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Describe two examples of racial or ethnic inequality in health care in the United States.

The racial or ethnic inequality in healthcare services indicates the difference among people around the world that disadvantages a certain group of people based on particular parameters such as gender, racial and ethnic minorities.  The type of inequality in health care services termed as health disparities can be aligned with any qualities and social disadvantages along with systematic discrimination that directly impacts the health and risk related to health. Inequality and discriminations are mainly observed in health care services in the United States. Several examples can be observed within the healthcare services of United States, however, the main to two examples that can be analyzed to understand the discrimination and inequality in health care services include communicating along with receiving help, advice along with the recommendation for heart attacks and receive screening for colorectal cancer (Nash, 2017). Both types of discrimination happen due to racial inequality. The African Americans reported that they receive poor quality of communications from the service provider of healthcare compared to the communication received by the white patients. The poor quality of communications degraded the recommendation advice about care for heart attack that directly reduces the facilities provided to the Hispanic patients. The lack of communication among the patient and the service provider hardens the process of treatment that sometimes prove fatal for the patient.

Explain how aversive racism contributes to the inequality illustrated in the examples (and thus in health care) you described.

Aversive racism is one of the theories that are used to understand the effects of racism on people. The racism mentions that the need evaluation of ethnic minorities can be identified by the continuous avoidance interaction among the other ethnic or racial groups with the discriminated groups. The health care service provider needs to interact with the patients to identify the issues and help them out with the treatments that are essential for living and healthy life. The white patients receive maximum support from the service provider based on their skin colour and irrespective of the necessity and urgency of the situation patient who needs to it be treated. The service provider needs to communicate with the patient who had heart attacks and recommend them cares along with advice after they had the heart attack. The lack of interaction will increase the risk of another heart attack that might be fatal for the patient who would end up being dead.  The process of screening of colorectal cancer includes selecting the patient along with continuous communication that will ensure the patient is relaxed and the screening process is completed without any disturbance. The lack of interaction, as stated in aversive racism, in the screening of colorectal cancer affects the process of the test as the patient gets nervous that disturbs the stable path through which the tube is inserted inside the colon. The screening test is performed when the person doesn't exhibit any form of symptoms of the disease. The inaccurate screening of the colon might indicate that the patient has cancer while the patient is healthy.

Explain methods for reducing aversive racism in your examples. Be specific and provide examples to support your explanation.

The methods that will help in reducing the aversive racism among the black and white patients includes two approaches mainly the physician-focused and patient-focused approach. The physician-focused approach primary includes offering exclusive course work that trains the physician to treat all patients equally irrespective of racial disparity. The physician personal need to understand their responsibility and combat bias. The study of bias among physicians stated that “Simply offering coursework is insufficient. First, individual-level approaches to combat bias, such as anti-bias education programs, have only limited impact unless they have strong institutional support” (Penner, et al., 2014). The physicians need to focus on eliminating the bias that might have the personal benefit and focus on the responsibility towards the community. The approach must attempt to develop techniques that will restrict the impact of implicit bias while communicating as well as interacting with black patients. the physicians must see their patients as a unique individual and not as a representative of a certain race. The approach from the patient's perspective includes generating values within the self. The patients might consider their prior experience as a parameter to judge the doctor however they need to to provide an opportunity for new doctors and establish that there exists no racism in health care service and the doctors of recent generation treat all patients equally irrespective of their caste and race. 

Discuss how implicit bias might impact health care in the United States.

The article “Reducing Racial Health Care Disparities: A Social Psychological Analysis” described strategies to reduce the effect of racism on health care explained that “Physicians’ implicit negativity toward Blacks, at least sometimes, also predicts decisions that lead to lower quality health care for Black relative to White patients”(Penner, et al., 2014).  The literature was developed after studying hypothetical patients and the attitude of the physician towards the patients based on their skin colors. It was observed that the physician treating patients having acute coronary syndrome recommended different medicines based on racism. Physicians who had increased implicit bias very likely to prescribe clot reducing drugs to white patients more compare two black patients. The study for the indicated that physician having greater implicit bias preferred to prescribe narcotics white pediatric patients more when compared with black patients (Mallinger& Lamberti, 2010). The difference in preference of describing medicines results in varied outcomes of treatment for patients having a similar disease. It can be concluded that the attitude of racism within the physicians directly influence the treatment received by the patients focused on the skin colors instead of the severity of the disease. The patient-based approach revolves around the attitude of the patients towards the skin color of the doctors. It was observed that black patients are sensitive towards the negative biased behavior of physician and prefer to receive treatment from black doctors.

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