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Formal Business Report Assignment -

Topic - Why and How Should Managers Communicate The Corporate Communications?

Communication issues - Effective communication throughout a workplace is an essential ingredient to align people's efforts towards achieving organisational goals. Yet it seems that 'communication problems' are continually mentioned as one of the main difficulties for most organisations. Your boss, the CEO of ABC Company, has asked you to prepare a report investigating the question: 'Why and how should managers COMMUNICATE the corporate communication function'? Examine the following four sub-functions within the function:

1. Identity, image, and reputation

2. Corporate responsibility

3. Media relations

4. Crisis management.

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Answer -

Abstract

Corporate communications are significant part of business organization as it helps in maintaining the efficiency of strategy and policies in an organization. The primary purpose of this report is to highlight the importance of effective communication and the ways managers carry out their responsibilities in order to maintain the operations of an organization. Corporate communication helps in eliminating confusion and conflicts between the members of the organization. This assignment helps in gaining information regarding the ways manager's covey important information all across the organization in an effortless manner with the help of appropriate communications skill.

Introduction

Corporate communication is an important management function that assists in dissemination of primary information that helps in the execution of corporate strategy. The primary purpose of this assignment is to understand and evaluate the concept of corporate communication. Communication is the most vital tool that helps in enhancing the knowledge flow in an organisation, this assignment will highlight the different reasons due to which the mangers of an organisation are required to communicate both internally and externally. This assignment highlights the roles and responsibilities of a manager in order to maintain the conflicts and problems arising in an organisation due to lack of effective communication. The communication skills required by the managers will be illustrated in a detailed manner.

BODY

1. Identity, image, and reputation

The term 'brand identity' refers to the way through which a company or a brand is represented to the customers in the market. On the other hand, the term 'brand image' refers to the general impression that a product or service of a company holds in the marketplace. Brand reputation is how the customers or public view a brand in the marketplace (Rashid et al. 2018, p. 107). It is essential that managers know how to communicate about brand image, identity and reputation because, they are the three most important factors to the company which decide and indicate the position of a company in the wider market. It helps in fulfilling all the needs of the consumer and helps in solving problems within employees that may arrive in the company. Communicating the brand with internal and external stakeholders is essential for the company's profit and increases their loyalty towards the brand, which also helps in creating positive image and increases the brand reputation. Proper communication about the brand image, identity and reputation internally and externally is the most important activity that every manager should perform while managing a particular brand. This report will examine firstly communication of identity, then about the image and finally, will explore the importance of communicating about reputation.

1.1 Communicating about brand identity

1.1.1 What managers should communicate about brand identity and why.

The manager should communicate about the personality and key features that make a brand hold in the marketplace. According to Lee et al. (2018, p. 454), proper communication on the brand identity is the most important activity through which a company can remove any negative thought about its brand from the minds of its customers. The primary aim of communicating brand identity is to create a positive notion about the brand in the minds of stakeholders by upholding the positive and most unique features of the brand (Rutter et al. 2018, p. 197).For example, Apple has created strong brand identity by conveying its unique features and establishing its necessity through effective communication (Helal & Ozuem 2018, p. 334). Communicating the brand identity, the management can improve customers' perception regarding the brand, which is very important for influencing the customers to purchase their product (Rutter et al. 2018, p. 198). By communicating brand identity, companies can convey their corporate belief and disclose their views regarding business to the external stakeholders like customers and at the same time, they can convey how far they give importance to them and focus on developing higher values (Rutter et al. 2018, p. 256). Therefore, managers should communicate on identity to develop and maintain the uniqueness and high corporate values of the brand.

