Leadership in Healthcare
The significance of leadership aids healthcare and nursing establishments to achieve goals with effective business strategies and meet the needs of potential care users. This essay aims to highlight an incident including the potencies of multi-disciplinary teams within the healthcare organisation. It also explains the outcomes of the staff and care-users inculcating both optimistic and pessimistic aspects. Additionally, recommendations about different leadership approaches and models are provided for enhancing the outcomes of the incident after highlighting the inadequacies of the leaders of the healthcare unit.
Identification of an incident
During the disruption of Covid-19, several healthcare units were on emergency duty for providing efficient care support to the people affected by the novel coronavirus. After the spread of novel coronavirus, the healthcare professionals were required to provide 24*7 care facilities for minimising the after-effect of getting infected by the virus (Umer, Haji &Zafar, 2020). In this period, the health workers were required to work as a team and leaders were required to make effectual decisions for ensuring better treatment outcomes. However, it has been analysed that instead of prime treatment facilities, the healthcare professionals were unable to stabilise the health condition of the infected people. It is noticed that till August 2020, approximately 682 people have died throughout Australia due to the pandemic (Abs.gov.au, 2020). Majority of the infected people were having respiratory issues. Despite this, it is realised that individuals having various health problems with lower immunity were getting infected. From the health outcome, it is analysed that the treatment decisions of the healthcare leaders were inadequate. Alongside, the nurses were unable to attain adequate instructions from their hierarchies which resulted in a gap in the provision of efficacious treatment.
The gap in the knowledge was because the healthcare leaders were unaware of the chemical alignment of the molecules of the novel coronavirus. It is learnt from the work of Omolade & Babajide(2020) that whenever the scientists tried an antidote, the chemical structure of the species transformed. In this regard, it can be stated that the healthcare leaders in Australia need to heighten their skills and knowledge in facilitating effectual treatment amenities during the situation like the pandemic.
Analysis of the leadership approaches
Corresponding to the above-mentioned points, it can be mentioned that instead, the health status of common people was unable to control by the healthcare professionals in Australia, positive treatment aspects are discovered gradually. Initially, common people were getting fear of spreading the novel coronavirus; however, after few months of the disruption, people acquired a sense of realisation that home-made precautions can help in the effective treatment of the disease (Joensen et al., 2020). Alongside, the healthcare leaders also required to guide people with measures to achieve effectual health outcome. Considering the lack of skills and knowledge of healthcare leaders from the aforementioned case, various recommendations can be made to improve the treatment facilitation to care users. In this respect, one of the best leadership approaches is transformational leadership which corresponds to relationship theory and aids to effectual development of relationship among the team with that of the leaders (Anne et al., 2016). Concerning this, Hulett(2016) cited that transformational leadership inspires and encourages their teammates for achieving goals through their passion and enthusiasm. Relating to this it can be mentioned that the leaders in different healthcare units might employ a transformational leadership approach to integrate their care support activities during the pandemic. This might have helped in enhancing the provisioning of better healthcare facilities to residents of the nation. Besides this, the healthcare leaders might have acquired optimistic health outcomes after providing quality treatment to the infected people; thereby minimising the rate of deaths in the nation.
Alternate approaches and leadership models
Another leadership model is situational leadership which help leaders to adopt leadership styles corresponding to the situation. Contrastingly, Alper, Jasmijn & Herman Van den(2018) argued that the best leaders are the one who can adapt their leadership styles depending on respective situations. There is a variety of methods through which a leader might respond to a particular situation like coaching, persuading, participating and commanding. In this regard, it can be mentioned that implementation of situational leadership model can help the healthcare leaders to become flexible to different situations. Correspondingly, it can be said that employment of this theory might have helped the healthcare leaders to make effectual treatment decisions for the situation of a pandemic. The infected people might have acquired adequate care services during their requirement and survived for a long time. Relating to the leadership theoretical approaches, it can also be added that the healthcare leaders can take adequate precaution for limiting the spread of the virus. It is analysed from the case that leaders were inefficient in making treatment decisions and delegating responsibilities to the healthcare professionals about the same. Due to this, several people lost their lives because most of the healthcare leaders were not aware of the impact of the novel coronavirus. This is because the molecular alignment of the virus was changing with every dose of medicine. Therefore, it was necessary to develop adequate treatment measures for enhancing health and staff outcomes.
