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Water Pollution, Federation university, Australia

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Question: Apply any of the analytical tools to develop innovative analytics visualization solutions and predictive models with regards to environment. The Topic is on environmental issues - Water Pollution.

Answer: Abstract: The developing technology has introduced many industries and the river water and the sea water also gets polluted. The availability of pure water has become a concern. The Stastical analysis predict that nearly 80% of the water is polluted and being purified for domestic purposes. In this paper we are going to discuss water pollution, the causes of the water pollution, and the effect of water pollution on the living .the treatment undergone to purify water. The SAS analysis performed for the effective data analysis on chemical oxygen demand and the country analyzed was united states of America the northern region .

Introduction: Water pollution is the major concern in the globe today. Increasing population, increasing technology, increasingindustries all pave way for the water contamination. The planet itself is predicted to be a polluted one with air pollution, water pollution and the land pollution much such pollution. Where ever we turn its only pollution we hear (Abhijit naik, 2012). The drinking water which we drink itself is a polluted one. Lots of sewage, storm water, and industrial waste are dumped in to the river thereby contaminating the water,US Rivers annually. If the US estimates 46 percent of the world population will face shortage of water by 2050 (Abhijit naik, 2012). 

Statistics of Water Pollution: The nature of human being is to settle in a water body area or place, a practice from ancient times . The water pollution can also be a trace of the ancient behavior. The new trend is that the planets water source is depleting day by day. The resource of water available a years back is not available now. The reason for this is the pollution of the water bodies and the disposal of waste in the water bodies. From the past decades it is estimated the number of disposal of the waste into the water bodies has increased. According to data predicted the united world water assessment Program predicts that the world's fresh water resources are disposed with the waste accounts to 2million tones of the waste being dumped in water bodies. According to World health (WHO)and UNICEF jointly monitored for water and sanitation estimated that around 1.8 billion people in the world drink contaminated water and around 748 people in the world do not have even an access to find a safe drinking water (Abhijit naik, 2012).

According to toxic release estimate by the federal government accounted that nearly 226 billion lb of toxic chemicals are being dumped into the US water ways in 2010 alone. In case we estimate in volume the waste dumped in US water accounts to more than nitro compounds (Abhijit naik, 2012).

All the developing countries in the world are accountable for the larger percentages of water pollution. In these developing countries 90 percent of the waste, factory outlets, and effluents are diverted to rivers and lakes (Dariusz Majerek,Roman Babko, 2019). In addition to this industries in these developing countries dump 70 percent of the waste into the water bodies. All the effluents and the toxic waste from the industries are being dumped in to the nearby lakes and rivers (Abhijit naik, 2012).

In US the groundwater contamination is due to agricultural development, most of the underground water are mainly contaminated by the nitrates present in the agricultural lands for pesticides (Dariusz Majerek,Roman Babko, 2019).

Dating back to world water report in 2012 estimates that 47 percent of people will be living in areas where there will be limited or unavailability of even traces of water by 2030. The ocean water pollution also predicts that nearly 14 billion lb of waste is being dumped in the water bodies (Abhijit naik, 2012).

The oil pollution in water yearly occurs by 706 million gallons of oil enter ocean either intentionally or unintentionally due to ship wreck or the leakage in pipeline of underwater oil refineries (Abhijit naik, 2012).

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Causes of water Pollution: The life giving agent in the living species right from plant to human being is water. Due to its pollution, scarcity millions of people are being affected to access the resource of water even if they walk for miles their answer is no for water. Even though the technology has developed for desalination, purification its contaminants has not reduced (Causes and consequences of water pollution).

The human beings are the main cause of the water pollution they dump the waste into the water ways as such. All the industrial, sewage and the effluents are being dumped into the water ways. The dumping of the waste increases the toxicity thereby reducing the oxygen level in the water thereby making it unfit for the domestic purpose. Due to increase in population the trees are being cut and which lead to soil erosion dumping the water bodies and the pesticides that is being used in the agricultural lands are the major pollutants of ground water (Melissa Denchak , 2018).