1.1.2 Who managers should communicate with internally and externally and how.

Managers must communicate with the external and internal stakeholders of the company about the brand identity. Managers communicate brand identity to the employees, who are considered as the face of the company (Rutter et al. 2018, p. 257). It is important because employees represent the company and so they must have clear knowledge regarding the identity of the company (Rutter et al. 2018, p. 258). Managers also communicate brand identity with the customers, suppliers, government, investors and creditors, so that they become aware of the brand in a better way, which also helps the brand to be unique from other similar products (Rutter et al. 2018, p. 257). Communication with the internal stakeholders can be done through meetings and distributing business' prospectus (Helal and Ozuem 2018, p. 346). Communication with the external stakeholder can be done through promotions like, public relation and advertisement. Therefore, it is important to keep in mind that brand identity must be communicated effectively with the internal and external stakeholders through proper channels to build its value, belief and 'brands personality'.

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1.2 Communicating about brand image

1.2.1 What should managers communicate about brand image and why.

Effective communication about the brand image helps managers provide the differentiation, in terms of appearance of the company, to its internal and external stakeholders. Brand image helps companies to create a strong position in the market by differentiating their brands or products from other brands (Chernev 2018, p. 77). For example, there are several soft drinks brands in the international market, but Coca Cola has established itself as the most preferred brand in the market by conveying its brand image properly to the customers and other stakeholders (Lee et al. 2018, p. 456). The management of Coca Cola has differentiated the brand image from the other soft drink brands in the international market and communicated the perspective of the company by the slogan 'open happiness" and 'Taste the feeling'; these slogans helped the company creating a positive perception in the minds of the consumers. Meanwhile, the company has also developed a special logo with attractive font, bottle design, colour, labelling and packaging to differentiate its brand image from the others (Chernev 2018, p. 77). Therefore, communication on brand image helps to reflect the appearance of the brand in customers mind through its differentiation.

1.2.2 Who managers should communicate with internally and externally and how.

Managers need to communicate with internal and external stakeholders on the brand image. Externally, managers communicate with the customers, government, creditors, investors and suppliers about the brand image (Quaratino & Mazzei 2018, p. 188). Proper communication with the external stakeholders about brand image helps to create a position in their mind and create positive impression in the market (Helal & Ozuem 2018, p. 333). This communication is done through brand promotions (Quaratino & Mazzei 2018, p. 187). Internally, managers communicate with the employees, owners and management team about the brand image to develop a clear vision about the brand's position in the market (Chernev 2018, p. 107). He also mentioned that communication on brand image is done through meetings and conferences.By the above findings, I conclude that brand image is a very important factor to both internal and external stakeholders and so they should be communicated, adopting the right communication technique to reflect and create a positive impact in stakeholders mind.

1.3 Communicating about brand reputation

1.3.1 What should managers communicate about brand reputation and why.

While communicating brand reputation, managers should communicate all the credibility of the product or a brand. Brand reputation develops from the external views of the people regarding a brand (Guèvremont & Grohmann 2018, p. 334). According to them, managers communicate brand reputation to build trust and quality about a particular brand or product. It is also important for creating a competitive advantage in the market (Quaratino & Mazzei 2018, p. 188). Proper communication about the brand reputation helps the managers to encourage the employees to perform better by making them to think that they are working for a reputed brand (Guèvremont & Grohmann 2018, p. 336). For example, Google has created competitive advantage and encouraged the employees to be more creative by communicating its strong reputation (Guèvremont & Grohmann 2018, p. 334). According to them, communicating about the brand reputation is important for encouraging the customers to be loyal to the brand for a long time. Therefore, we can see that according to the research, communication reflects the brand reputation by ensuring the quality and build trust among customers and other stakeholders and loyalty towards the brand.

