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Reduced Medical Error


Introduction: Leadership in any sector plays a crucial role in facilitating changes as well as developing the capacity of the enterprise and the same is also applicable for the organizations of the health care sectors (Cummings, & Worley, 2014). The health care sector is considered as one of the most crucial sectors, globally, and the same is responsible for ensuring the health and wellbeing of all the people across the world. It is highly crucial for the health care professionals to ensure that the care processes that are employed by them are suitable for the patients and care are taken towards ascertaining that the care and treatment that are provided to the patients are free from any kind of errors (Priebe, et al., 2011). However, in the modern times, with the rise in the population, there has also been a rise in the number of patients that visit the health care centers. As a result of the same, due to various technical as well as human reasons, there has been a rise in the errors associated with the care or treatment that are offered to the clients or patients. However, it has also been determined that leadership plays a significant role in enabling or facilitating the health care organizations as well as its personnel, to overcome the errors and reduce them to a large extent, by the introduction of suitable changes or variations in the care processes (Fichman, Kohli, & Krishnan, 2011).

Leadership plays a crucial role in the development of an organization as the leadership approach and style that is adopted by the leader is significant for facilitating any kind of change that is to be introduced within the enterprise (Von Krogh, Nonaka, & Rechsteiner, 2012). The manner in which the leader is able to introduce the change and facilitate the incorporation and adoption of the same by the human resources of the firm, is highly crucial. Only successful leadership is able to achieve the same within an organization and therefore, it is important for the leaders to adopt suitable strategies and approaches that would enable them to achieve the desired change with minimal resistance from the workforce, while implementing the kind of plan that would enable them to overcome any resistance that may be exhibited by the workforce (Cameron, & Green, 2015). Leadership is also significant for the development of the capacity of an organization. As the workforce of any organization is significant towards the performance and capability of the firm, therefore, developing the workforce would eventually add to the enhanced capacity of the organization and leadership plays a facilitating role in the achievement of the same.

Question 1: Identify the pressure/need for change and explain this in terms of a model like Lewin's 3 stage change theory and his Force Field analysis or Kotter's 8 step change theory and identify the source of the pressure.

Answer: Background Information: Errors in the medical and other health care center are a continuously intractable problem and the same posses continual and significant threat on the public health(Makary, & Daniel, 2016). The errors that resist interventions and changes are the most crucial ones and therefore, it is important to introduce the kind of change that would facilitate the reduction of issue to a large extent. Furthermore, it has also been determined that many times the interventions are resisted by the errors due to the failure in the deployment of the intervention in the manner that would address the fundamental sources of errors or due to weak safety culture of the organization. Therefore, it is important to strengthen the leadership role of the organization and successfully drive the required change within the operational systems, so as to overcome the challenges associated with the implementation of the change, while facilitating or introducing the kind of change that would minimize the errors within the health care sector.

Medical errors and quality issues have been identified to be affecting a large population and therefore, it is important to reduce the errors and enhance the quality in a substantial manner (Carayon, et al., 2014). The major impact associated with medical errors include medication errors that may severely affect the health of the individual or threaten their lives, technological errors that are related to the failure of the equipment or machineries that have been supporting the health and life of the person or mismanagement of the machineries and equipment by the health care professionals due to lack of training or negligence. Therefore, it can be stated that leadership can play a significant role in overcoming the same and introducing the kind of change that is significant in minimizing the medical errors and providing enhanced care to the patients and clients of the health care organization (Grol, Wensing, Eccles, & Davis, 2013).


Need for Change: Medical errors that exists within the health care centers have the ability of significantly affecting the medical care and treatment that are provided by that health care institute. Patient safety should be considered as one of the crucial aspects of the healthcare systems and the medical risks and errors have been threatening the health of the patients. It has been mentioned by Anderson and Abrahamson (2017) that nearly 251,000 death annually account for medical errors in the United States alone, and thereby has made the medical errors the third leading cause of deaths. Furthermore, it has also been determined that the error rates are significantly more in the United States than the other developed nations like Australia, Canada, Germany, New Zealand and the United Kingdom.

The need for the change that is to be implemented can be well evaluated with the help of Kotter's eight stage change process. With the help of this framework, the model offers a map or pattern that have the ability of directing or supporting the clinical leaders in identification and initiation of the change that is required for improving the quality of the services (Stanley, 2011). The model comprises of eight stages and these are as follows.

i. Establishing sense of urgency: The presence of the medical errors within any health care centers have been identified to be responsible for nearly 9.5 per cent of the deaths that take place in the United States and thereby has become the third leading reason for deaths, following cardiac diseases and cancers. It has been mentioned by Anderson and Abrahamson (2017) that nearly 35 per cent of the US patients report medical, laboratory and/or medication mistakes from their visitation to the health care centers. Furthermore, the likelihood of the errors has increased with the number of health care professionals like physicians associated with the patient care.

ii. Creation of guiding coalition: As physicians and other health care professionals are directly associated with the rising issues of medical errors, therefore, it is important to ensure that these stakeholders are involved with the change management processes and be provided with the required training so that they are able to effectively provide efficient care to the patients. The leader of the health care center is required to develop the kind of vision and mission that would encourage the workforce in accepting the change that are to be implemented.

