Ethical Consideration Assignment
1. Briefly reflect on Evelyn's thesis project and defense in The Shape of Things. Using the course materials, craft a critique Evelyn's thesis project and defense. Your critique should make solid connections with one major ethical theory and James Rachels' "minimum conception of morality." [Hint: You may want to view the entire movie or read the entire play by the same name.]
2. Consider the course material on female excision, Section 2.7 in The Elements of Moral Philosophy, and the related handouts (available on D2L). Do you think that female excision is a morally justified practice? Why or why not? Construct an ethically-informed argument supporting your position.
3. Imagine that you decide to go ice fishing with a family member and your best friend. You all agree to fish on a remote and pristine section of one of the numerous frozen lakes in Ottertail County. Let us say that you decide to go back to your vehicle for more gear when you hear calls for help. At this point, you realize that your family member and your best friend both have fallen through the ice. However, it immediately hits you that you only have time to save one of them, since both are roughly 1⁄4 mile from each other and yourself. You cannot save both. Which one will you save? What are your ethical justifications for saving the one that you chose to save? Offer an ethical course of action that takes Rachels' "minimum conception of morality" and a comprehensive ethical theory into account.
4. Through predictive analytics companies like Target are able to track, anticipate, and project consumer's purchases. Moreover, they can use those same analytics to determine lifestyle habits within a personal register, without the explicit consent of the consumer. Do you find such practices to be ethical? Why or why not?
5. Consider the recent effects of the partial government shutdown. In view of the shutdown (27 days and counting), many federal workers still are working, even though they currently are not receiving a paycheck. Transportation Security Administration employees, Department of Homeland Security Employees, members of the United States Coast Guard, and tens of thousands of federal law enforcement officers are directly affected by the government shutdown. Setting aside from the political debate surrounding the shutdown, do you think federal employees whom currently are not receiving a paycheck have an ethical obligation to continue working? Why or why not? Construct an ethically-informed argument in support of your position.
6. Recently, scientists from the Salk Institute in California successfully created a number of human-pig embryos which were intentionally destroyed shortly after their creation. Scientists believe this type of organism, sometimes referred to as a "chimera," may benefit humans by providing a viable source of various donor organs. Using a comprehensive ethical theory from our course texts, argue for or against the creation of such organisms.
7. Playing off of this year's Great American Think Off question ("To vote or not to vote: does it matter?"), create an argument that demonstrates why we either have an ethical obligation to vote or not have an ethical obligation to vote. Your essay can (with some editing) be submitted to the actual Think Off to qualify for their grand prize.
8. A young woman by the name of Katherine Stone attempted to auction off her "virginity" to the highest bidder. She did so with the intention of helping her family pay for their home which was destroyed in a fire. Her "proposal" has caused such a stir that bids reached upwards of $400,000 dollars. Despite the high sum, do you think that what she is doing is ethical? Offer an ethical defense that makes connections to the course material and the Rachels' texts.
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Predictive analysis refers to the process of gathering information from the data that already exists. The main purpose of predictive analysis is to establish a pattern in order to predict the consequence and trend in future. In the modern world, the companies organize this practice to increase their sales. ‘Target' is one of such American retailers who use to collect and purchase data that is related to customers' personal life, in order to increase their sale. However, it is truly unethical as no commercial organization has the right to collect the customer personal information and interfere in their personal affairs.
Background of the activity of ‘Target'
With the soaring ambition of increasing company's sale Target started collecting customers' demographic information. For instance, customer's age, marital status, salary and many more can be considered as demographic information. Even Target use to gather the information of their credit card, which school or college they went to , where they have purchase new flat, their job history, preference in beverages, cereal or apple sauce and so on. The job was not a difficult for Target, as the company had a huge number of stores throughout the country. Since last few decades, Target used to collect the data of the customer who went to the stores on a regular basis. In order to, do that Target assigned a code to the every shopper. That unique code was known as Guest ID which kept track on the products that the customers usually brought. According to Andrew Pole, the executive from the marketing department the company Target used to collect data and whenever the customers use credit card, take part in a survey or use a coupon. Even if the customer call at the customer care or check the e-mail the company gets the information which the organization keeps as a record as well as linked with the customer's Guest ID. In the Andrew Pole's opinion the Target wants to know each and every detail about their customer. As per the executive of Target, the company can earn more if it gets the chance to know about the future buying habit of the customers. Supposedly, a couple is expecting a baby and obviously, the purchasing habit of the couple will be changed. Now, if Target comes to know about the future event then the company can grab the customer by the alluring sale strategy. Thus Target can get advantage in this cutthroat business world (Duhigg, 2019).
