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What are the software quality problems in requirement engineering and proposed solutions?

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Introduction:

Our research proposal has tried to find the problems related to equality of software in engineering. Good quality of software is an essential part of engineering. A lot of data, plans, programs are working together to operate a particular function is known as a software. In engineering software is the most important and essential element and it is used to do many operations and functions. Poor quality of software can crate difficulties to complete a project and create many other problems even after completing a task. Effective quality of software makes easy to assess and collect data at the same time software with poor quality may provide insufficient data and information (Akbar et al., 2019). Some important functions of software are monitoring, allocating, data collecting, that is an essential part of engineering. Many projects related to engineering may fail for the poor quality of software. Nowadays, engineers face many difficulties and challenges because of these poor qualities of software. Good quality of software with sufficient features provides better opportunity to the engineers to give effective performance.

The purpose of our research is analyzing the present quality of software, identifying the reason of the poor quality and find solution. Poor quality of software is some time predictable and sometimes unpredictable. Many causes are there behind the poor quality of software and sometimes the causes are known by the authority. The poor quality of software can control by knowing the root cause. But sometimes it is difficult to find the cause by the engineers or the authority (Ali & Hong, 2019). Our proposal has tried to find the root cause and provide solution that will help the engineers to perform functions with proper and accurate manner without fail.

Background of the study:

Software has become an integral part for any organization and especially for engineers to perform a task. Software with good quality help to perform a function in a proper manner within given period, on the other hand software with poor quality can act as a curse to the engineers. Poor quality of software can be a cause of inaccurate results. Sometimes, it provides inaccurate information for the calculations that may lead to a company in a huge loss. Through the study and research, we are trying to find the main causes behind the ineffective and insufficient quality of software. We discussed several reasons behind the bad quality of software and tried to give proper solution to make effective quality of software and develop the quality of the existing software.

Aim of the research:

The aim of the research is to critically identify the root cause of the poor quality of software and provide effective solution of this problem.

Research objectives:

The objectives of the study are as follows:


- To investigate the present situation of the software.


- Identifying the root cause of the poor quality of software.


- To analyze the factors that has influence over the quality of software.


- Find the factors that can help to improve software qualities.


- To recommend some effective solution that of that problem.


Research questions:


The questions of the study are as follows:


What is the present situation of the software?


What are the factors those have influenced over the quality of the software?


What are the root causes behind software poor quality?


What are difficulties that faces by the engineers due to poor quality of software?


What are the solutions that can help to improve the quality of software?

Literature Review:


Literature review is the process of discussing and evaluation of previous research. It is a way of providing summary of a research of particular area or topic.


Analyzing major causes of poor software quality:


The quality of software depends upon several factors are listed below:


Absence of technical knowledge: As per Braude & Bernstein, (2016), most of the software designers have enough knowledge related to technology and languages but many business applications uses complex languages related to management of data, company logic, and boundary and these companies may use archaic languages to interact with middleware. But only designers understand all these technical languages. Absence of these technical knowledge and languages is an effective reason behind poor quality of software.


Critical planning of software: According to Femmer et al., (2017), a number of software involves in enhancing or shifting existing code. Companies spent their most of the time on developing the existing software rather than to find what is happening in the code. Complex has negative impacts and may show numerical mistakes. Using complex code is time taking and expensive too. Because of some defects in the software projects take more time to complete and sometimes it may cause of rework.


Lack of field knowledge: one of the greater reasons behind poor quality of software is designers do not have efficient knowledge about the business field and their applications are not efficient for that proper business function like retail, banking, etc. through the designers learning from the faults but sometime these faults makes the functions time taking and costly. Software with inefficient features is not able to measure or calculate accurately within specific time (Fernández et al., 2017).


Poor procurement practices: Fitzgerald & Stol, (2017) says that, many companies outsourced software from other large companies that may create difficulties to maintain the terms and conditions of that particular software. Deficiency of knowledge of the buying organization creates many difficulties for the engineers. For many causes CMMI levels are not always providing software with efficient qualities, and sometimes the buying organizations are not mentioned required quality targets for their function and task. These organizational faults are another important cause of poor quality of software.


Unrealistic schedule: When the developers are in pressure, they may do mistakes and they spend less time to identifying the faults within the software. An effective and enough quality of software can be developed by giving proper time and focus on it. If the makers are not in free mind, they will not able to design useful software. Planning, controlling, problem identification are the necessary factors that require developing proper effective software. Sometimes, because of the unrealistic schedule of the developers, engineers face many difficulties. Management requires maintaining their schedule and providing better quality within the budget (Laplante, 2017).


