Forensics Report, Charles Sturt University, Australia
ITC597 Digital Forensics
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Task 1: Recovering scrambled bits
Describe the process used in restoring the scrambled bits and insert plain text in the assignment.
Answer: In regard to recovering the scrambled bits, the first place will be to conduct and analysis of most of the common texts in the file which will range between 0X20 (space). As being there will be a few occurrences of 0x2E 0xOD ( period +CR+LF) if which when one creates and takes a look at the histogram it is possible to see the set part space where most peaks are going to be between )x61 i.e 97 and 0x7A or 122. Also to add on the above, the actual ‘scrambled bits' it will be possible, for one to realize some anomalies like the sequence occurrences of three similar codes of say 9F9F9F or 1111111, or symbols which it most cases it does not usually happen in properly formatted or written text. In this regard thus, there will be a lot of need to justify or it could be a hit on the use of a form of scrambling, encoding, or any other form of algorithm which is not a simple code shift, or the type of modification in regard to the single bite level(Kshetri, 2013).
Task 2: Digital Forensics Report
Prepare a digital forensic report for the given scenario.
Answer: One of the biggest phenomenon that has continued to have a huge impact in the modern society specifically when looking at the application of the modern computer technology is the increasing application of computer crime. In this includes aspect that have made Thtransfer of information much easier for many. This also includes illegal activities which makes it easier for people to commit crime. With the new technologies, there are worldwide offers in regard to communication since everything is not digitized and can be accessed online (Kshetri, 2013). From reviewing bank statement, sharing of files, transferring of files and other details without having to be physically there.
However, as has been found these advantages have also come with legal and ethical responsibilities for organizations to consider as it exposes a lot of risk to the users. The technology has continued to attract criminals that have come to realize the advantage of using computer networks which they use to commit easy crimes. According to the Arc Sight, Second annual cost of cybercrime study in 2011, they reported that the HP Company, median was able to annualize the cost of cybercrime for criminal organizations to be at about $5.9 million each. This was also a huge increase of up to 56% from its initial study of the previous year(Moskowitz, 2017).
As the companies continue to make use of new technologies further, cybercrimes will also continue to be on the increase. This is because cybercrime is the current era of crime which is not same as the traditional form which was explicitly defined. The following paper will analyze a case study on the legal and ethical process in digital forensics. This is because Th society continues to become more and more dependent on computer technology in addition to various automated systems(Moskowitz, 2017). In respect to the current trend. Somme there are going to be applications and services which can exclusively be conducted through the use of computer technologies and the internet. In this regard to rapid development of information technology to commercial, private and military sector, the issue of cybercrime in the future will continue to lead to a lot of disasters like communication interruption, poor transport communication, stealing of confidential information and other areas. For example in 2000, there was the spread of the I LOVE YOU virus which reportedly spread around the work by propagating among all computers that were using the Microsoft outlook programs(Kshetri, 2010). During several images were destroyed, including music files. The computer operating systems were also modified and major corporations like the Ford car manufacturers and Siemens was highly affected. It is estimated that about 80% of the United States agencies were affected leading to a loss of about 80 billion dollars.
Legal issues: In respect to the case study, the cybercrime is difficult to investigate since the internet provides a possibility for the information to be accessed by any computer from different places in the world. This is usually very possible especially when the system is connected to the internet, meaning cybercrime can be operation from any place. There is usually no political or geographical boundary. For example, the leaking of information like the case study can be spread to a number of emails where sharing of the files makes it more difficult to pin point the offender. The same is done by people who create a virus. It is reported that the Melisa virus of 1999 affect millions of computers at a global scale, this included government, individuals and military services and other hundreds of business using the internet or those that downloaded it through file sharing(Kshetri, 2010).
The detection and prevention of cybercrime and prosecution is also difficult and at times is deemed impossible. Traditionally there was hard evidence which the crime took place like the damaged property or stolen property. However with the growth of cybercrime, on the other hand it becomes a challenge to track this. In this regard, the individual who committed a crime, in most incidents remains anonymous and difficult trace. At times it is completely impossible to find the individual(Kshetri, 2010). This is because a shared file is difficult to track, and many firms may also not have the knowledge about their systemoperations or they may not be aware whether their intellectual property rights have been violated, until they discover it from a third party, of which in most cases this would already be late.
