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Influenza And Epidemiology


Introduction: Influenza is commonly knowns as flu, it is an infectious disease and will be caused by influenza virus. There will be spectrum of symptoms for the disease, which will include high fever, runny nose, sore throat, muscle pain, headache, counging as well as sneezing and tiresomeness. Normally it will take about 48hours or more for the infected to display the symptoms. Once after symptoms are exposed the disease will continue to exist for more than two weeks of time later on. Children will face a variety of diseases like diarrhea and vomiting(Kuehn,2006), however they are not very common in adults. Sometimes, the already existing health ailmnets in the infected like asthama and heart failures will get worsended after getting affected with Influenza disease. The following part of the write-up will discuss about the characteristics of the disease, the social determinants, epidemiological triangle etc. Also there is discussion on the role of the community health nurses in handling the disease, agencies working for the resolving the impact of the disease and finally implications of the disease on global perspective are presented here in the report. The coverage included in detail the characteristics of the disease, the factors that contribute to the spread of the disease, the transmission mode etc. Social determinants of the disease like health disparities, educational disparities, social economic differences and the implications of the same in limiting the spread of the disease is detailed in the report. Demographic data typical statistical data in terms of the morbidity rate in United States for this disease in the recent years provided here in the report. Also there is detailed focus on the aspects like epidemiological triangle, health care nurses role in preventing the disease and global implications of the influenza with respect to diverse countries and cultures presented in the discussion(CDC,2011).

Question 1: Describe the chosen communicable disease, including causes, symptoms, mode of transmission, complications, treatment, and the demographic of interest (mortality, morbidity, incidence, and prevalence). Is this a reportable disease? If so, provide details about reporting time, whom to report to, etc.

Answer: Analysis of the disease:

1. Disease: Influenza disease is a contagious respiratory illness and this will be caused by Influenza viruses. These viruses will normally infect the nose, throat and in somecases the lungs of the victim. The consequences of getting effected with Influenza can be from mild to even severe. In extreme cases Influenza can even lead to the death of the individual. The best and very easy way to prevent the disease is to employ Flu vaccine every year(Davlin,2016). This is more important to protect the vulnerable population from the disease more seriously.

2. Symptoms of Flu: Flu symptoms can be from mild to severe and one more of the symptoms can work on to impact the person. Some of the symptoms of the desease will include Fever, cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, body Aches, Head aches, Chills, Fatigue and even diarrhea and vomiting. Some of combination of several of these symptoms may be present in each of these victim case. The condition and consequences of symptoms can range from mild to severe.

3. Mode of Transmission: There are several ways in which the flu disease can spread from the infected person. Mainly when an infected person, coughs, snoozes or talks the droplets from the infected person will fall on the victim noses or mouth and will cause the infection. In certain cases when the victim keeps his hand on the surface containing influenza virus and later if he carries the same to the eyes or the mouth or the nose, the virus will spread causing infection in the person. The age of the target person directly impacts the vulnerability of the disease, children are more prone to the disease than the adults. Also the environemntla conditions will decide the spread of the disease, since these conditions will decide the survivability of the virus. For example virus can survive on particular type of surfaces and particular type of temperature conditions for long time than in normal cases.

4. Complications: The disease will create a number of complications in the person infected with the disease. Some of the most commonly seen infections in the person include bacterial pneumonia, ear infections, sinus infections and if they are already having some medical problems, they will get more severe. Normally congestive heart failures, asthama and in some cases diabetes will become more severe with the impact of this infection.

5. Treatment: Influenza is a treatable disease, when a person is infected with influenza, he can be provided with antiviral treatment in terms of either pills, liquid, anti venous drugs etc. There are variety of drugs available for this purpose, some of the most commonly employed drugs include Tamiflu, which is oseltamivir phosphate, Relenza which is also called as Zanamivir, Rapivab also called as Peramivir and Xofluza which is trade name for baloxavir marboxil. However still usage of flu vaccine is the best remedy. Demographic of interest

6. Demographic data: As per the recent statistics available for Influenza, the total deaths occurred in the recent years is 2005 and this is equal to about 0.9 deaths for every 1,00,000 population. Morbidity rates of the disease is as high as 10 to 20% during the times of outbreak and it is as high as 50% during the epidemic conditions(Laidlaw,1935). The deaths are higher in the instances fo the patients suffering with the chronic diseases as well in the elder people.

7. Incidence and prevalence: There is no much growth rate of the disease and this will not contribute to the actual prevalence of the disease as the disease is quick curable disease. Hence the mobidity of the disease will just reach the prevalence rate and will stabilize there. The following graph shows how the morbidity of the disease and prevalence of the disease are spread(Simonsen et al.,2009).

Figure 1 Incidence and prevalence of the disease

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8. Influenza and reporting of the disease: yes in most of the states, local and federal governments Influenza is a reportable disease, the implications of the disease will be reported to CDC. But the specific directives related to the type of implications of influenza that need to be reported to CDC will vary from state to state. For example in Minnesota, Any resident hospitalized with laboratory-positive influenza will be reported to CDC. Further if there are any deaths occurred due to influenza or any critical illness related to influence is observed, it need to be informed to CDC. Unusual case incidences are other aspects that need to be reported to CDC. Clusters and novel strains do fall in this category of the reporting requirements. Health care service providers are requested to report the disease to MDH. It is requested to report about the case through diverse channels, one can use yellow disesase cards, immunization information connections as well as phone connections to report the disease to the concerned authorities. These observations are to be reported as soons as possible and they will be included in the weekly surveillance reports to take appropriate actions further.