Categories of water pollution

Ground Water Pollution: The ground water pollution is nothing but the seepage of the water into the ground through pores in the soil. The rain comes falls in the ground fills the cracks, opens and pores in to the ground. Nearly 40 percent of Americans rely on groundwater. This ground water gets contaminated by the pesticides, fertilizers being leached into the underground pores through running water. The ground water when gets polluted it will remain the same for decades and sometimes seeps into the river or lake (Melissa Denchak , 2018).

Surface Water Pollution: The surface water covers the 70 percent of the water in Planet Covers Rivers, oceans, lakes and ponds. Surface water from fresh water accounts for most of the60 percent of the American homes. According to the survey most of the rivers, lakes and surface water are unfit for swimming, fishing, and even sailing. The nitrates and phosphates are the contaminants in the fresh water and mainly the toxins from the industrial waste. These phosphates and fertilizers has become a runaway in the lakes and rivers that is used for the plants growth (Melissa Denchak , 2018). There are other contaminants also to cause water pollution.

Ocean Pollution: The 80 percent of the water pollution accounts for the ocean pollution that is sourced from the landfills that which is dumped into the oceans. All the metals, plastic and sewage from the rivers and lakes floe into the ocean thereby causing harm to marine animals (Melissa Denchak , 2018).

Point Source: The point source includes the contaminants being dumped into the water source from oil refineries, chemical plants , fertilizer plants, leaking septic systems, chemical spills and oil spills.

Nonpoint source: The nonpoint source includes the diffuse source this includes storm water, rainwater runaway.

The sources of water pollution

The main sources of water pollution includes

• Effluent and sewage from domestic use

• Industrial waste effluents

• Agricultural effluents

• Radioactive waste

• Thermal pollution

• Oil Pollution

Effluent and Sewage pollution from Domestic waste: The domestic pollution includes the water used for bathing, washing, cooking and cooling . the human use nearly 135 liter of water per day for the day today activities. The 70 to 80 percent of the water are drain into rivers and the lakes passing on the human living area (Kumar , Encvironmental Pollution). The other waste materials used by human like papers, plastics, detergents and washing chemicals for floor and bathrooms are being drained into municipal drainages that finally end up in lakes, tanks and rivers. The major source of water pollution is the domestic sewage from the human living area. This organic waste depletes the oxygen in the water and then creates an unbalance in the aquatic ecosystem (Kumar , Encvironmental Pollution). Municipal sewage is major cause of the water pollution as it is not purified before discharge. As the population increases the growing waste in domestic sewage also increases. The organic material found in the domestic pollution includes soaps ,shampoos ,detergents, floor cleaning chemicals, utensil cleaners and amino acids, fatty acids, oil and all such waste are found in domestic sewage (Melissa Denchak , 2018). The sewage water are the carries all microorganisms, viruses and all pathogenic organism into the water bodies. These organisms consume the oxygen present in the water and the measured in biochemical oxygen demand (Kumar , Encvironmental Pollution). The lack of oxygen in water kills fish, water living species.

Industrial Waste Effluents: The industrialization due to technological development has caused a major increase in the water pollution. The industries mostly and frequently dump the effluents into the river. The major sources of water polluting industry include chemical, fertilizer plants, food processing, pharmaceuticals, plastic processing and paper pulp industry. The waste includes heavy metals, toxic substances, and inorganic compounds. Study reveals that Durgapur steel plants 1800 cu/m of coal washed into the river. In another study 1200cu/m of the paper mill waste being dumped in the nearby river. Most of the paper mills and textile mills are located near the river dump the waste into the river. The effluent from paper mill includes wooden chips, bits of bark, cellulose fiber, chlorine, sulphur and alkaline mixtures all being dumped into the ocean (Melissa Denchak , 2018). Food processing includes dairy products, food preservatives and organic waste.

Agricultural waste: Theagricultural waste includes the pesticides and fertilizer being used for the growth of the plant. In recent years the use of fertilizers has contaminated the ground water level in the developing countries around the world. The nitrates cause serious health effects in infants as these will be acting as a stimulator of the algal growth in the groundwater bed (Kumar , Encvironmental Pollution).

Radioactive Waste: The radioactive waste like uranium and radium from radioactive industries produce serious radioactive effects when dumped in the water bed their emissions will go for decades causing many ill effects on human and animals. The birth defects are mainly due to the radioactive substances being dumped in the water beds (Melissa Denchak , 2018). 

