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This assignment will focus on some element of sociology/anthropology of the family that interests you. It is to be a formal research argument paper that connects an element of family to their impacts within wider social forces, places, meanings, etc.

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How Gender, Race, Age and Ethnicity influence family structure and the relationships and practices within each family?


Sociology is all about society and its components followed by social relationships, interaction, cultural influence in everyday life. Sociology is mainly based on three principles which are neuroscience, psychology and network science. Age, gender, culture, ethnicity and other factors greatly stimulates society and social forces. The aim of the study is to understand these elements and their impact on society. People with different family backgrounds, cultural backgrounds, age, gender observes and pursues their surroundings and society differently. People belongs from different lifestyle sees their surroundings and community in their perspectives and their behaviour greatly influences the societal forces in different aspects.

Topic background and issue

Mentality of a person is generally constructed based on where they are coming and what kind of education they have. Nowadays families are becoming nuclear in nature and total number of family members are decreasing day by day. According to Dotter et al. (2017, p.72), society is full of different people and each of them have their own contribution to the society. People with different age groups have different opinions about the society. Cultural diversity simultaneously makes the society and community diverse and colourful. However, it is often seen in different localities that people with different backgrounds does not communicate and live with each other properly. Religious background is another important factor which greatly influences a person's mind to become whatever the religious system wants to be.

Communal piece is a burning issue nowadays and people with high intellect and understanding always promotes for communicable peace and mutual understanding. A person's mentality not only affects their personal life it also affects their professional life also. Moore (2017, p.27) stated that, people pursue their life differently because of their mental structure. Mutual respect among the family members, fun time, communicated live are different factors which hives a shape to the mental structure of a person. Education is another factor which greatly influences a person's behavior. People with different lifestyle and standard of living belongs from different ethnicity within a society and mutual understanding and communication among two different ethnic groups often gets weak due to various mental factors like ego, self-preservation, greed and many others. Within a society, people with different language lives and during communication this creates great barriers among people. Johnstone (2015, p.35) argued that, in this age of technological advancements, language barriers are not getting narrower with time. People are becoming more accustomed with a common language which is English and, in the world, in every country English is a common language. A person receives a basic behavior trait from their family which reflects in their later life. Good manners and behaviors are always preferred in the society as a good gesture and people with good behavior and mentality gets good appreciation and recognition in the society. Parenting, family background, education provided from the family and guardians also influences a person's mind to a great extent.

Literature review

Different elements of society have their own way to influence society and its framework which are discussed below:


People with different age groups have different perspective towards the society. As stated by Sawyeret al. (2018, p. 224), after birth, a person becomes a part of society and their activities directly and indirectly influences the society and its functions. People with younger age have different perspective than a person who have relatively higher age group. With age, people gather knowledge and experience which changes their perspective and opinion towards the society. With age, people gather knowledge about how everything works within a society, how to interact with others, how to think in a relatively complex way to discover a solution to a problem. People with higher age groups are better capable of solving problems due to their knowledge and experience. However, according to Henslin et al. (2015, p.70), sometimes people with relatively younger age given better solution to a problem due to fresh mentality and thinking structure.

Age changes the way a person thought and sometimes due to lower age, people gives better solutions which an aged one cannot offer. Young minds have relatively less complex mental structure and they can think in a simple way. Sometimes problems need simple solutions and young minds are better in this matter. Society is a place where different people lives with their different motto in life. Young ones gather knowledge from aged ones and this is how society runs. Young people are also full of energy and they run the society with their physical and mental work. On the other hand, old ones offer mental solutions to the problems in day to day operations. Nowadays, age is a number and people with different groups communicate with each other. However, Durkheim (2018, p.152) stated that, ageing population and aging society is a great risk for an entire country and they can offer better mental solution but they lack physical power. Within a society, a good balance between aged and young ones can create great opportunities for the entire society to develop. Within a society, both the old and young ones have to work simultaneously side by side to create a greater society and opportunity for themselves along with for the upcoming future generations.

Young minds are always better at imagining and creating new stuffs. Innovative ideas and new technologies mainly come from young minds and their contribution greatly influences the society and its components by making it more technologically advanced and easy for living. Aging society offers new opportunity to rethink about the traditional views, rules and regulations to make them better for new ages. As opined by Sawyeret al. (2018, p.225), people with different age group also shows different perspectives in social and legal responsibilities. According to social structure, old people have better legal privileges than young ones. However, young people act a great force in changing and shaping political and economic structure of a society.

Young generations are always ready to adopt new technologies and new thinking in their daily life and on the other hand aged people tend to believe in traditional framework and structure. People with different ages have different requirements from society and government in their life. In every country, people have to achieve a minimum age to take part in the vote so, older people have different influence in the political structure of a country. As stated by Burrell, G., & Morgan (2017, p.135), in different societies, age is treated differently. People with different ages have different psychological stricture. Young people love to communicate with others as compared to old ones. Mutual understanding and team work within the profession life is better achieved through people with lesser age groups.