Main areas of improvement
Concerning the recommended leadership models, it can be cited that the healthcare leaders would be able to develop their knowledge for fighting back different types of situations. Alongside, they can train their co-worker and other healthcare professionals under their supervision with a variety of treatment services and facilities. The lack of decision-making capabilities of the leaders would also be improved with the assistance of the aforementioned leadership models. This can further help the healthcare leaders in enhancing their leadership skills for tackling critical situations like the pandemic in future. In this regard, knowledge about transformational leadership approach, the healthcare leaders can acquire knowledge about the 4 I's involved like "idealised influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation and individual consideration". In the perception of Sara, Sharon & O'Connor(2017), transformational leadership aids the leaders to enhance the awareness of their subordinate members about the right and wrong aspects. Additionally, it is believed that transformational leaders attain the most satisfied teammates compared to other leadership models. Relating to this, it can be added that healthcare leaders would be able to acknowledge their teammates about the consequences of poor treatment services.
Considering the benefits of transformational leadership approach, it can be cited that the healthcare leaders would be able to make their subordinate members aware of the different possible situations including the pandemic. The subordinate health professionals would also be provided with effectual training services and assessing personal performance in facilitating quality treatment. In this regard, it can be stated that the healthcare leaders would be able to inspire the healthcare professionals of their respective healthcare units and ensure to contribute effective efforts in making adequate decisions for serving care users during critical situations. As an instance, if the healthcare leaders have employed the transformational approach then their followers might have acquired adequate knowledge about the treatment services to be provided to the common people during this pandemic. Apart from this, the implementation of the situational leadership approach might have assisted the leaders to make quality decisions for treating coronavirus infected patients.
The research work of Tartariet al. (2021) predicted situational leadership to be one of the practical tools for leading teams during critical situations. This leadership model helps in making a decision based on the existing performance level of respective team members. It is believed that situational leadership help in defining task behaviour and relationship behaviour of leaders depending on differentiated situations. In this regard, it can be stated that healthcare leaders would be able to maintain an effectual relationship with their teammates by getting acknowledged about the level of relationshipduring tasks and other aspects through situational leadership model. Hence, it can be mentioned that healthcare leaders might incorporate both transformational and situational leadership models for enhancing their care support facilities to ensure quality care outcomes during situations like the pandemic.
Corresponding to the leadership model, it can also be suggested that healthcare leaders might produce a team with efficient healthcare workers and delegate their responsibilities. As per the theoretical work of Lone, Susanne & Bettina(2020), teams to come up with efficient work results, they need to contribute equivalent efforts. However, for this, healthcare leaders might implement Tuckman's group development theory. The theory of Tuckman's comprises of five stages; they are "forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning" (Rojhani, 2016). During the forming stage, the requirement of the team is realized and teams are formed with the assistance of different individuals. Consistently, in the storming stage, evaluation of the performance efficacies of different team members is identified and conflicts might arise due to inadequacies among the opinion of different members (Christofer, Per & Per Anders, 2017). Besides this, in the norming stage, conflicts are resolved and team members work efficiently for attaining productive results. Steadily, in the performing phase, a level of cooperation is developed among the team members for undertaking work efficiently and attaining appropriate results. After this, in the adjourning stage, the majority of the team goals are accomplished and older members might be replaced with the new ones.
Proposed change management strategy
Emphasising on the team development prospect, it can be stated that healthcare leaders might follow the stages of Tuckman's theory for forming their team and develop a team of productive healthcare professionals. This might have helped in producing standard decision for treating individuals affected with the novel coronavirus. After forming the team, the healthcare leaders need to implement change management prospect for acquiring improve health outcomes during similar situations in future. The healthcare leaders might implement the ADKAR model of change for facilitating modifications in their management of care services. In the views of Julie, Elizabeth & Vicki(2020), ADKAR model aids the leaders of healthcare units to attain goals of acquiring optimistic health outcomes. It is assumed that the leaders of the healthcare unit would be able to provide efficient healthcare treatment facilities to the infected people after adequate employment of ADKAR change management model.