1.3.2 Who managers should communicate with internally and externally and how.

Managers need to communicate with external and internal stakeholders about the brand reputation through the right method of communication. Brand reputation must be communicated with the customers, so that they become faithful to the company (Helal and Ozuem 2018, p. 347). While communicating brand reputation, the managers communicate about the quality of products and services that the company provides to its customers, which also helps to gain the trust of internal and external stakeholders (Quaratino & Mazzei 2018, p. 188). It helps investors and government to get confidence for investing funds (Helal and Ozuem 2018, p. 347). Externally the communication can be done through SMS, email, corporate social responsibility activities and other types of promotions (Quaratino & Mazzei 2018, p.188). Communication is important internally because it helps to keep the employees and managers aware about their activities and quality of performance (Quaratino & Mazzei 2018, p.189). Internally, communication should be done with the owners, employees and management team for gaining their trust, and encouraging them to perform better (Guèvremont & Grohmann 2018, p. 336). Internally, communication should be done through meetings and conferences (Quaratino & Mazzei 2018, p.189). Therefore, communication on brand reputation with its internal and external stakeholders is important, and it should be done with right technique to communicate the quality of products and services to its customers.

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2. Corporate responsibility

Corporate responsibility can be defined as the concept by which an organization maintains its ethical principles and different conducts like respect, integrity,and honesty within the organization. Every organization faces issues of communication and these communication gaps should be addressed for achieving the goals of the organization. Corporate communication plays a vital role in the development of an organization and the gaps in communication are removed by the managers of the organization (Dawkins, 2005).

2.1 Corporate responsibility

2.1.1 What the managers should communicate about and why?

The managers should communicate about corporate communication for the purpose of delivering messages to the investors as well as for the purpose of maintaining a proper relationship with the employees and the stakeholders of the company. The reason behind this corporate communication of the managers is for maintaining proper teamwork by helping with the smooth communication between the team members which helps with the growth of the organization.

2.1.2 Who managers should communicate to and why?

The manager should be able to effectively communicate to the employees and the stakeholders for the purpose of economic benefits, human rights, product safety, and environmental regulation (Fontana, Sastre-Merino & Baca, 2017). These factors are essential for the proper growth and development within the organization.

2.2 Corporate environmental responsibility

In the present era, a lot of companies are shifting their concern towards green corporate social responsibility by focussing more on the environment. This concept of green CSR is used for the purpose of improvement and conservation of the environment. This environmental sustainability is vital for future generations. The CSR related to the environment should be properly understood by the managers and the benefits related to green CSR should be properly communicated to the employees and the stakeholders of the company.

2.2.1 What the managers should communicate about and why?

The managers should communicate about corporate environmental sustainability for the purpose of securing the environment to the employees and the stakeholders of the company so that proper steps are taken for the sustainability of the environment.

2.2.2 Who managers should communicate to and why?

The manager should be able to effectively communicate with the employees and the stakeholders so that the stakeholders can take measures for the environmental sustainability that can help the future generations

2.3 Corporate legal responsibility

It can be said that corporate legal responsibility has the power of assessing human rights as well as monitor and assess the activities of the private as well as public contractors. The managers can master corporate communication by understanding the human rights and the issues involved with it.

2.3.1 What the managers should communicate about and why?

The managers must properly communicate about the legal issues that the company should follow for its future growth and development. It is because the companies that are functioning properly can only help with corporate responsibility like strengthening the economy by paying taxes and creating more jobs in the area.

2.3.2 Who managers should communicate to and why?

The managers must effectively communicate the legal responsibilities to the employees and the investors of the organization. It is the corporate responsibility of the manager to properlycommunicate with the investors regarding CSR policies that are adopted by the company. The decisions of the investors are made in a way that comprises of the ethical concerns. The ethical considerations are always taken into account during selling and buying of stocks.

2.4 Corporate Responsibility in the 21st century

In the21st century, corporate responsibility is maintained by staying properly in the business and the companies should bring improvement to the society like improve the economic condition of the area by giving employment to more and more people. For a company to have corporate responsibility for society, the company must first be functioning properly. The managers must learn the various ways of communication with the employees for the purpose ofthe smooth flow of communication within the organization. The companies that are functioning properly can only help with corporate responsibility like strengthening the economy by paying taxes and creating more jobs in the area. Therefore, it can be said that companies that are successful can only contribute to society. So in the present era, the managers should properly set the priorities for themselves as well as the employees. Its main focus should be on the people and the environment (Setó-Pamies&Papaoikonomou, 2016).

