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Assignment - Write a paper on Chemical Engineering point of view of Safety Awareness.

Aim - The main aim of this research is to determine both workers and the environment impact on the site location in Duqam refinery. In addition, it also demonstrates the importance of safety awareness on the employees, environment and residents present in Duqam refinery in accordance with the chemical engineering point of view and by applying ALOHA simulation software.

Answer - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING POINT OF VIEW OF SAFETY AWARENESS

ABSTRACT

Chemical hazards can be identified as one of the major health and safety issue in the industrial areas, especially for chemical manufacturing and processing industries. Transportation, handling and using of chemicals are the main challenge faced by a chemical manufacturing industry. Thus the processing methods of hazardous chemical pose a high risk and can cause ruinous causalities, serious damage to the environment or loss of assets. Hence, the primary concern in a chemical processing industry needs to conduct is Process Safety. An operational safety management is the principle rule for Process Safety, which promises to practice on the key elements of operational process safety. However, the safety knowledge is not used or effectively implemented in the processes of safety management and needs to evaluate several methods of safety management to be practiced. With the help of effective safety knowledge management, the safety awareness in the chemical manufacturing industry to limit the risks and chemical accidents. Researchers have conducted several studies to identify the problems and great effort to make the industries relatively safer for humans and the environment. Preventing the exposures and limiting the hazards are now the needs to be the primary concern in a chemical processing site. This needs a well-managed procedures and regular practices within the factory, which involves different researches, regular practicing of the safety protocols and ensuring employee training. Studying of several research methodologies is a process to examine the issues and questions related to safety management, to take the necessary steps of resolving the issues. This paper about chemical industry safety awareness, discusses the environmental and health related hazards pointing to the employee issues and toxicological information, gathered from software analysis.

For the process to be carried out we need human involvement in this process of manufacturing. Right from input of raw material to the output of product entire process carried out by humans. The exposure to hazardous chemicals is more to the human workplace. Safety awareness has to be created to know the hazards at work place. Training on hazards has to be given .The chemical manufacturing is an accident prone process. The Employees working in this area of the toxicity of the exposure of chemicals at work place, for this a survey was carried out for 20 employees working at Duqom refinery, each employee was given a set of ten questions on safety awareness and hazards of chemicals used in work place. The Questions asked about the Safety data sheet (SDS), the personal protective equipment (PPE) and how to use the Safety rules. The end of the survey noted that of the 20 employees, 10 were aware of the safety issues and the remaining 10 were unaware of the safety issues in work place. The hazarded of the chemical was analyzed by using ALOHA software.

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Chapter 1: 1. INTRODUCTION

To gain vital knowledge the chemical safety awareness and safety training programmers are conducted in the industry every month. The chemical awareness training gain the knowledge about the recognition of hazard information ,to read the hazards chemical name, how to understand Safety data sheet how to use the data in material safety data sheet and how to assess the risk at your work place. Chemical hazard awareness should be given to employees those who are exposed to highly hazards area on the completion of awareness the participants must know what is safety, what are the use of safety data sheet and how to deal with hazards chemical around them, how to handle the hazardous situation. In this project, we are going to conduct survey for 20 Employees in the work place regarding safety the question session includes.

1. Are you aware that you're exposed to chemical that can be inhaled, ingested or absorbed in the body?

2. Are you aware of the labeling done to chemical whether they are arranged and classified properly?

3. Are you trained to work with hazard chemical your handling at work place?

4. Have you got any idea what is use of personnel protective equipment?

5. Where you taught to use the safety data sheet at work place?

6. Are you having the sound knowledge about the details material safety data sheet?

7. Are you having previous accident records?

8. Are you aware of the fire hoods and know how to operate them?

9. Are you aware if any chemical comes in contact to body what is the immediate action to be taken for the chemical which you use?

10. Are you aware of the color codes for the hazard chemical storage?

The above questions were surveyed to employee working in the workplace, assessing the data collected from the authority and analyzing the report as such where more training and knowledge to be provided for employee regarding safety. This type of awareness training is given for developing secure and sustainable work place for employees. The goal of this study to understand how far the general understanding is enabled among employers, employees and other duty-holders for promoting the risk reduction at the workplace and safety, health and welfare. Human behavior is the contribution to accidents revealed by occupational safety commission. The safety procedures can be followed only when there is proper response from the employees towards safety rules created in the workplace, for to understand the behavior pattern towards safety.

