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Introduction

It is evident that, the development of technology is adversely affecting the growth of children. The presence of digital gadgets such as cell phones, tablets, video games make children engage in a virtual world. The present report is based on the topic "The impact of technology on the overall growth of children". The research question which is intended to answer in this report is "Does modern technology stagnant psychological growth/development of children?" It is considered as an important question to be answered because it is associated with children's health and psychological development. Nowadays, most of the children are suffering from obesity, vitamin D deficiency, eyesight issues, behavioural issues, and low IQ. Children are the future of a country, and thus it is important to have detailed research on this topic, which in turn can contribute towards nation's development.

How does excessive screen affect children development?

To answer this question, the selected journal article is "Clinical and psychological effects of excessive screen time on children."
Domingues-Montanari et al (2017) in this article has discussed the clinical impact of screen time on children. The research article is on the journal of pediatrics and child health, and therefore provides a detailed description of child health with respect to technology usage. In particular, to conduct detailed research the author has explored several secondary research reports and provided a uniform result. According to the research paper, TV watching at the age of 29 months old is inversely related to physical strength at 65 months of age. In this context, the Canadian children are reported to have reduced motor skills with high screen time (Domingues-Montanari, 2017) The author inferred that high involvement in scream based activities in the early stage of life increases the possibility of physical complaints at a later age. More than 3 hours of computer or video game usage lead to headache or backache in most of the children. Based on secondary data collected by the author, that children between the age group of 2 to 4 years viewing more than 2 hours of TV in a day holds the maximum potential to become obese (Domingues-Montanari, 2017). According to a survey conducted by the World Health Organization Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative on five European nations revealed that the extra time given on TV and other digital gadgets except doing homework leads to an enhanced consumption of high-calorie food such as chocolate, bar, chips, burger, and sweetened drinks. This shows that technology directly impacts to obesity. This evidence of poor diet and TV viewing holds true for those children who are linked with commercial media. Thus, a permanent dietary habit is created in the children's routine life. Similarly, another study report on 1000 Spanish children by the author shows that children between the age of 2 to 6 years having at least 1.5 hours of TV viewing each day complaints of short sleep direction (Domingues-Montanari, 2017). To derive psychological development impact, the author conducted research on some Korean children. This research stated that children between 24 to 30 months of age spending maximum time in front of the TV face the issue of language delay. Furthermore, it is also found their children between 2 to 3 years spending maximum time in front of TV has to face peer victimization in the early years of their school. The information in this report is unique and authentic because the author has incorporated secondary research data to analyze the negative impact of screen time on children's physiological and psychological development.

How does technological exposure affect the behavior of children?

The chosen journal article for answering the research question is "Increased Screen Time Implications for Early Childhood Development and Behavior"

The authors of this report are specialized in the subject case of psychology, in the University of Michigan medical school. They have discussed the effects of digital technology such as mobile and interactive screen media on children behavior. The report revealed that children are mostly involved in watching Netflix, YouTube, TV programs or online games. By studying secondary report on low income urban paediatric clinic in 2015, it has been identified that 94% of children between the age group 0 to 4 years spent their time on mobile devices (Radesky, & Christakis, 2016). Further, the author also concluded that digital exposure impacts the cognitive, language and social-emotional development of children. These children lack creative problem-solving skills, multitasking skills, pragmatic language, word learning, managing strong emotions, adjusting to daily routine and reading non-verbal cues. It is also identified that children associated with excessive screen time during early childhood have shown, cognitive, social, and language delays (Radesky et al, 2016). The reason behind this is the lack of parent-child interaction, exposure to adult-oriented content, and poorer family functioning. Mostly, in low-income family children are engaged with the mobile device for making them calm down immediately, which results in their social-emotional delays (Radesky et al, 2016). In this context, the visual and sound effects of mobile apps and games deteriorates child's heath in the long run. Considering the behavioral impact, it is identified that children exposed to violent media content through problematic video gaming are found to display aggressive behavior. Children often imitate the on-screen behavior which in the later stage is reflected in their personal behavior. Secondary exposure to technology, that is, parental media use also changes their media use habit. The author discussed the background TV viewing and mobile use by parents, encourages children to do the same (Radesky et al, 2016). Preliminary studies also identified that, more parent-child conflict is observed when parents are involved in mobile devices. The report is valid an all aspects and it has been considered because it focuses on the behavioral issue faced by early childhood and school-age children under the impact of technology.

Does parental intervention on technology usage enhance the child development process?

The selected journal article to analyse the research question is "Parental perceptions of technology and technology-focused parenting: Associations with youth screen time"

The authors of this article belong to the department of psychiatry and have undertaken the analysis of child psychology with respect to technology. The study was conducted upon 615 parents as respondents having children in the different developmental stage, that is, early childhood, middle childhood and adolescence. The research suggests that children in the age group 8 to 18 years old having higher exposure to excessive screen time on television smartphones, tablets, computers, and video games are found to have higher body mass index. The authors also found there is direct linkage between screen time and mental health problems such as anxiety, depression, and aggression (Sanders, Parent, Forehand, Sullivan, & Jones, 2016). The report has illustrated the negative impact of increased screen time on healthy activities such as creative play, exercise, outdoor games, and socialisation with peers. Parents provide laptop and tablets for their children for educational purposes, however, it is discovered that these children use these devices which lack educational content and is developmentally inappropriate. In conjunction with this, the screen time exposure for children is directly linked with the norms existing in the house. Parental beliefs and attitudes and their relationship with the child is highly dependent on children media usage. Parental negative attitudes towards technology will restrict their child maximum screen time. (Sanders et al, 2016). The survey conducted 615 parents shown that the adolescents are highly exposed to technology as compared to early childhood and middle childhood. The study also identified that the direct impact of screen time on problematic behavior is experienced during early childhood (Sanders et al, 2016). It also states that television consumes the maximum screen time for early aged and middle-aged children. On the contrary, adolescents spend their maximum time on smartphones and tablets. Finally, the authors concluded those children being restricted by their parents from media use maintain a healthy lifestyle. This paper has been selected as it connects to a larger demographic of respondents having children of all ages groups.

Conclusion

It can be concluded from the above-discussed research papers that technology adversely affect the growth of children. The research study is important for the parents and motivate them to reduce their child's exposure to technological gadgets.

Practical Interpersonal Application

The topic of this report is related to child psychology, which is a subfield of psychology. The present topic chosen for this report describes the impact of technology on child physiology and psychology. Study of child psychology primarily focuses on the feelings, thoughts, and behaviours of children. This mental process results in their outdoor manifestations towards society (Sanders et al, 2016). As a psychology student, it is important for me to study child psychology for my upcoming endeavours. In the future, I aspire to become a preschool teacher, where I have to deal with children between 2 years to 6 years. This age group is considered as the early childhood development period. Having knowledge in child psychology will help me to socialize and teach the children effectively. Nowadays most of the children are less exposed to the physical world and remains busy in the tech world. The study of child psychology provides me a basic understanding of the importance of physical as well as mental fitness. 

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