Gender what is gender it is mainly the definition that is constructed by our society to address the men and women in our society. Gender is addressed by the concepts like functions, task and the roles which are specially allocated to the men and women of our society. Towards our society this gender plays a huge role whether it is the purview of the development of our society or the growth of our society. Gender has shown that how a specific section of our society can perform tasks and at the same time carry forward our society towards the path of sustainability. Gender approach is something that is focused upon both the sections of our society which is men and women and thus it can be said that gender approach is not only about one section of our society it is about both the sections of our society.

According to the study of Breakwell & Beardsell (2016, p.178) it can be observed that considering the gender approach it can be seen that differences do exists between the two sections of our society and these differences are initiated in terms of their interests even it can be said that both the sexes have different mode of expression. The study of Bartlett & Burton (2016, p.49) has shown that men and women belong to one society which is created by the humankind but if a closure view is considered then it can be clearly pointed out that conventions and the series of hierarchies which are created within our society shows that women are at large scale being dominated by the men and this dominated nature of the men has been visible from the ancient historical periods.

As opined by the study of Ben-Nun Bloom, Gilad & Freedman (2017, p.380) it is clearly stated that women from the ancient times are treated as the most weaker sections of our society and this definition of the women in our society being accepted by the women itself because no one opposed this definition of women and thus after decades of the evolution of our society this definition still exists in some parts of our world. However, the study of Longhi et al., (2017, p.258) have advocated that along with the process of liberalization and the globalization the impact have been far reaching and in most of the parts of the world women are provide more power than that of the men and this power is given to the hands of the women due to several instances although these powers are provided in terms of rules and regulations.

In order to move our society towards the path of sustainability it is desirable that society should maintain a equity approach because equity approach is that form of approach that is attainable by all of the human beings in our society and equality approach is not attainable since it requires several parameters to be fulfilled. Gender equity is that form of approach which is concern about the equal enjoyment by both the genders of our society. Gender equity can assure that both the gender receives same opportunities and chances of life, thus it can be said that gender equity approach is attainable. Although the study of can be mentioned which has shown that gender equality cannot never be attainable because men and women can never be same and this is evident considering the biological factors of men and women rather this study has advocated that rather than fostering equality, equity should be fostered within our society because then only men and women both can attain a good quality of life leaving all the bad consequences of the past.

In modern society it is evident that in most of the developed countries different policies are designed so that both the genders can enjoy their life and no incidences of gender biasness occur. However, it can also be visible that in several underdeveloped countries the gender inequality still exits and thus government of these countries should take step towards these and impose certain rules and regulations so that the country can attain sustainability because lack of good quality of life push the country towards failure not towards the success even if success is attainable it is not sustainable.


A society for carrying out its activities has to maintain a culture of its won. A culture is nothing but a social behaviour and the array of norms which are present within the society. Culture according to the study of Whiten, Caldwell & Mesoudi (2016, p.17) can be considered as the phenomenon which shows that it is transmitted from social learning. For a society maintaining a rich culture becomes a difficult task because evolution has to take place and this evolutionary process results in evolves the consequences of reforms which reduce the form of rich culture. However, if a rich culture is constructed then it can never be destroyed until a severe threat towards the culture.
Considering the study of Guerber, Rajagoplan & Anand (2016, p.167) it can be observed that culture universals can be observed in all societies and they are mainly present in the form of art, ritual, cooking, technologies and many more. In this purview mentioning the study of Burke (2017, p.46) it can be said that culture is something that is inseparable part of our society, the study has found that society being created by the culture and the culture is being created by the society.

As opined by the study of Tonnies & Loomis (2017, p.124) it can be seen that there are examples of instances which shows that culture has been blended to serve the requirements of the society and this blend sometimes have even took the form of destruction of our society. One such form of culture can be seen in India, which shows that dowry system practiced by the society and this mainly designed to fulfill the needs of the one sections of the society. However, there are also instances of some culture's examples which shows that culture have not taken the form of pressure, considering the example of Mexicans it can be seen that most of Mexicans born in California cannot speak Spanish. Thus this example has clearly shown that culture always does create pressure upon our society to follow it. After the inter caste marriages it can be observed that one form of culture when interacts with the other form a mix culture can be seen and this creates totally a new form of culture.

Considering the study of Parsons, Shils & Smelser (2017, p.198) it can be observed that there are several factors that exists in our society that creates a huge impact upon the culture of a society and in this aspect of the example of technology as factor can be considered then it can be seen that technological development has created huge impact upon our culture and this sometimes even has resulted in disastrous situations. The study of Parsons, Shils & Smelser (2017) is confirmed by the study of Filip et al., (2015, p.451)which has shown that after the evolution of modern technology several heritage buildings were demolished that this demolition although was meant for the better of our society but has resulted in loss of our society as those ancient forms of architecture cannot be created in this modern age and thus to protect the culture of our society it is very significant to restore the heritages because this will make societies different from each other this will help to make an unique identity. Thus it can be said that restoration process is the best way to maintain a rich culture.


Religion is defined as the fundamental sets of practices and beliefs which are formed by consignments of a group of people. In a society the word religion plays a huge role because it shows the identity of a human being. In our society there are several religions and the sets of fundamental practices is different from religion to religion. Religion is something which is identified in every society. The study of Lis & Soly (2017, p.174) has shown that religion can be identified as a social system which is concern about the faith, traditions, customs and many more. Religion if considered in terms of global scale then it can said that our society has created diverse forms of it and the main reason for creation of religion is to develop ethical values within the mankind.