1.1 How to Raise Awareness of Chemical Hazards in Workplace

Not all industries use chemical in workplace but those industries which use hazardous chemicals should educate their employees how to be safe from hazards .If an industry fails to implement safety and do not educate Employee regarding safety the firm has to pay risk compensation throughout the year instead of payment to employee. According to occupation and health safety Industrial firm should have proper safety measure, a safety department and a safety officer to continuously monitor safety issues and chemical hazards. The firm should conduct safety audit every month to analysis the accident results in the factory the safety procedure followed to prevent accident. The firm should plane according it should conduct monthly surveys and based on

  • Correct usage of personnel protective equipment
  • Implementing measure to reduce the exposure of chemicals in workplace
  • Training the employee
  • Ensure that the fire alarm and fire extinguishers are working properly
  • Medical claim policies
  • Maintaining a standard start up procedure for all process
  • Providing material safety data sheet to employees so that they can handle hazardous limit of chemicals in workplace.

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1.2 How to identify Hazard and address them

The main reason for work place injury is the failure to identify the root cause of incident.

  • Work place assessment of hazards present likely
  • Initial and final inspection to be carried out for existing and occurring hazard
  • Identify the previous issues and benchmark the present with the previous.

1.3 The aim of this research

The main aim of this research is to determine both workers and the environment impact on the site location in Duqam refinery. In addition, it also demonstrates the importance of safety awareness on the employees, environment and residents present in Duqam refinery in accordance with the chemical engineering point of view and by applying ALOHA simulation software.

1.4 Objectives of this research

  • To define the importance of safety awareness among the residents and employees at Duqum refinery.
  • To demonstrate the employees and environmental impact on the site located in the Sultanate of Oman
  • To emphasis engineer to conduct training which is an essential aspect for taking any safety precaution.
  • To teach the chemical engineers that safety awareness will help them to reduce the accident events that often take place in the workplace.

1.5 Synopsis and plan of work

In today's environment, absent of safety awareness generate various types of accidents to the chemical engineers. Therefore, the following paper will demonstrate the safety awareness of the people regarding chemical engineering point of view. The safe maintenance, design, and operation of a chemical plant are essential to protect the residents, employees as well as residents (Galanakis, Barba and Prasad, 2015). The paper will thereby define this safety topic in a chemical engineering point of view so that the chemical engineers should know the importance of using safety equipment while working. The work plans to demonstrate the needs of safety precaution, and therefore a chemical engineering site location present in Duqam refinery is chosen for this study.

1.6 the basis of project/rationale

In today's environment, the rate of accidents among the chemical engineering workers are increasing day by day, and therefore it is important that they should be aware of the safety precautions. It is seen not only the workers get affected, but the residents surrounding the site location and the environments both get tremendously affected due to the absence of this safety precautions. Therefore, on the basis, chemical engineering pointy of view the safety awareness fact is demonstrated and the main reason for focusing on these aspects is to teach the people regarding safety procedure (Acharyulu and Seetharamaiah, 2015). In many instances, the employees working in the chemical engineering sector often ignore to take safety precautions and therefore various accidents generate in between the employees and the environment. Hence this study will thereby provide the chemical engineering point of view on the necessity of safety awareness by the people.

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Chapter 2: LITERATURE REVIEW

The need for the chemicals in the market is continuously increased due to the industrial demand. The types of chemicals used in workplace differ in nature, quantity and risk. In the year 2017, (Don-Hee and PARK, 2017), a survey on awareness about hazardous chemicals was conducted in the living area of chemical plant in South Korea was analyzed. It says that economic growth in increasing continuously with increasing accidents that cause a life threat to public living in near the chemical plant. The study was conduct to analyze how people are aware of the workers exposed to chemical hazards. A questionnaire survey was conducted fro 600 residents and 160 workers in chemical plants the question was the awareness of chemical risk and usage of PPE the end of result was that the government has to provide the notification of chemical risk in the resident area. (Don-Hee and Park, 2017). In a review study regarding safety in workplace and occupational conducted in eastern nepal revealed that welders were surveyed about the awareness of occupational safety about variety of hazards in the work place it was predicted that the welder lack the knowledge of safety and about the usuage of personnel protective equipment About 300 welders in the work place where surveyed and the results were analuzed randomly synthesois based onn awareness was created and the concluded that proper awareness training has to be given for a sfer environment to work (Shyam, Suman, Reshu, Surya, Niruala, 2013).The hazards symbol review was conducted among students to create awareness of the hazard in laboratory The study was carried out to create a awareness of the symbols used in labotatory .The results obtained showed that the students where aware of the symbols used in laboratory (Mehrifal, Eskandania, Priami , Mardanparval, 2016). The main aim of the occupational health and safety is to inform employee about safety the analyses was performed for employees who had less awareness of potential Exposure .The analysis was carried and the result was hospital and construction ranked the top. (Virginia, Behran, Robert, 2016). A report on Special Eurobarometer 360 based on Consumer understanding of labels and the safe use of chemicals report (EU Commission, 2011) also illustrated the need for safety training in the work place for chemical Engineers. In a consumer survey study conducted by (European chemical agency, 2012), on the understanding of labels and safe use of chemicals reported the demand for the training and knowledge development study on communication about the safe use of chemicals among workers (European Chemicals Agency [ECHA], January 2012) the resulted predicted in the survey that there where proper using of safety equipments. Another survey review on human behavior safety suggested that human behavior is the construction of accident of many procedures. The awareness has to be created for proper behavior safety the employees should be trained accordingly so that they are aware of the hazards around them and can take measures during emergency. (Sulastre and Faridah, 2011).