Absence Quality testing: Sometime after purchasing software companies do not test or check whether it has enough qualities or not, this may cause of poor performance and create hitches for the engineers of measuring or calculating tasks. Sometime the first priority of the makers is outcomes or the profit. They need to test the quality at each and every step rather than focusing on the outcome.
Absence of risk register: Risk register is a tool that measures and reduces the tools. Because of absence of this tool it becomes difficult to identify the errors and get proper solution. Risk register gives rank to the error based on their significance. Without this tool it is difficult to recognize the gravity of the error (Zhi et al., 2015).


Software errors: The reason of software error is the poor quality of software. It is important for the companies to identify the reason of these errors and prevent them. But many times, the developers do not focus on the errors.


Lack of planning: Management with lack of planning and procedures are not able to maintain the uses of software in appropriate way. Deficiency of proper technical and managerial team is also the reason of poor quality of software (Leach, 2016).
Absence of long run strategy: another reason of bad and insufficient quality of software is absence of long run strategy and goal. Often, the companies that have a short-term objective acquire the software with lesser fulfillment of their needs. Hence, they must try to acquire the long-term requirements.


Lack of motivations: Many times, it is seen that the developers of software are not motivated for their performance and innovations. Lack of motivation and appreciation is one of the major causes of bad quality of software. For the lack of appreciation, makers lose their interest to provide better quality. Sometimes makers are demoralized b

y the authority and other companies (Maalej et al., 2015).


Possible solution and proposing ways to minimize the problems:


There are many ways and solutions are available to develop poor quality of software, are listed below:

Proper schedule: Developer has to spent proper time for planning, designing software. After making software they have to test and apply changes if required. Developer has to prepare the software in an appropriate way (Wang et al., 2016). Proper schedule help to improve the quality of software effectively. By using accurate planning and proper timing developer can make proper software and they can develop the previous software for improve the features.

Continuous testing of software: regularly testing of software is an essential part of improving the quality of software. Testing at a beginning stage will help to identifying the defaults and other issues related to that. Sometimes defects can be a cause of huge expenses and take time taking. It is better to identifying the faults and errors at an early stage to reduce the time and expenses. By identifying the errors at an early stage, they have a chance to improve the quality and solve the errors before it growing up (Manotas et al., 2016).
Testing a software need attention and focus at a early stage. Software need to use right testing process at a right stage for proper development. Developers start the testing of software at an initial stage with automating non-UI tests after that gradually growing the coverage to the tests of UI based. At this time a company needs to communicate with the developers to check the quality and development of the software. These processes help to develop the quality of the overall product.

Encourage innovation and innovators: Besides the testing of the quality of software there should be always a place for innovation and generate new ideas. Innovation is the way to improve the quality, provide new technologies and motivate the developers. Beside this organizations need to motivate developers to research on the features which is required. Innovation helps to explore, conduct experiment and enhance the reach. Innovation and experiments should always reward to encourage developers towards providing better and affective quality of software (Mao et al., 2017).

Proper communication: Communication has a great impact of the success of any personal of business deal. For improving the quality of software, it is important to have a proper communication between the parties related to that project. Parties should pass all the required information among them. Proper communication has many forms. For the business parties it is important to place all the team members at a same place. All business parties have the opportunity to give feedback to each other regarding their performance and expectations (Nagappan & Shihab, 2016). They need to keep all the stakeholders in a same place because separation may cause the delaying of the project or may not meet the expectations within proper time.

Implementation the control of quality from the early stage: The process of quality control needs to starts from the early stage until the project in being completed and delivered. Software strategy of a project can be developing by maintaining a good relationship between makers and testers. It helps to identifying the effectiveness at every stage.

Plans for variable environment: As per Ouhbi et al., (2015), software is implemented continuously and has several variables. Software has several external factors to continuous monitoring, check and operating. Some examples of these external factors are system, hardware, browsers. External factors provide support and software are partially dependent on these factors. It helps to test software quality at every stage and measure their progress. It allows preventing software discord and maintaining effective quality of software.

Quality assurance: it is important to understand the impact of quality testing of software at the initial stage. Developers have to give the assurance of the software quality throughout the developing process of software. After applying an element, they have to repeat resting. Tested after adding every layer helps to identifying the results of each element and it also reduce time of completing a project.