Thermal Pollution: The thermal pollution mainly from thermal power plants dumps the water into the nearby rivers. Most of the power plants are situated near water bed areas and they send the untreated water or the contaminants into the water ways.Thermal pollution is considered hazardous for the whole aquatic ecosystem. Several industries have installed cooling towers, where the heated water is cooled. But even so, thermal pollution has become a serious problem for water bodies located near thermal plants (Kumar , Encvironmental Pollution).

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Methodology: The methodology on water pollution involves the prediction of chemical oxygen demand in the ground water station in the United States. In United States the ground water has been polluted in the recent decades due to the agriculture activities. In this report we are going to analyze the ground water contamination in United States for the period of 1976-2019. The chemical oxygen is measure of the amount of oxygen in water and waste water quality. It is always monitored for the water demand and treatment quality in water treatment plants. The chemical oxygen demand is a treatment process where an oxidizing agent is used to kill the microorganism in the waste water by oxidizing it.The COD fully oxide any organic to inorganic compound. The COD is measured using a strong oxidant under acidic conditions. The oxidants when added into the sample the oxidation takes place in the organic sample by the remaining amount of oxidation present in the sample. The chemical oxygen demand is determined by the mg/l mass of oxygen consumed per gram liter of the solution (The Chemistry of Chemical Oxygen Demand:).

Results and discussion: 

Selected time span:

from 1976 to 2019

 

Selected water types:

  • Groundwater station
  • Lake station
  • River station
  •  

Selected water quality parameter:

 

Name

Long name

Short name

Units

Oxygen Demand

Chemical Oxygen Demand

COD

mg/l

The entire United States of America ground water is dependent on ground water. The estimation approximately 50% of the population is dependent on the groundwater. But due to the increase in population and the agricultural activities have polluted this ground water in United States. The ground water is moving the pollution can only contaminant for a period of time.

Metadata

Spatial aggregation:

Countries:

Name

ISO-Code

Sub-Region

Region

United States of America (the)

USA

North America

North America

       

Basins:

Main Basin

Main Basin Code

Basin area (km²)

Mississippi

MISS

3,264,759.1

Rio Grande (North America)

RGNA

538,401.8

---

   

Colorado

CLDO

662,499.7

Columbia

CLMB

654,303.8

     

Institutions:

Measuring Programme

Data Provider

Station Count

United States of America

U. S. Geological Survey (USGS)

24

The analysis was made for the North America polluted from ground water. The countries affected include the RIO Grande, Colorado, Columbia and the basin area in the stations was calculated.

Statistics: Chemical Oxygen Demand

Data availability

Selected water types

Years

Stations count

1982

1

1983

2

1984

2

1985

14

1986

9

1987

10

1988

9

1989

11

1990

10

1991

9

1992

11

1993

11

1994

11

1995

15

1996

11

1997

15

1998

6

1999

5

2000

5

2001

6

2002

6

2003

5

2004

5

2005

1

Total Stations:

24

The samples were collected from 24 station in the united states in the north American region.

Samples Count Year wise

Years

Samples count

1982

1

1983

5

1984

5

1985

65

1986

64

1987

62

1988

71

1989

74

1990

81

1991

72

1992

75

1993

72

1994

58

1995

41

1996

39

1997

28

1998

20

1999

24

2000

18

2001

21

2002

36

2003

22

2004

14

2005

3

Total Samples:

971

Frequency distribution

Intervals

Frequency count

0.0 - 5.0

29

5.0 - 52.222

888

52.222 - 99.444

37

99.444 - 146.667

13

146.667 - 193.889

 

193.889 - 241.111

2

241.111 - 288.333

 

288.333 - 335.556

 

335.556 - 382.778

 

382.778 - 430.0

2

   

Annual statistics

[in mg/l]