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2.5 Corporate responsibility and the media

The role of media in communicating the CSR to the world is well known to the world. It is the responsibility of the manager to effectively communicate the benefits of corporate responsibility to the media so that the media is able to transmit the messages of CSR to the world. The media helps in spreading the knowledge about CSR to the other organizations from all over the world. Media helps to inspire and motivate other organizations to raise social causes and improve corporate social responsibility. Media helps in spreading information about the advantages of CSR and how it can develop the image of an organization in the minds of the customers. Media helps with the creation of appealing ads and spread awareness to the people about CSR. Media helps with the creation of a positive image for the organization (Cahanet al. 2015).

2.6 Upside of CR

CR is essential for getting the trust of the customers which is essential for the smooth functioning of any business.

1. Satisfied employees - The employees that are satisfied with the organization will stay in the organization for a longer period of time because they will feel proud because of CSR and the organization will get more job applications. The manager should communicate effectively with the employees about how the organization is taking up an initiative for the improvement of the CSR policies.

2. Satisfied customers - CSR improves the reputation of the company and therefore the attitude of the customers also gets improved towards the company and they buy more products from the company without shifting to another brand. The manager should make sure that the CSR policies are effectively communicated with the customers via advertisement and promotions for the purpose of getting more customers.

3. Positive PR - The online media share positive stories about the company with the help of CSR. It is because of CSR that the companies do not have to waste unnecessary money on advertising campaigns that are expensive in nature (Saeidiet al 2015).

2.7 Reputation risk management

The management of the reputation risk means the negative impact on the earnings which are formed due to the negative opinion of the public. The fact is that risks are always part of an organization and they can never be completely removed from the organization. The manager should find ways of communicating the risks to the employees and the stakeholders of the organization. The reputation risk management can be formed changing the corporate image by disclosed and univocal behaviors and auditing and controlling the project activities of the company (Gatzert&Schmit 2016).

2.8 Brand differentiation

This is considered as the brand strategy where a company follows the process of brand differentiation for standing out of the competition. In this way, the different qualities of the brand are promoted so that the customers are targeted. It is with the help of brand differentiation that a company gains a competitive advantage over its competitors and this eventually increases the market share of the brand. The main concept of brand differentiation is to provide the customers the things that are not provided by the rivals. It is, therefore, the role of the managers to communicate effectively to the employees about the importance of brand differentiation (Davcik& Sharma 2015).

2.9 Talent attraction and retention

CSR plays a vital role in attracting as well as retaining talents for the success of any business. In the present era, a talent management strategy is used by many organizationsfor the purpose of attracting talented individuals to the company so that they remain competitive in the market. CSR supports the issue of talent mismatch and talent crisis that influences the retention and attraction of the employees. It is with the help of proper communication of the managers about corporate responsibility that more talented individuals will be attracted to the company.

3.0 CR and corporate reputation

CSR is vital for maintaining the reputation of any organization as a company can form a good reputation in the market by following the corporate social responsibilities like environmental protection, ethics, education, workplace culture, activism, volunteerism,and philanthropy. The organization should have a CSR program as this helps with the reputation and success of the company.

3.1 Consumer values and expectations

The expectation of the consumers generally means the feeling of the consumers about what the company should offer them. In terms of CSR, the company should fulfill the expectation of the consumers in regards to policies and social responsibilities. The managers have the corporate responsibility of communicating the benefits and advantages of CSR to the consumers and how the company is applying those strategies in the company. It is gathered that the consumers usually have high expectations from the companies when it is related to CSR. The consumer normally expects that the companies should care for the environment and not pollute the environment, the sales should be performed in an ethical manner, the information disclosed by the companies should be honest in nature and communication practices should be improved.

