mozilla Firefox has also implemented the same techniques and prevents further click jacking or Framing issues in the sites.

? Better Host Provider: Just like there is always a requirement of a trusted foundation when building a house, the Host provider is used to serve the foundation to the sites for better performance. As of now, websites are becoming the most vital way to get an entry for hackers. Even the servers and networks are not used in these stealing methods, so the hosts of the sites must ensure high security beside the developed infrastructure for better functionality of the website. Content Delivery Network or the CDN's are used to accelerate and smooth operations of the websites and also increases the reliability of the website (Okhravi et al., 2015). The windows firewall and various protective shields are implemented to prevent unwanted malicious activities on the websites.

In between framing attacks, and considering methods of frame busting to prevent tap-jacking, there is also the issue of protecting home routers and other mobile and computing devices which function as part of a larger population who use computer and internet networks from the comfort of their homes, and yet they are equally vulnerable to attacks from malicious hackers and phishes (Gharaibeh et al., 2017). Routers are susceptible to attacks from XSS injection and framing which enables the attacker to detect the physical location of the router and thereby utilizing the data from there to use in malicious activities like terrorism or other criminal acts (Gharaibeh et al., 2017).

There are seven ways in which routers are vulnerable to attackers as stated by researchers like Gourdin and Boneh. The first step involves fingerprinting the browser used by the behaviour. The lacks or misses in any web-browser, therefore, needs to be removed in order to prevent routers from being framed and attacked by location tracking (Rydstedt, Gourdin, Bursztein & Boneh, 2010). The methods used by attackers are advanced and they are less identifiable therefore, browsers, servers as well as computing devices need to have a foolproof defence mechanism to protect their privacy from being leaked out. Scanning the LAN, authenticating its password and type of key, and then logging in to the router forms the second, third and fourth steps by which the router is attacked (Wang & An, 2018).

In the fifth step, the XSS payload is injected into the router which frames it. The sixth step involves extracting the wifi address and MAC code and the last step involves the geo-localization of the router via Mozilla's location finding protocol. Improving security patches, disabling the UPNP component, introducing a web conscious socket can help in preventing such attacks. Modern browsers use updated flash versions that have a web service API that protects routers from getting geo-localized and tap jacked (Wang & An, 2018).

Key results

The key results from the overall research article state that there were certain bugs which rendered android and iPhones to tap-jacking attacks. It was also observed by a researcher named Stamm that routers can give way to cross-site forgeries which can result in the hacking of a home or office network. It was also observed that such vulnerabilities were more or less removed from modern routers which have improved security and frame busting key. The most trusted technique to detect the user's login was measured by a method known as the ‘framing leak' attack. Also known as a timing attack, these kinds of attacks interfere with a router's authentication.

Nevertheless, the problem in router arises because of the same origin policy which does not tell in real whether a user has been authenticated successfully. Routers using web forms are susceptible to attacks from cross-site request forgery. In the case of geolocation, once the attacker has any IP and MAC address, even Mozilla's protocol can be used for identifying the location of any user's computing or mobile device. To protect mobile and computing devices from getting location attacked, the geo-tagging option should be kept off. Users should keep in mind to not share their location over public networks as well as with unknown and doubtful applications.

Summary and conclusions

This paper reflects a noteworthy susceptibility in Smartphone websites that is effortlessly resolved by counting frame busting technique in these websites. Smartphone and systems that are not implemented with frame busting are in a serious position of vulnerability and malicious activities on the sites. The Internet is the most popular mode of business and communication is in high risks of security these days. The business owners and the site owners should ensure their sites are well encrypted and protected so that external hackers cannot access their sites in any way. In the paper above we have elaborated the threats of tap-jacking and its consequences on the websites and Smartphone with today's technology (Wang & An, 2018).

It can be said from the above discussion that frame busting is highly recommended to the websites for better protection and avoid iframing of the sites. The discussion showed that while this protection may avoid conventional click jacking, it can cause publicity of personal user information. Traditional frame busting where applicable is better to use to prevent frames rendering in several sub frames thus preventing click jacking. The paper also reflects that frame rendering can result in WIFI WPA key insecurities. The hackers use the frame lining and the XSS to access to the router WPA personal key as well which enables to easily access to the whole network and misuse it in the worst possible ways (Alepis & Patsakis, 2017).

The methods highlighted above in the shows what approaches are essential and how the website owners should implement the steps for better protection strategy. The effect of Geo-location is included to show how GPS enabled Smartphone are in a vulnerable position of threats and securities. The Geo-location allows the hackers to find the victim's location and steal the information based on that location and contents are stolen easily.

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