The ADKAR model of change comprises of five aspects that individuals are required to achieve for enduring the change, they are, "awareness, desire, knowledge, ability and reinforcement" (Julie, Elizabeth & Vicki, 2020). Awareness would allow the leaders to acknowledge their team members about the requirement of change and desire would assist in supporting the change. The context of knowledge would help the healthcare leaders in getting acknowledged about the methods of implementing change about the techniques of provisioning care support services. The aspect of ability would help the healthcare leaders to enhance their skills, behaviour and knowledge about the changing techniques to be implemented. This thereby assists the healthcare leaders to support their teammates for undertaking the modified techniques for acquiring better care outcomes.Apart from this, reinforcement activities are also required to be employed by the healthcare leaders for ensuring that their followers stick to the modified care supporting techniques. In this regard, it can be mentioned that the ADKAR change management model is one of the effectual tools for planning change management within healthcare units for supporting the care needs of infected people during this pandemic.
The change management model of ADKAR emphasises on human resources which are considered to be one of the major concerns for healthcare leaders in protecting their care users. In the views of Syeda Asiya Zenab, K. & Marja(2018), ADKAR model helps organisational leaders to make their people understand the requirement and cause of change. Alongside, with this, the leaders can enhance the motivation of its people for provisioning effectual care facilities to individuals affected with Covid-19. During the pandemic situation, healthcare professionals including the leaders were losing hope because they were unable to cure the infection; neither was able to develop effective care strategy for offering common people with care support services. However, it has been analysed from news reports that people are getting affected twice due to coronavirus (Senanayake, 2021). This is because there are people with low immunity and are unable to form antibodies at the initial stage. Instead, there is a high probability that people might get infected with the novel coronavirus twice due to low immunity and their blood cells might not recognise the virus the next time. This is considered to be a rare case. Despite this, healthcare leaders need to ensure that their team of healthcare professionals are aware of the next wave of Covid-19 among some people who have already been diagnosed positive once.
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Considering the above-mentioned situation, healthcare leaders need to make their subordinate healthcare professionals aware of the same. For this, new treatment procedures are to be devised by the leaders such that the probability of the next wave of Covid-19 can be avoided. Correspondingly, it can be mentioned that with the effectual implementation of the aforementioned leadership approaches, team development approach and change management model, the healthcare leaders can enhance the care support services. Alongside, it can also be recommended to the healthcare leaders to perform self-evaluation to get acknowledged about their potencies and inadequacies. Respectively, it is learnt that with self-evaluation procedures, an awareness of personal shortfalls is determined (Cyrille et al., 2021). Based on this, it can be added that the healthcare leaders need to improve on decision-making, team development and time management skills. It can also be suggested that the healthcare leaders need to acquire adaptability characteristics for aligning their activities corresponding to the existing situation. Besides this, widened knowledge of pandemic aspects is to be attained by the leaders for developing productive treatment procedures for preserving the lives of common people. This can help the healthcare leaders in attaining adequate outcomes of their care services and gain recognition for their work.
This study concludes that healthcare leaders play an important role in enhancing the health of their care users with effectual care services. It develops a case where healthcare leaders of different healthcare unit were unable to make an efficient decision for their care users during the situation like the pandemic. It deduced that lack of skills and knowledge of healthcare leaders, efficacious decisions in regards to coronavirus were unable to beproduced. This resulted in an increased rate of death cases from the pandemic. In this regard, the study recommended the healthcare leaders to adopt transformational and situational leadership approaches for undertaking effectual care facilitation among the care users during this pandemic. It is also deduced that employing transformational leadership theory, the healthcare leaders would be able to enhance their capabilities to integrate team members and make effectual decisions regarding the best care support services. Alongside, the study inferred that situational leadership model can help the healthcare leaders to make decisions corresponding to the respective situation to come up with optimistic outcomes. Apart from this, recommendations for developing healthcare team through Tuckman's group development approach are also included for enhancing the quality of health outcomes.
Correspondingly, the study deduced that with ADKAR change management model, the healthcare leaders can undertake required change within their respective healthcare units. With this, the healthcare leaders might control similar situations in future. Furthermore, the study also provided several professional skills that the healthcare leaders need to improve to offer their care users with quality treatment facilities in future.
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