Attitude towards projects: Prepare a project for the purpose of outcomes may not help to create an effective quality. Team need to work with the goal of contribute their best towards their projects and products. If teams give focus to the outcomes before focusing on the quality will not able to give proper results. Team with clear focus towards the quality and have aim to provide effective software are able to stand and fulfill the need. With the help of focus on the small progresses before focusing on the final or entire project team is able to deliver effective and efficient software (Schön et al., 2017).

Risk register: Risk register is an effective tool to reduce and manage risk. Risk register is an important tool to develop software. Risk register helps everyone to united with a software project, helps to recognize risks and asses them to deliver project within given time. A risk register has to:

- Understand and identifying risks impacts.


- Help to identify a risk.


- Identify the cause of risks.


- Helps to measure impacts of risk.


- Rank the risks based on their gravity.


Long run strategy: when strategies are made based on long run aim and goal, the requirements of software quality automatically improved. There are many benefits and positive impacts of long run strategy on software quality are mentioned below:

- Long term strategy helps to eliminate redundant faults.


- It gives importance to the designing and ensuring the quality of software.


- It allows you in creativity and innovative designs and functions of software to achieve long run strategy and goal.


- It allows all the team members to give priority to the software quality (Shah and Jinwala, 2015).


Proper outline to deliver projects: A brief and proper idea about the delivering projects helps to ensure the quality and outcomes. Many things like resources, time and budget are associated with the delivering of a quality project. Without proper idea about resources and requirements sometimes they adopt shortcuts to complete the project within deadline. Eventually this is the compromising whit the qualities. For proper quality product it is necessary to have clear outline about the project.

Review, modify, and memorize: For better quality an organization should adopt three things are listed below:

Review: review is the process of testing the software to ensure the quality. It provides the information about the fulfilling of standards, and help to identify the errors.

Modify: At this stage we revise the functions that performed throughout the process of preparing software. Analyze and understand the area of utilization to improve the software quality.

Memorize: It is important to remember what performed well what did not. They need to keep the records of both the positive and negative feedback of the project and use same process for the next project.

Proposed inspection plan for improve quality:

With the help of the study and research we are proposing a plan of inspection to improve the quality is listed below:
Make a team for inspection: The stage consists of three to six people with the clear idea about their functions that is arbitrate, maker, recorder, reader, and assessor.

Planning stage: at this stage the arbitrator selects an inspector in the company from different functions. The inspector assesses the software at this stage on the other hand they identify specific works. It is very important to select all the elements for conduct the process of inspection properly. Before conducting the process of inspection, they need to adopt a training process for inspection.

Preparation phase: This is the phase where the meeting for inspection is prepared for the review the product sand quality. First, they need to prepare the resources to distribute among the inspection team members. After getting the materials they, each member of the team needs to be ready for the inspection meeting. The final step of this phase is conducting a formal meeting of inspection (Tsui et al., 2016).
Inspection meeting: the main objective of this meeting is to recognize all errors and faults in the documents compared to the papers of SRS. After o preparation phase the arbitrator conduct the inspection meeting. In this meeting members discusses every errors and faults and they try to find the possible solution. They keep the record of each problem.

Recorders give the surety that all the recorded problems are accurate and proper. The decussating of the team is reflected by the recorded defaults. The duration of the meeting is recorded by the recorder (Vale et al., 2016). The finishing time of the meeting is decided by the arbitrator.

Conclusion:

Based on the research and investigation I come to a conclusion that software is an indispensable part for the engineers to perform a task. But now a days it is seen that developer make poor quality of software for several reasons. The main cause behind the poor quality of software are lack of knowledge, less focus, less priority, lack of information, absence of proper communication, lock of information about requirements.

Throughout the research it is found that there are several and effective ways are available to get effective quality of software. These steps also help to improve the quality of existing software. These steps are proper communication between the parties, give focus and required time to the project. Developers need to give first priority to the quality rather than the outcomes and profit. Quality can be improved by rewarding the efforts of developers, their new ideas and innovations. Through rewarding and appreciating developers get motivation to make software that help to solve critical calculations.

Software with effective quality able to perform critical calculations, measures data and provide appropriate Information. Use of the poor quality of software may create difficulties in calculations, takes more time to complete a task and sometimes it provides wrong calculations also. Good quality of software makes the task easy to perform, take less time and give proper information and solution. By following and adopting above mentioned ways or steps an organization can provide better quality of software to their engineers.

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