3.2 Investor pressure

The investor pressure is growing in the market and the performances of the companies are assessed in a different way by the investors. It is the corporate responsibility of the manager to properlycommunication with the investors regarding CSR policies that are adopted by the company. The decisions of the investors are made in a way that comprises of the ethical concerns. The ethical considerations are always taken into account during selling and buying of stocks. Several investors are concentrating more on the social as well as environmental aspects and this involves the reduction of carbon emission in the air which is polluting the air. The investors are pressurizing that the companies should use carbon reduction initiatives for taking care of the environment.

3.3 Employee involvement in CR

It is vital that the leaders of the company should believe in environmental sustainability and they should encourage the employees of the organization to achieve the goals of elimination of waste, reduction of emissions and serving the underprivileged communities of the society. This is achieved by communicating with the employees of the organization about how their involvement can bring changes in the organization. In this way, the employees of the organization will be motivated by their leaders (Mishra & Modi 2016).

3.4 Green CSR

In the present era, a lot of companies are shifting their concern towards green corporate social responsibility by focussing more on the environment. This concept of green CSR is used for the purpose of improvement and conservation of the environment. This environmental sustainability is vital for future generations. The CSR related to the environment should be properly understood by the managers and the benefits related to green CSR should be properly communicated to the employees and the stakeholders of the company.

3.5 Communicating about CR

The most vital part about CR is communication to the customers. Communication is vital for getting knowledge about the wants, requirements, values,and beliefs of the customers and these are essential information for the companies as this will increase the rate of profit of the organization as the customers will want products according to their needs and requirements and they will choose the same organization over and over again. In the present age, communication is mostly done via online media such as social networking sites. Also, the recent trends of the customers should also be followed for increasing the revenue of the company.

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3. Media relations

According ToIllia and Balmer (2012), media relations is a management function which has three overall objectives of maintaining good inter-organizational relationships, formulating corporate policies and integrating communication to support marketing activities. Media plays an vital role in justifying a brand value, either the brand value seek greater heights by utilizing the predominant features of media like advertisement and sales promotion or gets demolish by the negative impact of the brand. However, managers use these media relations in order to survive for longer tenure in market segment. It not only helps the company by advertising their products but also helps to evaluate their performance, broaden their events and increase their brand identity. Media relation program can be practiced by the companies to maintain healthy relationship with media and develop their business.

Media Relations

Every companies and corporation communicates with the various stakeholders to accomplish their tasks. So, to manage the communications of the corporations with the media a separate department is formed which is called media relation department. According to Grzegorczyk (2017) media relation means building relationships with the various media persons for various purpose like to get publicity or means of publicity to present information. The media relation department handles all the tasks which are related to the communication between the company and media.

3.1 Communicating about a new product

3.1.1. What managers should communicate and why

Communication of new products is very important to promote the products among the customers. The manager should communicate about the new products and their features to promote the product. After developing the new products, the stakeholder is unaware of the products so to share information about new products like its features, price, etc. the manager must communicate with the stakeholder.

3.1.2. Who managers should communicate with and how?

The communication about new products is required to promote the new products with various stakeholders who are internal as well as external. Communication with internal staffs, upper-level management is necessary at first about the new products. The manager should organize different programs and meetings inside the company to communicate with the internal staffs and upper-level managers.

Communication with external factors like media, customers, and the public is essential to promote the new product. Media plays an important role in the promotion of new products so, the manager should communicate with the media about the new product to publish in their media articles. The manager can communicate with the media to provide information about new products in various ways like a news release, by giving an interview, etc. The communication with the public and customers are vital for any new products. The manager can communicate with the public and customers through various media and by doing various surveys(Johnson, 2018).

3.2 Communicating about the brand

3.2.1. What managers should communicate and why

The managers should communicate about the brand image, its market share, brand loyalty, etc. because the brand plays an important role in the market to promote the company and to increase the sales. Nowadays most of the customers prefer brand while purchasing the products and services so by focusing on the communication of the brand helps to increase brand loyalty and increase sales.