As opined by the study of Zaccaria, Anthony & Sterkens (2019, p.112) there are instances which show that after the creation of religion the divide rule between the society has become more visible, the study mainly shows that religion divides people and such division have even led to disastrous consequences. Considering the study of Henley (2017, p.605), it can be observed that religion blocks social changes an d is due to the fact religion sometimes act as hindrance towards the social change for instance religion has evolved in such a manner that transformation of attitudes of some group of people towards the society because highly challenging one.

To foster growth within the society it is recommended that human being without considering the religion identity should be accepted because the main aim behind the evolution of religion was to answer questions that cannot be answered not to separate people from one another because all humans are created by following same procedure and no aspect should differentiate them. Differentiation always leads to failure and this failures are not sustainable in the long terms.  


One of the major elements which determine the characteristics of any society is ethnicity. The term ethnicity can be described as a group of people with same social, cultural, national and religion beliefs. According to Walker, Williamsand & Egede (2016, p.369) the world population is comprises of different ethnic groups and that is the reason behind the cultural diversity around the world. The people of every different country are characterises with different ethnicity for example: China has its own ethnicity, European countries has its own, India has its own and the list will go on. As per Assari & Caldwell (2018, p.24). Not only ethnicity changes with the boundaries of countries but also within each country there exist many different ethnic groups and the characteristics of each group with a country can vary Different immensely. For example, the population China is comprises of approximately 60 major ethnic groups, the figure is also similar for India. There also has been noticed immense diversity among the ethic population different European countries. The ethnic group also can be separated based on their native languages; different ethnic group has their own native language and the languages are part of their ethnic identify.

As stated by Whiten, A., Caldwell, C. A., & Mesoudi, A. (2016, p.17) ethnic groups not only characterise with different cultural, social and religion beliefs but also they posses different perspective among family structure and relationship among the family members. Every ethnic group has their own social rituals which have considered a major element behind the family structure followed by those groups. For example some traditional ethnic groups follow joint family structure where each member of the family lives together and share a strong and unique bond with each other in this kind of family structure there generally exist a head of the family who is mostly the most senior person of the family. This type of family structure is more prominent in traditional Asian countries like: Indian, Pakistan, China and so on. In western families mostly noticed nuclear families where the children gets separated with the parents after a certain age and lead an independent life and maintains a strong and healthy relationship with each other. Furthermore every ethnic group has its own belief regarding the relationship among the family members, the size of the family and so on.

In the modern age, the people are not bound within its native land they are travelling around the world and sometimes settled within a different country for perusing better life style. And that allows the people of different ethnicity to live together and get influenced by each other's culture (Equalityhumanrights.com, 2019). In the world population there has been noticed a trend in nuclear families as in nuclear families the family members are enjoyed more freedom and also able to maintain a good relationship with others. Apart from that, in the Morden age the marriages between the persons who belongs two different groups is also very common and that also build families having its own uniqueness but the chances to arise conflict among those families is quite high.


Education is considered as one of the major tools which can bring positive changes in various societal aspects. According to Noble et al (2015, p.773). The social standard of family in most of the societies around the world is measured by the educational attainment by the family members. Education not only builds the social status of the family but it also maintains the economic status of a family. Wu, Schimmele, & Hou (2015, p.215) highlighted that there exist both-way relationship among education and the status and structure of a family. A Childs educational attainment largely depends upon the environment he or she gets with the family. A child having positive environment in the family have higher chances to get higher educational attainment than the child who raised up in negative environment. The research work conducted by Lee, S. A. (2018, p.49) showed that the children who lived with both of their biological parents perform better in educational field. On the other hand, the children who are raised up by single parents or with stepparents have lower educational attainment compared to the former. The mental stress and negative family environment has been presented the reason behind it.

According to O'Malley et al (2015, p.142). educational attainment of children is largely the result of the investment made by their parents, which indicates that educational attainment of the children varies systematically with the financial background of the family. The parents which stronger financial background can spend much more than the patents who have week educational background. Though, has Lee (2018, p.68) presented different view regarding the issue, according to the financial background of the parents not all the time directly affect the education level of the child, the families which gives large importance to education, spent the required amount on their Childs education even if they have to keep aside their other requirements. So as per this perspective of the parents regarding the issue of education determines the level of educational attainment of their children.

According to Gupta-Malhotra et al (2016, p.434), the element of education to a large extent is responsible for maintaining a positive relationship among the family members. In a family comprises with similar educational attainment, the family members mostly have similar mindsets and help to lead them a positive relationship with each other.


In order to conclude the entire course work it can be said that, each of element has its own effect on the society and more significantly the family structure and relationship among the family members of particular society. In this course work, the background of the modern families has been discussed along with the issues faced by those families. And for better understand, different view of scholarly literature have been discussed and come up with the conclusion that, the elements like: age, gender, ethnicity, education, culture and religion has multidirectional impact on the society.

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