Min

P10

P25

P50

P75

P90

Max

Mean

Stdev

1982

10.000

10.000

10.000

10.000

10.000

10.000

10.000

10.000

0.000

1983

8.000

8.000

17.000

22.000

23.000

28.000

28.000

19.600

7.570

1984

8.000

8.000

10.000

13.000

31.000

40.000

40.000

20.400

14.258

1985

8.000

10.000

10.000

20.000

30.000

40.000

400.000

30.262

53.022

1986

10.000

10.000

10.000

20.000

30.000

40.000

80.000

24.438

13.361

1987

10.000

10.000

10.000

11.000

20.000

40.000

70.000

20.000

14.015

1988

10.000

10.000

10.000

20.000

30.000

60.000

120.000

28.324

26.011

1989

10.000

10.000

10.000

20.000

30.000

40.000

70.000

24.770

14.318

1990

10.000

10.000

20.000

20.000

30.000

40.000

90.000

26.346

14.219

1991

10.000

10.000

10.000

20.000

30.000

30.000

40.000

19.583

8.297

1992

10.000

10.000

10.000

20.000

30.000

40.000

130.000

22.133

17.729

1993

10.000

10.000

20.000

20.000

30.000

40.000

430.000

32.083

49.730

1994

10.000

10.000

10.000

20.000

30.000

40.000

100.000

23.966

21.021

1995

10.000

10.000

10.000

20.000

20.000

30.000

80.000

20.488

13.407

1996

10.000

10.000

10.000

20.000

30.000

60.000

130.000

26.667

26.090

1997

10.000

10.000

10.000

20.000

20.000

30.000

120.000

21.429

21.553

1998

5.000

10.000

10.000

10.000

10.000

30.000

60.000

16.050

13.934

1999

5.000

5.000

5.000

10.000

18.000

20.000

40.000

12.542

9.478

2000

5.000

5.000

7.000

10.000

17.000

30.000

40.000

13.667

9.443

2001

5.000

5.000

7.000

10.000

15.000

20.000

23.000

11.143

6.011

2002

5.000

5.000

9.000

11.000

25.000

112.000

235.000

33.278

48.917

2003

5.000

5.000

8.000

11.000

23.000

92.000

115.000

26.409

33.626

2004

5.000

5.000

8.000

10.000

13.000

19.000

21.000

10.786

4.917

2005

10.000

10.000

10.000

10.000

30.000

30.000

30.000

16.667

11.547

Total:

5.000

10.000

10.000

20.000

30.000

40.000

430.000

23.987

26.902

Trend statistics

Type

Trend

Significance

Intercept
b

Slope
m

Max

none detected (tau_b = -0.066)

not significant (p = 0.3327)

4,121.422

-2.011

P90

none detected (tau_b = -0.180)

not significant (p = 0.1206)

-1,210.968

0.628

Med

slightly decreasing (tau_b = -0.491)

significant (p = 0.0007)

923.535

-0.455

Avg

none detected (tau_b = -0.203)

not significant (p = 0.0925)

658.618

-0.319

Seasonal statistics

 

1976 - 2019

[in mg/l]

Min

P10

P25

P50

P75

P90

Max

Mean

Stdev

SPRING

5.000

10.000

10.000

20.000

30.000

40.000

400.000

25.459

31.676

SUMMER

5.000

10.000

10.000

20.000

30.000

50.000

235.000

25.903

25.790

AUTUMN

5.000

10.000

10.000

20.000

20.000

40.000

90.000

20.420

13.145

WINTER

5.000

10.000

10.000

20.000

30.000

40.000

430.000

23.896

33.221

Total:

5

10

10

20

30

40

430

23,987

26,902

Parameter Details

Name:

Oxygen Demand

ChEBI-Number:

 

Long name:

Chemical Oxygen Demand

EC-Number:

 

Short name:

COD

CAS-Number:

 

Remark:

A measure of oxygen consumption during decomposition of organic and inorganic substances by a chemical oxidant.

Group:

/Chemical/Oxygen Demand

Methods: Titration and colorimetric analysis was performed to estimate the chemical oxygen demand

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Conclusion: From the report it is determine the Chemical oxygen demand is 1mg/l which is the limit and if it exceeds it is not in use to the water. The water pollution has to be controlled if the surface and ground water gets polluted then the demand for the water will be high. The country should make awareness on water pollution and the industries and domestic waste must be recycled and the water quality has to be maintained. The water is water when it is not contaminated the life provider of our living is water. We cannot live without water. Save water to save life on earth.

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