Analysis of the ethical consideration
Modern civilization is highly based on the commercial activity. In this busy business world each and every organization conducts their business procedure in a strategic manner to achieve their commercial goal. All the enterprises want to flourish their business in order to continue the growth rate. That is why, the companies need to enhance the amount of sales of the products that the firms manufacture in their own factory to ensure economic growth of the enterprises. However, increasing sale amount is quite an cumbersome job. Most of the time the companies need to apply some trick. Predictive is one of those strategies that a modern business enterprise prefers to follow. Predictive analysis is a kind of method of in which data is not simply gathered but that is processed as well as analyzed in a way that a the company get an assumption of the future outcome. The existing data helps Target to figure out a pattern of the customer's buying nature. In this data analyzing procedure, the companies use the statistics as well as the learning techniques with the help of machine and latest technology to create an imaginative or predictive model to forecast the incident of upcoming days. This predictions is good for business purpose, however, the commercial enterprises have no right to make guesses about the customer's personal behaviour or life style.
It is to be kept in mind that this kind of analysis can merely make a prediction. However, no one can claim that prediction will definitely happen in upcoming days (Akbar, Khan, Carrez & Moessner, 2017). In modern commercial world the various business organizations such as Target practice predictive analysis in order to make an assumption regarding their customers' habits as well as the tendency at the time of purchasing a product (Roberts, Chang & Gibson, 2017). Supposedly, a customer is looking for specific kinds of medicine, which is rarely available and remain out of stoke in most of the medicine stores. Now considering this fact that the customer visits the dispensary every week or month to buy the particular medicine in bulk, the shop owner can make a gauge that the customer will probably buy the medicine every month. Therefore, the store owner can make the medicine available for every month. In this way, the sale of the store can increase. Probably, some other customer will come to by the same medicine. Hence, the owner needs to keep on the flow of delivery of that particular medicine. This way, not only the customers will get the benefit but the shop owner will also count the profit. Therefore, predictive analysis can be fruitful for every commercial firm (Appelbaum, Kogan, Vasarhelyi & Yan, 2017).
On the contrary, this practice cannot be applicable in order to judge and evaluate the personal lives of the buyers. As an example, the following incident can be mentioned. A girl buys several packets of cigarettes or a bottle of whiskey every day. Therefore, based on her product purchasing practice one can say that the girl is a severe smoker or alcoholic. However, this cannot be the parameter of evaluating her personal life. The reason behind of her purchase can be something else. There is possibility that the girl buys the products for someone else, may be for her father, husband, or even a friend. Some other example can be given to discuss this situation in detail.
For example a man buys some inferior quality of biscuits in frequent manner. Only by noticing this fact one can come to a conclusion that the person may be miser one. The person is so reluctant to spend his money that the individual does not prefer to buy some better quality of biscuits for him or his close one. However, in reality it can be prove that the man usually purchases those biscuits in order to feed some street dogs, which means that the man is not a miser but a kind-hearted person, who carries some feelings and sympathy for the poor street dogs. These two examples undoubtedly prove that predictive analysis is not the better option to judge the personal life style or habit of the customers. Obviously, it is not ethical to set the parameter based on the predictions to justify the customer's character as well as customer's personal habits of life. It is unanimously accepted that to evaluate a customer's character one needs to collect the information regarding the life of the customer from the authentic source. After gathering the complete information one needs to analysis meticulously. Only after then an individual can reveal the actual truth about customer's life. Hypothesis, assumption as well as the prediction can never be the part of such evaluation (Avella, Kebritchi, Nunn & Kanai, 2016).It is true that success is utmost important for every commercial organization and in order to increase the profit all the business enterprise practice the procedure of predictive analysis.
From the above discussion, one can conclude that predictive analysis can never be the real parameter of the justification of buyers' life. Specially, target has used this method in a unethical way. Undoubtedly, predictive analysis is one of the ways to lead Target to the path of the growth. However, in no situation, the business approach of Target can be appreciated. Personal life of an individual is one of the sensitive zones of every customer and no organization can ever have the right to interfere into this.
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