In the words of Hofmann, Burke and Zohar, (2017), most of the chemical plant enable to maintain safe design, operation as well as maintenance and therefore the employees, nearby residents and the environments harmed by their impact. Hence in order to provide safety awareness, proper steps should be implemented by the chemical plant so that no individual, as well as the environment, can be harmed by their industry. According to the author Sanz-Calcedo et al., (2015), from the 19th-century various safety regulation and codes are introduced by the government of several countries in accordance with safety awareness. However, in relation to the chemical engineering point of view, most of the chemical plant failed to incorporate the safety measures. Due to these various incidents as well as accidents occurs during the operation process and both the employees and the environment gets affected by this fact.

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In the opinion of De Rademaeker et al., (2014), the industrial procedures are often done at other than the atmospheric pressures, and therefore the operations related to the process are very hazardous in nature. In order to reduce the scope of accidents in the workplace, proper safety measures should be needed so that no one will hurt during the working procedure. The author also suggested that chemical engineers should have a view on the safety procedure because chemical not only effects the people but also provide a negative impact on the surrounding residents and environment respectively. As per the author Shariff, Wahab and Rusli, (2016), various laws are made for determining the safety awareness for the chemical engineering students, but proper fulfilling of this law are not maintained by these engineers.

Due to this reason, various problems have been arising among the students that affected their health. Therefore, in order to provide a safe and healthy environment both the safety systems and process control should be merged so that no accidents should occur in the working environment of the chemical engineers. As evaluated by the author Naderpour, Lu and Zhang, (2014), on the basis of a chemical engineering point of view teaching procedure should be necessary for safety awareness among the people as well as for the environment too. The author suggested that major incidents in the chemical industry and that sometimes causes potential losses of living as well as environmental and economic losses also occur. The main reason for these occurrences is the lack of knowledge regarding the negative impact of these effects. Hence proper teaching can be provided to the chemical engineers so that in coming days they can save themselves from the negative impact of these chemicals.

In the words of Gnoni and Saleh, (2017), the Health and safety executive of the chemical plant should take appropriate measures by which they can enhance the safety awareness of the chemical engineers. According to this author by teaching the engineers properly regarding the importance of safety measures and also the procedures by which they can be safe from any major incidents should help the firm to get rid out of these industrial incidents. The process safety is a critical method that can help the chemical engineers to enhance their safety awareness, and after learning this, they can take the respective steps by which no people, as well as the environment, get affected. According to the author Mannan et al., (2016), over the past decades industrial incident shows a particular pattern and thereby most of the firms in present-day incorporates training session about the safety measures that eventually decreases the impact of accident rates. The author suggested that education plays a significant role in contributing to the preventive measures and thereby training is considered to be an important approach by which the firm can enhance their safety awareness.

Besides this, the author suggested that the Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB) has introduced various training procedures that enable the chemical plant to enhance their employee's safety measures. In the opinion of Talarico and Reniers, (2016), the chemical engineers should arrange a long-standing safety program for the students so that they will understand the necessity of safety awareness while working in a chemical plant. In addition, safety modules along with teaching supplements should also be incorporated in the study session of the chemical engineering students so that they should be aware of the safety means while working in the future. As stated by the author Groso et al., (2016), in accordance with the chemical engineering point of view, if the administrative department should determine the particular potential hazards that they will make proper waste disposal techniques and safety precaution. In order to make a safe environment, the administrative team should ensure that all chemicals are clearly and correctly labeled so that no change of any explosion through chemical action will stake a place in the workplace.

