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Animal Experimentation Eassy Assignment
Question: Discuss animal rights in relation to human rights
Essay - Animal Experimentation in relation to Human experimentation
According to Donnelly, and Whelan (2018), rights are stated as social, ethical and legal ideologies for entitlement and freedom. Rights are not only exclusive for the human in general. Animal rights have been recognized recently and have become popular. These rights are provided to animals so that they are in possession of their own existence and basic interest. The rights are granted to ensure that the non-humans do not suffer, and they are provided with similar considerations than the human beings. As stated by Warren (2017), even though there are laws and rights to protect animals, they are often used as experimentation in the name of research and scientific experiments. Humans are also used for various scientific and medicinal experiments. The inappropriate behavior of the researchers regarding animals has become extensive as they have been treating them as their puppets. this has expanded towards human and they are also being dragged in the experimentation projects. This essay aims to understand and discuss animal rights in relation to human rights and in what ways the researches and experimentations are causing harm to humans and animals. To elaborate the thesis statement the essay will discuss eight articles that mainly emphasizes on the experimentation and unethical research done on human and animals. The articles selected includes risks of using drugs on humans in the field on medicine and neuroscience. Those articles also highlight the uselessness of using animal in their experiments.
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Risk of using drugs for human experimentation
There is a huge risk of doing experiments to humans with drugs. According to Barber (2018), direction of a biological or chemical compound to a human being involves risks. Even though researchers are aware about the risks and it comes to their knowledge during the development process, risks still exists even after a substance is promoted. The article by Kenter, and Cohen, (2006), shows a risk analysis on TGN1412 in humans. This compound being new there was no data present about its precise mechanism thus the risk that might occur was unexpected. there are two analogous provided in this report that suggest that T cells can be triggered either by the booster at an activating position for instance CD3 or by an antagonist at the inhibitory site which is CTLA 4. This particular drug was tolerated by the Rhesus monkey in large quantity without having any side-effects. The reports show the variation between monkey and man and different outcomes administered by testing of the drug.
The complication of contemporary papers about innovative compounds has the integral risks that can be hidden due to lack of knowledge and insufficiency of data. The risk assessment should be provided as an initiative for a globally acknowledged format.
Human Medical Experimentation
The following article deals with human medical experimentation in the past years and its continuing effect on human lives. The human medical experimentations were considered to be complicated (Downing,2018). For instance, Nazis used humans to experiment in their concentration camps. The pre 1800s and world wars, highlight the fact that the experiments were life threatening and the exploration of the subject of human medical experimentation, could have been stopped(O'Malley,2017). Humans were used for unethical experimentations and it violates the principles of medical ethics (Weindling, von Villiez, Loewenauand Farron, 2016). Such practices require consent from people, but some are denied of the right to informed consent which ultimately leads to torturing in disguise of research. The tests conducted required constant biopsies and painful procedures which was life threatening and could have long term impact on their health. Electroshock therapies on children, Malaria study, experiments on newborns, medical experiments on prisoners and radiations were some of the most common and shocking experiments that had no control of the patients on their own lives.
Unethical Human Research in the field of Neuroscience
Research involving unethical practices for human experimentation suggest that there were several misconducts that helped develop ethical guidelines on human experimentation. The time of World War witnessed some of the gruesome human experiments that led to the development of The Nuremberg code 1947 (Czech, Drumland Weindling,2018).
Pediment conducted by Nazis in their concentration camps were brutal and life threatening which had severe impact on their cognitive abilities. The Nuremberg code was developed to set out ethical regulations of human research. There were several studies and experiments like The Monster study which was not widely accepted because it involved therapy in the experiment. The Tuskegee Syphilis study shows that the participants of the experiment were mistreated as no consent was taken from them and they were not aware of their rights (Algahtani, Bajunaid and Shirah, 2018).The treatment for syphilis was completely denied for African Americans. Similarly, in the Stanford prison experiment, the prisoners were psychologically tortured and continued to live with emotional disturbances. The Nazi experiments of World War 2 aimed at removing the inferior races which resulted in permanent disability and death of participants. The research was also conducted on neuropathological Brain analyses to understand the intentions of the criminals. Therefore, the ethical standards framed suggest that the patients must be well informed about their conditions and the experiments to be conducted on them.
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The non-necessity of Animal experimentation
The following article discusses about why animal testing is not necessarily important for developing human medicines(Pycroftand Marston, 2011).The human body is complex and therefore animals are not suitable for pre-clinical testing. Animals and humans are different in terms of their anatomy, genetics and metabolism. This is the reason there can be delays and non-reliance on animal experiments. Accuracy of results cannot be achieved, and it is not necessarily important for researchers to use animals for every research. Researchers have started utilizing transgenic animals to conduct the experiments. However, without the use of living organisms for experimentation, it can be difficult to understand the functioning of many organs in human bodies. According to many researches, animal models are not suitable for mimicking situation and they fail to answer many questions. Therefore, the medical field needs better experiments that prove to improve human life rather than using animals to get better results.
The use of animals in medical experimentation
Some of the researchers have also identified the crucial importance of animal experimentation and why it matters (Grosvenor, 2003).Authors have advised that animal experimentation must be stopped but the discussion never reached at a final stage. The author of this article clarifies the fact that in order to understand the biological process of humans, animal experimentation is nothing wrong. If humans were capable of improving their cognition and health, they would not have required any experimentation. Therefore, it can be concluded that animal experimentation is either seen positive or negative, but the argument still exists.
Arguments on Animal Research
In order to test the effectiveness of the drug or any procedure prior on the application or usage on the human, it is experimented on the animals which has been one of the concerns about the animals. This aspect has been followed because it helps in focusing on particular pathological processes irrespective of the confounding effects of multiple other injuries or medication and treatments. Pietro Croce has been criticizing vivisection on the basis of scientific reasons. He is the Italian pathologist and has been placing his view with clear justifications (Roberts, et. al., 2002).
Multiple experiments have been conducted with a view to assess the scientific and the logical basis for fluid resuscitation. It could be concluded that in the previous approaches which were systematized for reviewing the randomized trials of fluid resuscitation in bleeding trauma patients has been not provided with evident reasons.
Syphilis Experiment on Humans
The paper explores the multiple experiments which involved deliberate infections of human subjects with the syphilis which were performed in Paris I the year 1859. The experiments were performed by Doctor Camille Gibert along with Doctor Joseph Alexander Auzias Turenne(Dracobly, 2003).The experiments were conducted through the use of scientific literature and contemporary reactions. The paper explores the experiments in scientific terms and professional rivalry which seeks to reveal the logical and scientific concerns that were shaped and limited experimental practices during the mid-nineteenth century in France.
The conclusion could be stated as that the experiments held in France in 1859, elongated to the nineteenth century and some scientific and logical reasoning has been provided through the paper. The experiment has been explored on scientific terms and stated in justified manner with authentic results.
The report provides a clear identification and segregation of each of the articles which provides some minor as well as major facts about the human and animal rights conflicts. The exploration of human and animal rights has been made with identification of each of the contradictory facts about the two and how it impacts the two living things. The report has explored the eight articles thoroughly and has provided with the zest of each one of them with concluding statement which makes the concerned report quite authentic and widely applicable.
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