3.2.2. Who managers should communicate with and how

The manager should communicate about the brand inside the company with staffs and upper-level management to increase brand awareness among them. The brand communication inside the company is necessary to produce the promised or predetermined brand level. Communication with internal factors can be done by organizing brand awareness meetings, seminars, etc. The communication with the external factors like media companies, public, customers are very important and it can be performed by promoting the brand through media companies, by organizing programs with the media companies, by doing a survey, etc.(Forbes.com, 2017).

3.3. Communicating new news about an old product

3.3.1. What managers should communicate and why

An old product may have new news sometime like discount offers, added features, or any other modifications plans. So, the managers must communicate any new changes about the old product, or anything new news related to old products. Communicating about any new news related to the old product is very important for every stakeholder. Any new news about the old product is equally important to different because it affects the stakeholder as well as the sales and revenue of the company. So, managers must communicate about any new news about an old product.

3.3.2. Who managers should communicate with and how

Managers must communicate with all the external stakeholders like customers, media, etc. about any new news about an old product as well as internal stakeholders like staffs, upper-level management.

Managers can communicate with various stakeholders in many ways and using different methods. Managers can communicate with the external stakeholders like the public, customers through delivering new news through different forms of media and also by doing a poll, survey, interview, etc. Besides, managers can communicate with the media by organizing, press meet, seminar, an interview program, etc. To communicate with the internal stakeholders like the staff, upper-level management various ways can be adopted like organizing meeting with them, delivering personal messages, etc.(Forbes.com, 2018).

3.4. Communicating media relations programs

Media relation plays an important role in the performance of the company in both ways negatively as well as positively. So, building a successful media relation program is essential for the business organization to increase the performance of the company(Supa, 2014). There are various ways and steps for building a successful media program. The company has various information and news for the media. The company has to create and make various good news stories by knowing the audiences. The company has to create a strong personal relationship with the media by supporting them and knowing them. A good media strategy is essential to building a successful media relation program. Having a creative news story also helps to build a successful media relation. So, the company must generate creative news story and should also have good writing style is very necessary. With the creative and good writing news story, the media will appreciate and also publish it easily because of which the relationship with the media will increase. Whenever the company is organising press meet or organising program to share the news, the media must be invited and also respond to their queries without any hesitation. Accepting the invitation from the media for various types of interviews are also very necessary for building successful media relation program(Terek et al., 2015).

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3.5. Handling Negative News / Protecting Reputation

Negative news is very harmful to the business organizations because it negatively affects the brand image of the company. According toSago and Hinnenkamp (2014), negative corporate news impacts consumerbehavior even if the brand is consumers' favouritebrand.Whenconsumerbehavior and their perception is negatively affected by the negative news, it directly affects the performance of the company. So handing negative news is very important.

The company must be careful and beware of the media for the negative publicity. Good communication with the media companies and person are also very important to control the negative news as media are mostly responsible for the negative news. According toPark et al. (2012), if a company makes mistakes because of which bad news starts to spread over the media, then the crisis manager or manager should react quickly and by admitting a mistake and apologizing.Communication with the public and customers through various means also can reduce the impact of negative news.If there is any negative news, then the company has to sue that media and after that informing the general public about the negative news is necessary.

Overall, Media relation as a part of corporate communication is also an essential function of corporations. As media plays an important role in the performance of an organization, managing good relationship with the media companies and media people are very important. Media relation department is responsible for the management of all the activities related to media and communication with them. Communication about new products, brand, and new news about the old products are important to all the internal as well as external stakeholder since it plays an important role in the promotion of a new product, brand awareness, and finally to capture the market, to increase sales and revenues. Negative news about the brand or product is very harmful for the whole organization so, appropriate measures must be taken by the companies to handle the negative news.