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Chapter 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

To investigate the awareness of safety hazards in the workplace of handling chemicals the questioner was composed based on the following aspects the Safety data sheet, material safety data sheet, personnel protective equipment, fire alarms, color codes of storage of chemicals, labeling of chemicals and codes of standard, countermeasures for chemical risk, awareness of countermeasures in chemical accidents. The professional survey ethics was maintained throughout the survey by keeping confidentiality of the employee's awareness by protecting the identity of those participating in survey and by maintaining the confidentiality in the survey report and protection of data from the survey. The survey was based on previous incident and safety measures and the survey was a direct questionnaire on interview basis for all 20 employees (Shyam, Suman, Reshu, Surya and Niruala, 2013). The survey revealed that there is a correlation in safety measure; larger company has a better understanding of their employee's safety. The employees were investigated one by one to analyze their awareness towards chemical hazards and the dangerous hazards of using it. The aim of this interview questionnaires survey is to determine major factors that contribute to improve safety compliance. The method followed where marking yes or no in the survey and answering the question which ever they are aware of regarding the chemical safety. The questioner was like a training a programme and a interview session where individual called to answer the survey questions out of 20 employees 10 where permanent employees and 10 where contract labors. The review took nearly two hours of the questionnaire session. At the end of survey the reports were segregated based on the permanent and contract labors (Don-Hee and Park, 2017). The material datasheets where given to employee to check the awareness of reading and analysis it.

Outline methodology

Research methodology in this study help in defining the best as well as a suitable way by which the research techniques can be demonstrated in relation to the chemical engineering point of view of safety awareness. As per the author Behm, Culvenor and Dixon, (2014), the major function of research methodology is to make an outline of the research study and describe it properly in accordance with the respective research study. The study is based on safety awareness in relation to the chemical engineering point of view and due to this reason, a site of Sultanate of Oman is selected by the researchers. In the particular research study, descriptive design with appropriate logic and positivism is selected as the research philosophy as both these helped in gaining detail information regarding these safety awareness procedures. As the research process is based on the fact of safety awareness in accordance with the chemical engineering point of view, therefore proper logic should be used to demonstrate the fact of this study. In addition, with the help of research questionaries,' the researchers interviewed the chemical engineers regarding the necessity of safety awareness as well as measures in chemical plant companies.

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Research philosophy

In the opinion of Stuart and McEwen, (2015), research philosophy helps in demonstrating the development of knowledge and information regarding a particular topic that can provide a positive impact on people as well as society respectively. Therefore, in accordance with that the research philosophy in this study help in determining the importance or necessity of development of safety measures on the chemical engineering point of view. Besides this, positivism research philosophy is selected as it helps the researcher to determine the positive effects of this particulate study. In other words, with the help of positivism, the researchers also able to demonstrate the study procedure with qualitative data and also on the basis of a chemical engineering point of view.

Research method

To investigate the safety awareness on the chemical engineering point of view questionaries' were made that composed of three items such as awareness of countermeasures in chemical accidents, awareness of chemical risks and imperious necessity of personal protective instrument (PPE) (Botti et al., 2015). The survey was done on a site situated in Sultanate of Oman, and the major reason for doing this research is to ensure the people regarding safety measures as chemical treatment harmful for both environment and workers. The survey questionaries' were made on the previous data collection and research procedure, and 120 numbers of participants take part in the interview procedure. The respondents present in this survey were not only the workers, but some residents in the around 1km area are also present in this interview procedure. All the questions were related to safety awareness, and the results of each respondent were calculated by using the ALOHA (Area Location of Hazardous Atmosphere) Model (Li, Chen and Xiang, 2015). This particular model was chosen because it gives appropriate results on the basis of chemical awareness in concerning to engineering point of view regarding the safety measures. Therefore, with the research method, the researchers can able to determine the importance of safety awareness in accordance with the chemical engineering aspect.

Facilities required/ available

In order to do the research properly a strong survey team those who have knowledge regarding the safety measures should be built so that the study can provide the importance of safety awareness in terms of a chemical engineering point of view. The facilities that are required to avoid the various adverse situations in a chemical manufacturer organizations. The chemical manufacturing organizations can take few implementations like structured chemical manufacturing plants that can be used to erase the chances or occurrence of negative chemical implication and the safety issues. Another facilities that can be required less usage of hazard chemicals. The less usage can be classified in trms of usage, utilization and distribution procedures. These procedures play a vital part in total chemical processing and further use. Usage of personal protection equipment is another vital aspect that are required for avoiding the chemical representation. The importance fire woods are also required to maintain the safety standards of a chemical manufacturer. The other facilities that are required regulatory implications or policies in terms of using the chemicals in an chemical manufacturer. The regulatory bodies are the management who determines the safety standard of chemical implications. The regulatory body plays a significant role in terms of maintaining the safety standards of chemical reactions.