According to a survey that was conducted by Symantec by use of the global intelligence network comprised of 40,000sensors monitoring activity on computer from over 180 countries, it was found that the United States is the most attached country with the highest number with one of the most vulnerable machines by 2005. In this regard, there is need to ensure that the current age of information technology does not allow for criminals to find new ways of conducting crime. The ethical background should thus be there to prevent and fight crime in the most possible ways they can. In the United States for example, the first law that is used in prosecuting cybercrime is the wire fraud statute which does not allow for communication of wires which are utilized in regard to an international commerce or an interstate commerce in regard to committing fraud. However this law also has some serious limitations (Kshetri, 2010). First it directs that not all computer related crimes are going to be prosecuted with it. Also not all computer crimes will be required to use any form of interstate or international wires. In addition, the form of computer crime will also differ from one another and may also not be covered by the Wire fraud states this shows that new laws also need to be created to make it clear on which areas that the law on cybercrime should concentrate on.
There is also another law that was passed by the state government which passed the laws that specifically continued to address cyber and computer crimes. One of the major laws that was passed was the computer fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 for which can be applied in the case study. This is because the law addresses the issue of intellectual property rights. Among other sections of the law is damaging, alternating and destroying of leakage of confidential information and unauthorized use of computers(Garfinkel, 2011). In this regard, the act is the most workable computer statute in the United States because each of the statute that deals with the computer crime will also call for the changes or amendment of the act. For example the law was again modified so that it can dealwith the issue of malicious sharing of information like worms, viruses and other programs that are meant to damage, alter or destroy information in a computer. This is important since the old law does not only focus on the access of confidential information, but should also be able to tell how the information found was used.
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Digital Forensic Investigation Process
In regard to the case study, tracking the digital activity will be very important to allow the principal investigator to connectthe cyber communication and the digitally stored information and come up with physical evidence regarding the main offender of the criminal activity. In this case, the main issue is to investigate the breach of intellectual property rights against Superior Bicycles Inc. by Tom Johnson. Investigation is also good as it uncovers all the premeditated criminal intent thus aid the prevention of the future leakage of the company information by investigators from a thorough and revealing information.
1. Evidence Assessment
In this step, it is necessary that if the Superior Bicycles Inc. Is looking forward to proving that someone has committed crime related to the intellectual property breach, then it will be upon them to make use of sophisticatedmethods to sift through all the Hardrive of the suspecting computers, email accounts to track communication, social media sites, telephone logs and other forms of digital archives(Garfinkel, 2011,). This is because they are the most important areas to look for information and will also be used in providing him most viable evidence regarding the said crime. In regard to the above case study, this will work out fine as they will need to go through the flash disk given to Tom Johnson to prove that the information was retrieved from his flash disk, showing that sharing the file with his cousin engaging in the criminal behavior or breaching the intellectual property right of the company.
2. Evidence Acquisition
When it comes to the issue of evidence acquisition, the investigator will assess policies related to the preservation of potential evidence and integrity preservation where most application. In this regard, there will be general guidelines to be used on the preservation ofevidence which may include the physical removal of flash disc where the information was stored. It will also look at the cloud storage and other boot devices from all the suspecting computers and be able to retrieve all the sensitive data while also ensuring a lot of functionality, coming up with appropriate steps to transfer and copy to the systems investigator("Fighting Cybercrime on a Global Scale," 2002).
To come up with the required evidence the investigate and the legal team has to work together(Moskowitz, 2017). This is important as they will need to document all the soft and hard copy evidence when pursuing a court case, and this is even more important in digital forensics due to the complexity related to the issue of cybercrime and cyber security.
3. Examination of Evidence
This is one of the most important stages in digital forensics as it the investigators are going to work in collaboration with the lawyers, investigators and other qualified individuals to come up with a better understanding of the nuances of the case, in addition to other permissible investigation actions and the types of information to be presented as evidence(Moskowitz, 2017).
4. Reporting of evidence
In regard to what the investigators will found, all actions in respect to the above case will be accounted for in a digital and hard copy format. This will also be properly saved in the archives. As this assures authenticity in the investigation findings thus allowing for the cyber experts to indicate exactly how they were able to recover the evidence.
Conclusion: Given the evidence presented by the law. It was evident that Tom Johnson and the competitive company were guilty of breach of intellectual property rights. For which in the United States would attract a jail term of minimum 3 years. The experts were also able to confirm the validity of evidence as it was traced back to Tom Johnson through the flash disk he was given by the company.
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