4. Crisis management.

The crisis is defined as the threat to the operations, which can damage the situation without proper intervention (Coombs, 2018). The definition introduces crisis as potential threats to the stakeholders of an organization influencing three different positions- environmental, financial position and reputation of an institution. Hence, the management must adopt a crisis management plan for tackling the situation appropriately and lessen the intensity of situational damage arising from the crisis (Utz, Schultz &Glocka, 2013). Some of the examples of crisis management are reputational crisis, the data breach that affected Target in 2013 because of which 110 million customers' private information was hacked (Britton, 2017). The prevalence of reputational crisis is also observed in the emission scandal of Volkswagen in 2015 when the issue of manipulating the engine's control was occurred for passing the environmental test (Britton, 2019). Hurricane Irma is observed in 2017 that has destroyed homes and crops in the Dominican Republic, Haiti and across other Caribbean islands. It may be considered as environmental crisis. The political crisis is observed in Democratic Republic of the Congo due to war between government and local militia because of which, people are living under the constant life threat.

4.1 Communication during a crisis

4.1.1 Actions and reasons

The initial crisis response needs to focus on three parameters by the spokesperson, such as quick response, accuracy and consistency. The usage of traditional and technological communication channels should be used during initial phase of response to a crisis by the spokesperson (Coombs, 2015). The managers, through communicating with the traditional and social media, can take the crisis like PR crisis of a firm into consideration. On the eve of the financial crisis, the communication strategy's effective implementation requires addressing the regulators and the investors at the first stage. There are two stages of communication during every type of crisis in business for the spokesperson. The pre-crisis stage communicates the potential risks of the situation to stakeholders through the messages from the spokesperson. On the other hand, the post-crisis stage requires communicating to key stakeholders with follow-up message. The managers should have had a crisis plan and clear policies of the firms regarding communication during the crisis (Ham & Kim 2017). Such crisis communication plan would conduct the work in two ways - preparation and response. These two ways of implementing communication plan during crisis help in reducing the damages through the information flow. In this context, it can be said that the firms have to set up the crisis communication team at the pre-crisis stage. The firms should also apply the internal communication plan, media strategy, plan for addressing the potential weakness and updating of information about the programs of the organization (Coombs, 2017). The communication plan for crisis might start from selecting a spokesperson, who will be allocated with the task of addressing all the media inquiries (Graham, Avery & Park, 2015). In the above example, McDonalds should have selected the spokesperson for addressing the issue raised by the people of Tecoma in media as the PR crisis is affecting the brand image of the firm. Further, the media strategy also helps the manager to map out effective communication for dealing with crisis. During the natural disaster, both the media strategy and inter-communication plan help to control the flow of information. The internal communication plan is necessary for the companies for creating a team-work environment. In such way, the spokesperson may receive all the required information and facts. Moreover, the management should set up damage control and limitation process during the next phase of communication. The damage controlling is necessary for addressing the weakness in the system. The final stage of the plan is concerned about updating the information about the crisis and communicating them to the stakeholders, affected families and crisis team thereby resulting in addressing the issue with utmost emphasis on seriousness (Dhanesh &Sriramesh, 2018).

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To protect the brand equity of the business, the firm has to adhere to a planned crisis communication. The reasons for designing a crisis communication plan are various such as connecting spokesperson, updating the media, lessening the damage of the brand value, keep informing all the stakeholders and others (Coombs, 2018).

4.1.2 Managing people and process for crisis communication

A quick response is necessary for all the firms during a crisis. The crisis communication may affect the top management, PR team, stakeholders, security personnel and media (Graham, Avery & Park, 2015). The quick response is necessary when it comes to maintaining cooperation and collaboration with both internal and external stakeholders. The internal stakeholders include crisis communication team, staffs and top management whereas the external stakeholders are affected people, press media and authority. The firms have to use various communication channels effectively for the communication purpose during crisis.

There are a lot of communication channels for crisis communication, such as PR media, company's website, social media and electronic media. All of these are required to be covered by the company's management as well as the media and communication channel (Ulmer, Sellnow& Seeger, 2017).