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Chapter 4 - RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 2000

Down load picture of Duqam refiner

The drum Refinery is one of the constructed at Special Economic Zone of Duqm (SEZD). The main construction area that we have been selected here 900ha (2,000 acres) that has been marked for the construction of the refinery under Special Economic Zone of Duqm. The entire process unit may compromise with a hydrocracker unit. The entire process is also consisting of hydrogen production unit (HPU). It is also consist LPG treatment Unit (LTU), sulpher recovery unit (SRU). The early site preparation works perfectly for the project involve various steps like compaction and excavation that exactly 13 million cubic centers that are made up with soil. The total construction also has a lot of facilities like temporary drainage system and flood protection procedure and also has the facility of culverts.

The total project procedure is developed and updated by Dqum refinery and giant petrochemical companies. It was a joint venture between Oman Oil Company which is entirely regulated by the state owned company and the international Petroleum investment company (IPIM). The front end of project is designed by the Foster Wheeler energy. The studies related to market analysis and the entire project is totally served by the new liquid jetty that is designed to 150000 DWT vessels. The project management consultant (PMC) for the project is Technip E&P.

10 questions in each 5 questions need separated chart with deep and deep analyzing.

The results were randomly analyzed based on the awareness the employee had about the question

Analysis of permanent Employees


Question

Result

1.

Are you aware that you're exposed to chemical that can be inhaled, ingested or absorbed in the body?

8/10

2.

Are you aware of the labeling done to chemical whether they are arranged and classified properly?

5/10

3.

Are you trained to work with hazard chemical your handling at work place?

9/10

4.

Have you got any idea what is use of personnel protective equipment?

5/10

5

Where you taught to use the safety data sheet at work place?

6/10

6

Are you having the sound knowledge about the details material safety data sheet?

7/10

7

Are you having previous accident records?

2/10

8

Are you aware of the fire hoods and know how to operate them?

4/10

9

Are you aware if any chemical comes in contact to body what is the immediate action to be taken for the chemical which you use?

3/10

10

Are you aware of the color codes for the hazard chemical storage?

5/10

Awareness Survey Questions for Contract labors


Question

Result

1.

Are you aware that you're exposed to chemical that can be inhaled, ingested or absorbed in the body?

5/10

2.

Are you aware of the labeling done to chemical whether they are arranged and classified properly?

3/10

3.

Are you trained to work with hazard chemical your handling at work place?

2/10

4.

Have you got any idea what is use of personnel protective equipment?

1/10

5

Where you taught to use the safety data sheet at work place?

0/10

6

Are you having the sound knowledge about the details material safety data sheet?

3/10

7

Are you having previous accident records?

2/10

8

Are you aware of the fire hoods and know how to operate them?

4/10

9

Are you aware if any chemical comes in contact to body what is the immediate action to be taken for the chemical which you use?

3/10

10

Are you aware of the color codes for the hazard chemical storage?

5/10

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Safety Awareness - Chemical Engineering Assignment.png

The pie chart is described the actual percentage of chemical consumption. The pie chart expresses the actual presentation of various aspects of safety awareness on chemical manufacturing industry. The various important questions are being asked here. The questions like the rate of awareness to labeling the chemical accurately and the percentage of arranged and classified it properly are one of the major highlighted areas. There pie chart shows that only 50% people has the awareness to arranged and classified the chemical labels properly. Another important question is shown in the model are the trained and properly known people in chemical handling at the workplace. The pie chart says that 80 percent people has the proper t6echnique and has the proper guidelines to handle the chemicals properly. The third question lies on the any idea of using the personal protective equipment. The 50 percent of people has the idea of using the protective equipment. Another important aspect of using safety data sheet at work place. Through the pie chart the technical implications of using the data sheet at the workplace is emphasized. In the fourth edition the most importance aspect in terms of safety and awareness in chemical manufacturers that is the usage of personal protective equipment. The usage of personal protective equipment plays a major role in chemical safety and awareness. In the pie chart it shows that 50percent has the proper idea of using the personal protective equipment.

