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Water pollution and Drinking water

Water pollution has reached serious proportions these days. There is increased disease and death due to water pollution these days. The ill-effects of water pollution can be seen more in the low and middle income countries like Africa and Asia. The following part of the discussion is about some of the key causes of water pollution, drinking water sources and treatment procedures.

Urbanization is one of the prominent contributors for water pollution these days. Physical disturbance of land due to increased construction activity, leaving pollution from the industries into the water, excessive usage of fertilizers to get more food yields, disposal of litter are all contributing factors to water pollution. Other water quality concerns include detoriation of water quality due to the load accompanied flood water by run-off (Issaka and Ashraf, 2018). Organic matter present in the flood water will become detrimental to the river fauna, due to the consumption of oxygen from the river water, stock farming due to the liquid manure, Nitrogen and phosphorous accumulation from pesticides which can result in eutrophication of the pond waters. Soil erosion will result in degradation of the soil yields.

Further, the water quality in the downstream will be impacted by the soil the water carries with it. If water contains more and more soil in it, the drainage networks will get impacted. Nutritient contaminants and the heavy metals if carried away by water downstream, the consequences will be severe in the form of eutrophication, disturbance of delicate aquatic eco systems and so and so forth. Dissolved oxygen profile in the downstream waters will be greatly impacted by the accumulation of the algae in the down flow waters and it will also be impacted by the accumulations of the nutritients etc which will consume the oxygen present in. The dissolved water profile in the downstream of waste water is highly dependent on the existing DO content in the water and the waste being dumped into the water and the rate of accumulation of the same. As more and more waste is being dumped into the water, the bacteria uses the air contained in the water and will take up the decomposition of the waste. In due course the Dissolved oxygen levels will fall down if the consumption rates are higher than reaeration rates and the process continues. Eutrophication of the lakes is a situation of collection of nutritients into the lake waters. Where in the nutritients like phosphorous and sulphur etc will collect into the lake waters and will increase the growth of algae in the waters. They will make the lake waters shallow and makes unfit for recreation. The entire process of sediment collection and algae growth will contribute towards increase in the littoral areas, which further enhances the plant growth(Van Beuseskom, 2018).

In most of the locations, ground water in any of the source forms like hand bores, lakes and etc...
Makesup the key source of drinking water. However still, the pollution seriously hampers the quality of the ground water. Ground water can be polluted by the leakage of oil, chemicals and gasoline from the storage systems and the transport pipe lines into the ground water.

Septic systems leakages also contribute to the contamination of the ground water. Atmospheric contaminants, road salts, hazardous material dumping, landfills etc all contribute to the pollution of the ground water.

Drinking water sources include hyporheic zones, springs, ground water, precipitation, surface water like rivers etc,. Also in deserts it may include desalinated sea water. Municipal water systems can work on treat both the surface and ground waters before supplying them for public. Surface water will need more treatment than typical ground water, mainly due to the reason that the surface waters are more vulnerable and contains more contaminants than ground water generally. The typical treatment procedures include flocculation and coagulation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection before supplying the same for public. Bio, chemical and physical techniques are employed for ground water remediation. Typical techniques include bio augmentation, bioventing, ion-exchange, air sparging etc. Finally the effectiveness and efficiency of the water treatment process will decide the quality of the potable water. Custom treatment procedures based on prevailing contaminations and conditions will decide the quality of water (Faust and Aly,2018).

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