The previously discussed crisis of Target has shown the issue as the company's crisis communication initiatives are communicated to stakeholders through the official website of the firm (Coombs, 2018). However, the majority of the communication and conversation takes place in the social media (Fearn-Banks, 2016). During this point of time, the company's PR team was not available in social media for clarifying the issues and the protective measures taken by the management (Britton, 2017). Hence, the firm failed to address the concerned issue through the the adoption of appropriate communication channel for handling the crisis.

The quick spread of messages to the crisis team and management of the organization helps the top level organize their strategy for handling the critical situation (Ham & Kim, 2017). Therefore, the company requires creating proper system for sending fast notification to all the members of crisis management team (Ulmer, Sellnow& Seeger, 2017).

The responses to crisis should be orchestrated by the spokesperson of a company with the help of external media so that the affected people are enabled in obtaining the information at the right moment in right intensity (Graham, Avery & Park 2015). The spokesperson is the most appropriate to carry on the external crisis communication initiatives as they are trained to do so and at the same time, they are allocated with the responsibility of implementing the crisis communication plan (Austin, Fisher Liu &Jin, 2012).

4.2 Communicating a future crisis plan

4.2.1 What managers should communicate and why

The examples of crisis communication shows that majority of the PR crisis is occured due to failure of communication from the firms in media. Further, these firms have not addressed the stakeholders properly. Hence, the organizations should take appropriate steps for preventing the occurrence of such situations again by planning the crisis communication. The prevention strategy of PR crisis communication is to set up the crisis communication team along with the appointment of a suitable spokesperson in the firm. Such decision would enable a firm to communicate with the people as well as address the people over an issue. Further, the crisis communication team would also handle the crisis communication in social and digital media by appointing a content management team internally. This digital content management team will be responsible to tackle the crisis communication in social media with the external stakeholders (Sellnow& Seeger, 2013). The issues may be resolved by the adoption of this form of strategy for dealing with crisis. The crisis communication plan almost encompasses all the external stakeholders and the important communication channels.

The crisis communication may require an emergency plan for preventing the repeated crisis on the same issue. The emergency response to the crisis communication can be made by generating the pre-draft message so that quick response to the repeated situations can be orchastrated. These messages are created in template form, which are approved by the crisis communicating team.

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4.2.2 Managing stakeholders through the proper channels

The PR communication crisis requires communicating with the internal stakeholders like staffs, management and crisis communication team for communicating all the relevant information about the situation. In this context, the spokesperson should be provided with the training so that he or she is enabled in handling the external media. Moreover, a meeting between the management and crisis communicating team should be convened for planning the activities and draft messages. The internal communication would prepare the crisis communication team for facing the situation in proper ways along with the media strategy.

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Conclusion

This assignment helps in gaining information regarding the significance of effective communication in an organisation. It is analysed that managers of an organisation should possess appropriate communication skill so that they are able to convey important messages all across the organisation. Managers need to interact with the employees, stakeholders and the employers of the firm. It is important that they must be aware regarding their responsibilities towards the organisation and must be able to fulfil it in an efficient manner. The different communication system and the responsibilities of the managers have been discussed in this assignment in a detailed manner. It is evident that effective communication with the employees can assist the managers in managing the issues and confusions of the employees in a more organised manner. Communication is an important process and it assist mangers in reducing conflicts in an organisation efficient communication is a top priority in a culturally diverse organisation in order to maintain cooperation and coordination.

Recommendations

  • Managers should try to interact and communicate with their employees regarding the significance and uniqueness of their brand so that the employees are able to represent the brand in the most elegant manner that will assist the brand in gaining the attention and respect of the consumers.
  • Mangers should lay more focus on their sustainability practices and encourage their employees towards green CSR. Managers are required to communicate and try to encourage their employees to suggest innovative ideas that can help them in increasing their sustainability.
  • Managers are required to act as a bridge between the requirements of the employees and the interest of the employers. They must communicate in the most transparent manner so that there is no confusion and both the employees' ad the employers are able to understand each other.
  • Managers must remain calm during crisis and should discuss issues with their employees in order to resolve it.

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