Safety Awareness - Chemical Engineering Assignment1.png

In the pie chart there are various safety standards are discussed. In the pie chart mainly four aspects are described. The total pie chart mainly focuses on four individual aspect of a person that can be taken for measuring the safety in chemical manufacturing. The chemical manufacturing process is risky in nature. Through the pie chart various safety standards are measured by the sound knowledge about the details material safety data sheet. The material safety data maintaining is one of the vital aspect for chemical manufacturing as it provides the awareness in a measurement tool in chemical manufacturing organization and also helps to understand the importance of measuring the safety standard data in an chemical manufacturing shop. In the pie chart it has been seen that 50 percent of people using the details of material safety data sheet. The second part is also signifies the important factor that the previous accident record of organization regarding any kind of chemical accident that the organization or chemical manufacturing company faces in recent times. In pie chart the very minimal percentage 20 percent are signifies, which is a very good sign and can be explained as the organizations and individuals take necessity steps or precautions to avoid any serious accidents relating to chemical reactions. The pie chart also signifies the fire hoods importance and how to the operate the fire hoods at the workplace. The fire hoods are a vital part in chemical manufacturing organizations. In the pie chart it shows only 40 percent people and organizations are aware of fire hoods. That particular percentage is not a very good sign. The last part of pie chart also signifies the individual aspect. The percentage of awareness of various difficult circumstances at the workplace like what are the preliminary steps can be taken if any chemicals touch the body part. The percentage shows whether the employees are aware of the fact or not. The pie chart shows that 30% employees are aware of using the chemical cautiously and know the necessary steps that can be taken if any such situations occur at the workplace. The percentage also signifies the fact the measurement steps that need to taken to avoid any serious injuries related to high chemical reactions.

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Safety Awareness - Chemical Engineering Assignment2.png

The third pie chart signifies the various issues that an employee faces in chemical manufacturing organizations. The pie chart first signifies the fact the percentage of inhaling the chemicals that are absorbing the body and the after reaction of chemicals in human body. The pie chart also signifies the awareness programme of the employee of a chemical manufacturer through the percentage form. The pie chart shows that 50 percent of people are actually aware of the fact that chemicals can be inhaled through the body. The second part of the pie chart shows that the percentage of trained workforce with hazard chemical handling at the workplace. This part signifies that whether the chemical manufacturer can be able to face the adverse situations at the workplace and what is percentage of trained workforce in the organization. The third question of pie chart highlights the area of using personal protective environment. It shows 50% organizations have the idea of using the personal protective environment. The orange part of the pie chart highlights the issue of the source of using the safety data sheet at the workplace.

Safety Awareness - Chemical Engineering Assignment3.png

The fourth pie chart also signifies the vital aspects that are related to chemical safety measurement in an organization or chemical manufacturer. The first percentage signifies the fact of details of the material safety data sheet. The 50 percent shows that the details of using material safety data sheet. The previous accident records are also emphasized by 20 percent. The third part of the pie chart signifies the hazard chemical storage of chemical manufacturers. The percentage shows that 50 percent employees are aware of the color codes for the chemical hazard storage. The color codes of chemical storage signify the fact of sensitiveness of chemical storage in organizations. The pie chart also signifies the immediate action that can be taken for the chemical reactions.

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The question analysis

The question analysis signifies the various chemical safety standards that are need to be taken for measuring the effectiveness and necessary steps of chemical reactions. The various safety related standar4ds are measured through the study

The importance of using the personal safety requirement at the chemical manufacturing units is emphasized. The personal safety equipment are described the vital tool or protection protocol that can be used by the employees to avoid various adverse situation related to chemical reactions.

The awareness program related to chemical attachment to the body signifies the organization's technique and protocol that are needed to be taken in terms of safety and critical situation analysis.

The question also signifies the fact of fire hoods and its importance in safety standards in chemical manufacturing organizations.

The questions related to the trained hard work signifies the fact of how well the manufacturer management to avoid the adverse situations that areas at the workforce in an chemical manufacturing company.