Question 2: Describe the social determinants of health and explain how those factors contribute to the development of this disease.

Answer: Social Determinants of the health: Social determinants of the health are those aspects that do work for spread of the disease in general. They will work as barreris to the immunization programme and will work for the spread of the disease in general. For example barriers like educational differences, race/Ethnicity problems, Socio-economic status differences, Problems in access to the health care services and vaccination outreach problems are some of the several problems that do work as determinants of the health in general. In the case of influenza, the social determinants are working out to restrict the spread of the knowledge of disease, limitng the knowledge about the cure and prevention techniques of the disease. Also other concerns like limitations in access to the vaccination and other supporting equitable social policies are working to limit the spread of the vaccination disease and subsequent outreach of the disease prevention in the country. Limited access to vaccination, disadvantages contained in neighborhood are the key determinants that are working for limiting the prevention of the disease in the country. Further the absence of the sick leave policies in the workplace spreading the disease in the workplace where the victim is working. Also when the schools are closed(Chao et al.,2010), there is limited scope for the infected to get assistance in getting treatment. These are some of the several social determinants working for the spread of the disease in United States of America.

Question 3: Discuss the epidemiologic triangle as it relates to the communicable disease you have selected. Include the host factors, agent factors (presence or absence), and environmental factors. Are there any special considerations or notifications for the community, schools, or general population?

Answer: Epidemiological Triangle: Epidemiological triangle of the disease include variety of factors like host, causative agent as well as environmental factors. The host is the organism that is capable of accepting and developing the disease. In the case of the influenza disease the host is the human being, as it is human being that will be finally get impacted wih the virus. Secondly the causative factor that will create the disease is the microbe or the bacteria that will create the disease spread. In the case of Influencza there three different type of viruses causing three different type fo flus viz.., Type A, Type B and Type C type of Flus. Also a particular type of Influenza H1N1 is cuased by the cuastive factors of rapid mutation of the viruses. Environment for the spread of the disease include overcrowded areas, ineffective usage of the policies and also the insufficient seasoning factors. A special consideration is always there for community gatherings, schools and general population gatherings, since such crowded places will catalyzes the spread of the disease more. People will get the disease more easily when they are present in such locations as the susceptibility to receive the virus is more in these locations.

Question 4: Explain the role of the community health nurse (case finding, reporting, data collection, data analysis, and follow-up) and why demographic data are necessary to the health of the community.

Answer: Role of the community health care nurses: Community health care nurses has a greater role to play in the context of the restricting the spread of the influenza disease. Community health care nurses will work on to restrict the spread of the disease by providing the necessary health care prevention knowledge to the people, they will provide the necessary vaccines to the vulnerable population. Apart from these aspects community health care nurses will also work for the monitoring and analyze the influenza cases, whose observations can work on to provide the necessary inputs for taking appropriate measures to restrict the spread of the Influenza disease in the regions. When effective medical care coupled with decent adaptable environement is provided there is good scope for the community health care nurses to deliver their duties more effectively to meet the objectives of restricting the disease spread.


Question 5: Identify at least one national agency or organization that addresses the communicable disease chosen and describe how the organizations contribute to resolving or reducing the impact of disease.

Answer: National Agencies or organizations working for addressing the communicable diseases: Several nations through out the world identified Influenza as one of the serious diseases that need to be curbed of its spread. The high mortality rate of the disease is one of the serious concerns of the disease and has resulted in serious concerns of the same from variety of organizations through out. World health organization is working continuously for the surveillance and Response auditing. Other organizations like American Lung Association, Center for disease control and prevention do work on to prevent the spread of the Influenza and are working for limitng the disease. There are several partners for all these organizations and all of them together working for strengthening possibilities of the immunization network and also there is sufficient scope of monitoring and continuous surveillance of the same(Swayne,2009).

Question 6: Discuss a global implication of the disease. How is this addressed in other countries or cultures? Is this disease endemic to a particular area? Provide an example.

Answer: Global impliciations of the disease: Influenza is very serious disease and it has serious implications in multiple aspects. One of the most common feature of the disease is the economic implication of the diseae. When Flu epidemic breaks out, there will be serious economic burden to the government. High prices of the hospitalizations, expenses for the medicine, transport, doctors and health care workers costs all will add upto the disease expenses in general. Finally the cost of the disease and the implications of the disease are quite higher. United states is spending billions of dollars every time, the epidemic breaks out. However the implicatios of the disease are too higher in other emerging and developing countries. In united States the direct implications of the disease are in the form of the loss of productivity as well in the form of the huge losses experienced in the form of expenses spent for the sake of prevention of the disease. Also the associated medical expenses makes up important pandemic economical impact in the country. The death toll in the emerging economy countries is more likely to be higher, one of the key reasons for such occurrence is the fact that the availability of the pharmaceuticals and other related medicine like vaccinations do not happen as free as they do happen in developed countries. Lack of economical strength and medical infrastructure is one of the reasons for serious implications of the disease in all the developing and emerging nations in the world. Influenza is not an endemic that is limited to one particular region or locality, it is equally spread to all the regions in the globe and its instances are seen from a very long history to the recent times, for example, the farthest locations of the planet like arctic and pacific islands to have witenesses the impact of the disease. As such there is no any geographical barriers exist at present for Influenza and prevention is the only strategy to mitigate the disease. Mitigation is possible only when there is proper planning undertaken, strengthening the core competencies along with possible international collaboration is all that is possible at present to restrict the unwanted global implications of the disease at present(Thomson et al.,2009).

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