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Food Chemistry and Digestion Assignment
Read the background information about separating milk in the first page and a half of the lab handout. Then, perform the actual lab activity to separate milk yourself.
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Q1. What does Iodine test for and what color indicates the strongest positive test?
Answer: Iodine test for checking presence of starch in the given sample. A deep blue color indicates presence of starch in the sample.
Q2. What does the Biuret reagent test for and what color indicates the strongest positive test?
Answer: Biuret reagent is an alkaline blue colored mixture of potassium hydroxide and copper sulfate. It is used for testing presence of protein in a sample, strong positive test results in violate color.
Q3. What does the Benedict reagent test for and what color indicates the strongest positive test?
Answer: Benedict reagent tests for presence of reducing sugar and a strong positive test is indicated by bright orange color of the solution.
Q4. What does the Sudan III stain test for and what color indicates the strongest positive test?
Answer: Sudan III is a fat soluble dye, used for testing presence of lipids and triglycerides. A strong positive test gives red color.
Q5. What would be a good negative control for all of these tests (same for all tests)?
Answer: Double distilled water would be a good negative control for all of these tests.
Q6. What would be a good positive control food for each of these tests (different for each test)?
Answer: Iodine test- lemon juice
Biuret reagent test- BSA solution
Benedict reagent test- glucose solution
Sudan III stain test- vegetable oil
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Q7. Why do we use a negative control?
Answer: To check whether the reagent used gives false positive result of not.
Q8. Why do we use a positive control?
Answer: To check whether the reagent used gives false negative result of not.
Circle the correct answer/answers or leave blank if no correct answers:
Q9. Is there sugar in whole milk? yes no
Q10. When you separate milk into whey and curds, where is the sugar? whey curds
Q11. Is there starch in whole milk? yes no
Q12. When you separate milk into whey and curds, where is the starch? whey curds
Answer: Starch is plant carbohydrate which is absent in milk, so it will neither be found in whey nor in curd.
Q13. Are there lipids in whole milk? yes no
Q14. When you separate milk into whey and curds, where are the lipids? whey curds
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Q15. Is there protein in whole milk? yes no
Q16. When you separate milk into whey and curds, where is the protein? whey curds
Answer: both whey and curd
Q17. Which contains more protein? whey curds
Q18. Which of the 4 macromolecules are found in whole milk?
Answer: 1) Lactose, 2) monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) & polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), 3) Casein and whey proteins, 4) Enzymes like Lactoperoxidase, 5) Vitamins
Q19. Which of the 4 macromolecules are found in cheese?
Answer: 1) monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) & polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), 2) proteins, 3) Enzymes, and 4) Vitamins
Q20. Traditionally, whey was considered a waste product of cheese production, although farmers would often feed it to their pigs. Search the internet and list a few ways whey is used now so that it isn't wasted.
Answer: 1) Fruit juice additive to enhance the nutritional value
2) Starter culture for vegetable fermentation
3) Preparation of Whey Lemonade
4) As additive to smoothies and shakes
5) For preparing whey cheese
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Q21. Animal rennet works best from 85 - 105 degrees Farenheit (29 - 41 degrees Celcius) and also works best in an acid (low pH) environment. Why? (Think about where it comes from).
Answer: Animal rennet is sourced from fourth stomach chamber ofnursing calves. At the native location the enzyme mixture experience a temperature between 85-105 degree Farenheit and a low pH (< 2.0). As compared to its natural location of functioning, animal rennet works best at low pH and a temperature range similar to that of the calf stomach 4th chamber.
Q22. Why do we get animal rennet from calf stomachs? (What is it about them that causes it to work?)
Answer: Animal Rennet comprises of a set of enzymes which are found in ruminant animals. Here chymosin is the chief constituent enzyme and curdles milk. Which is a necessary step for digestion and further absorption, and assimilation of nutrients in animals. The set of rennet enzymes are produced in the breast feeding animals (like young calves). Which are supposed to undergo reduced production in matured animals, which depends on non-milk foods. So to get a high quality animal rennet, we use calf stomach.
Q23. Did you produce more curds from skim or whole milk? What caused the difference in curd yields?
Answer: Whole milk produced more curd as the fat content in whole milk is higher in comparison to skimmed milk.
Q24. Were there any other differences in the curds produced from skim versus whole milk?
Answer: Whole milk curd was thicker than the skimmed milk curd (shown in figure 1), because of the reduced fat content. Moreover, whey was more in skimmed milk than that of whole milk. A layer of fat was observed on the whole milk curd, while it was absent in skimmed milk curd.
Figure 1: Whole milk curd image vs Skimmed milk curd image
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