From the above analysis it can discussed that the firm has provided less safety awareness to the employees regarding the chemical handling, color codes, and safety measures when exposed to chemicals, more than the permanent employees the contract labors are less aware of the hazards in their working place and may be prone to accident more probably as they are less aware the hazards the action to be taken during emergency (Mehrifal, EsKandania, Priami, Mardanparval, 2016). If this exist so the firm has to face serious accidental issues at workplace since both the contract and the permanent employees are quite unaware of the safety data sheet usage, material safety data sheet usage, personnel protective equipment usage. It is to be concluded from the analysis that training on chemical hazards ,color codes in storage of chemicals and remedial measures in case of accidents and the accident report all has to be in knowledge to the employees (Shyam, Suman, Reshu, Sagtani, Surya, Niruala, 2013) .The firm has to take in to consideration to train the employees according to the grades scored .Based on the evaluation the contractor labors have less knowledge about the previous accident, it is to be noted that the contract labors are more proven to accident the permanent employees. The results of this survey provide (80%) meaningful implications for the establishment of appropriate regulations. Similar results were observed by (Virginia, Behran, Robert, 2016.) in an interview study among refinery workers for the need for health safety training. A number of respondents recognized that chemical hazards in their lives, but only a small number of them (10%) have ever been trained or educated about countermeasures against chemical accidents (Don-Hee and Park, 2017). This study suggests that the industrial management and government policy regulators must focus on creating chances for the safe work practices at work site especially in refineries and mines. Implementation of strict policies might create new avenues for employee training for the handling of hazardous chemical at the work place. This study observed that there is a strong need for employee education about chemical hazards or countermeasures against chemical accidents. The study observed that employee responses on actions taken when chemical accidents has occurred, only 30% percent Employee responded that their management had taken a proper action. 70% of staffs responded that training should be given by management for proper usage of personnel protective equipment to employees. The systematization of preparing against chemical accidents should be provided for reduction of chemical accidents.

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SOFTWARE REPORT

ALOHA RPEORT

SITE DATA:

Location: OMAHA, NEBRASKA

Building Air Exchanges Per Hour: 0.61 (unsheltered single storied)

Time: April 6, 2019 0956 hours CDT (using computer's clock)

CHEMICAL DATA:

Chemical Name: N-PENTANE

CAS Number: 109-66-0 Molecular Weight: 72.15 g/mol

PAC-1: 3000 ppm PAC-2: 33000 ppm PAC-3: 200000 ppm

IDLH: 1500 ppm LEL: 14000 ppm UEL: 78000 ppm

Ambient Boiling Point: 35.0oC

Vapor Pressure at Ambient Temperature: 0.19 atm

Ambient Saturation Concentration: 198,525 ppm or 19.9%

ATMOSPHERIC DATA: (MANUAL INPUT OF DATA)

Wind: 1.6 meters/second from wnw at 3 meters

Ground Roughness: open country Cloud Cover: 5 tenths

Air Temperature: 23° F Stability Class: B

No Inversion Height Relative Humidity: 50%

SOURCE STRENGTH:

Direct Source: 0.4 kilograms/min Source Height: 3 meters

Release Duration: 60 minutes

Release Rate: 400 grams/min

Total Amount Released: 24.0 kilograms

THREAT ZONE:

Model Run: Heavy Gas

Red : less than 10 meters(10.9 yards) --- (200000 ppm = PAC-3)

Note: Threat zone was not drawn because effects of near-field patchiness make dispersion predictions less reliable for short distances.

Orange: 10 meters --- (33000 ppm = PAC-2)

Note: Threat zone was not drawn because effects of near-field patchiness make dispersion predictions less reliable for short distances.

Yellow: 11 meters --- (3000 ppm = PAC-1)

Note: Threat zone was not drawn because effects of near-field patchiness make dispersion predictions less reliable for short distances.

THREAT AT POINT:

Concentration Estimates at the point:

Downwind: 3 meters Off Centerline: 5 meters

Note: Concentration not drawn because there is no significant concentration at the point selected.

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Chapter 5 - Conclusion and recommendations

It is concluded from the survey that the permanent are employees are certainly know about personnel protective equipment and the chemical hazards whereas in case of contract labors the awareness percentage is very less. To improve the safety level in the chemical manufacturing industry the safety management has issued process safety management guidelines. After conducting the researches, it is clearly visible that the execution procedure of the guideline standards has not been exploited correctly. Several studies have shown that various types of problems regarding health and environment have occurred. Therefore, it is decided that proper knowledge based education needs to be provided as a response to the incidents. While studying the safety awareness standards for all the hazardous workplaces, the relation between safety measure and the understanding of large companies. The evaluations in this thesis have illustrated the issues in safety awareness among the employees. There are three major analysis have been carried out - analysis of permanent employees, a survey among the contracted labors and the software analysis. The first analysis clearly stated the average awareness among the employees, discussing some vital questions and charts. It summarizes all the facts and research questions and states that the contracted labors are less aware of the hazards or accidents as compared to the permanent labors.

The decisions that are made in the first analysis shows that major numbers of permanent employees (about 80%) are aware of chemical exposure. Only half of them are aware of the labelling and arrangements of the chemicals. The amount of trained employees is about 90%, who have been properly trained to handle and work with hazardous materials. There is a serious lack found in the safety management, that only half of the employees are arranged with the PPE or Personal Protective Equipment. This can be recognized as a crucial negative outcome of the research, needs to be solved. Along with this, many of the employees are not aware of the use and how to maintain safety data sheet at their workplace, as it can be concluded from the studies. Forty per cent of the permanent workers are not conscious or they do not even know where the data sheet management have been taught. Another major issue aroused that the material data sheet management is not maintained among at least 30% of the permanent employees. They have not even the knowledge of the same. It has been recognized as a positive outcome in the industry, that only two per cent of the employees have experienced accidents or they have records about prior accidents, which concludes, the result of proper training of the major amount of the employees. About sixty per cent of them are not known about the operations of fire hoods and only 30% of them knows about the actions to be taken when they come in contact with any chemical. The color codes for the chemical hazards are used only among half of the employees that exposes the fact that the factory has been in serious lack of following the safety guidelines.

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The second study projects a clear view of the contract labors. We came to know that none of them are aware of the safety data sheet and only 10% of them knows the use of PPE. The same questions that of the permanent workers answered, have been used to conduct the survey among the contract labors. Where about 90% of the permanent employees are well trained, only 30% of the contract labors are working with proper training. A large number of them are not aware of chemical hazards and the cures after chemical exposure. The report states that the experience of prior accident records are the same, which makes the decision that permanent workers are in more danger, even after having better training.

The third analysis has been conducted with software and some manual input of data to draw an illustration on environmental issues that directly impacts on the atmosphere as well as the human and linked environment. The software that has been used to conduct the analysis, is ALOHA. This survey helped to decide the threat zones, enlisting the chemical data in the atmosphere of Omaha, Nebraska.

Permanent employee survey asks for some recommendations for the safety management guidelines. The survey helped to identify the serious issues regarding human and environmental safety. There is a need aroused to train the maximum amount of employees about chemical classification and labelling. All the employees need to be provided with fire hoods and training to operate the safety equipment. A monthly medical training can be arranged to train them about some first aid procedures, that they can response against any chemical contact. Other basic needs include the training about color codes, the managing data sheet and maintaining safety data at the workplace.

The contracted labors are in more serious troubles in the work field that needs immediate responses from the safety management. Compared to the permanent workers the contract labors have very less knowledge about chemical exposure, which becomes the center of worry. The safety management team needs to conduct several frequent pieces of training for these workers and some safety and leadership strategies can be applied here to lead their workforce towards the correct way. It is a serious concern that 80% of them have not been taught about the hazardous chemical handling. To limit the risk or accidents in the work-field these workers are in need of proper guidance through leadership, to manage and maintain safety data sheet. Some of these workers may not be well educated, thus they need to go through regular and through training. Fire hood distribution and equipment handling training are needed. These workers basically work at the ground level, thus they are in the maximum risk of exposure. To ensure safety, the management needs to follow all governmental and industrial safety regulations.

It is also to conclude that the industrial safety regulations have not been properly followed before and during the survey. A large number of about 20% of workers have reported on chemical hazards and accidents, which states, that there is a serious lack of proper equipment supply, which needs to be resolved soon. This can be done by arranging personal protective equipment, fire hoods and other necessary materials along with appointing a skilled trainer. The management needs to conduct. It is important to use PPE, to comply with the protocols of safety management and this will help to evade different hazardous situation.

According to the report of ALOHA, there is high disposal of a hazardous chemical in the atmosphere is detected. The density of heavy gases are very high, exceeding the safe limits. Several zones of high risk has been identified, which is directly affecting human health. Resolving this issue could be hard and time consuming. The company needs to use a newer process and chemical processing units to reduce the production of heavy metal and gases. The chemicals can be processed further to reduce the toxicity before disposal to the atmosphere. Also, the waste materials can be distilled to reduce the risk of toxicity. Another method is to create by-products or reusable products from the disposables. Nearby habitats, river and atmosphere can be surveyed frequently to obtain the pollution data, which will be helpful to conduct any preventive method. There are several guidelines available from the local government and different researches, which needs to be followed by the management as environmental safety practices and implement those to limit the hazards. Regular safety awareness programmes are needed to conduct among all the stakeholders, including management to the low level employees, to help with the safety practices within the work field.

More of training has to be given to both the employees on the questions asked skill safety training should be conduct monthly and a audit to be done to make awareness of the chemical handles in the work place and countermeasure in case of accidents taking place in work area. First, while the respondents were concerned about chemical hazards in their daily lives, it was observed that no relevant training or any kind of education programs was provided for countermeasures against chemical accidents. The survey participants also responded that poor management practices are chief reason for chemical accidents at the work place. To conclude for the firm to work nicely and effectively it has to give proper training.

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