iii. Developing Vision and Strategy:The leader of the health care organizations is required to develop the kind of vision and strategies that would facilitate the change that is to be implemented for reducing the medical errors presiding in the health care centers and threatening the health and life of the patients.

iv. Communicating the vision or change to the workforce:The leader of the health care organizations is required to communicate the vision for the change to the workforce as the same would facilitate the change process. It is important that the leader is capable in achieving the desired impact upon communicating the vision for the change as the actual implementation of the change and the associated resistance and challenges are dependent on the same (Kotter, & Schlesinger, 2008).

v. Empowering the Workforce for Action: It is important that the leaders of the health care organization empower their workforce regarding the actions that are to be taken and encourage them to provide their opinion as well so that they are motivated to positively participate in the change that is being introduced. In this manner, the resistance towards the implementation of the change can be minimized.

vi. Striving for Short Term Wins: It is important that the leaders of the health care organizations should divide the entire change management plan into smaller milestones so that the achievementof the overall objective can be achieved in a significant manner. By achieving the short term wins the implementation of the change process for reducing the medical errors can be achieved.

vii. Consolidating the Gains and Producing More Changes: It is important for the leaders of the health care organizations to identify the barriers and resistance to change and address them accordingly so that the required change can be implemented within the system with minimum drawbacks and maximum efficacy and achievements. Furthermore, the leaders should also strengthen their leadership approaches so that they are able to effectively manage the workforce as well as the change processes that are being addressed (Cameron, & Quinn, 2011).

viii. Anchoring new approaches: The change that is being implemented by the health care leaders for reducing the medical errors should be anchored such that the same is incorporated within the organizational culture as well. The leader should take the required steps and approaches such that the new policies and strategies that are implemented for the achievement of the desired change, that is, reduction in the medical errors, are ingrained within the organizational culture, so that the same is efficiently followed by the workforce as well (Ginter, Duncan, & Swayne, 2018).

Based on the evaluation that has been conducted using Kotter's eight stage model, it is evident that there exists a strong necessity for the implementation of change within the health care organizations for overcoming and reducing the challenges of medical errors so that the negative aspects associated with the same can be minimize. Furthermore, it is highly significant that the leaders take the necessary steps and approaches towards successful implementation of the change with minimal resistance and necessary planning for the identification and minimization of the resistance towards the change implementation.

Question 2: Discuss the role of the leader in identifying the need for performance improvement, working with the key stakeholders, planning, implementing and evaluating the performance improvement.

Answer: Role of Leader in Performance Improvement: In the current age of fast changing global business scenario, it is natural for every organization, be it for profit or not for profit type, to undergo changes not only in their business process but also in their cultural and environmental aspects, which is referred to as the organizational. However organizational change has been reviewed to be one of the most inevitable yet resistive elements of the business organizations, since the employees, already accustomed with the ongoing business processes and cultures, find it difficult to re-adopt to the new processes (Greenfield, 2007). Therefore, managing this change has ever been a crucial challenge for organizational leaders. While most of the previous attempts fail to achieve success repeatedly, the pivotal causes behind the resistive force towards organizational change remains the same. Furthermore, the leadership skills or attributes for managing the change remain the same, while the situations and tactics differ every time.

In order to successfully steer the course of change management, a leader needs to listen attentively to the front-line people regarding minute detail, so that they are comfortable to interact and deliver their thoughts regarding the ongoing process and the issues to be faced while implementing the change (Heward, Hutchins, &Keleher, 2007). It is highly essential for the leaders managing the change to understand and evaluate the competing agenda, along with anticipating and managing the organizational politics through controlling their attitude, reducing the workforce level gap and opting for sincere efforts through which the people will feel respected and perceived. It is highly crucial for the change leader to define and set the organizational priorities since transformational changes are often found to reshape organizational limits and boundaries. Thorough the ability to preserve and through perseverance to serve for the general good, a leader will be able to setup comfortable atmosphere for the employees to participate and comply to the change management processes, thus reducing the resistance towards change.


Question 3: Discuss the type of leader that is best suited to planning and implementing a changing environment and how they work to capacity build the team and support them through the change process.

Answer: Types of Leader Most Suitable: There are various kinds of leadership approaches and styles that can be taken under consideration by the leaders of the health care organizations for implementing the required changes within the health care systems so that the medical errors can be reduced and care and treatment processes be enhanced (Reeves, Perrier, Goldman, Freeth, &Zwarenstein, 2013).While the leaders driving the organizational change are expected to provide motivational or inspirational speeches, be willing to take big transformational leaps and be bold in their attitudes, the successful leaders in current times seem to be more open in nature, ready towards conversing over issues and idea, welcoming thoughts from their subordinates.

In the healthcare setting the critical situations and encounters exist between the first line of care givers and patients, the perceptions of the nurses and first line service staffs are important to be considered by the leaders managing the change in order to establish a deliberate yet consistent effort that can be apprehended within other managers at all levels, thus exhibiting true passion towards implementing the change in the service delivery system (Son, et al., 2011). The most appropriate style for a leader managing the change are triangulated on three abilities of facilitative communication style, eagerness to adapt towards and drive the change, and responsiveness towards feedback and thoughts from others. Therefore, it can be stated that for the introduction of the change for reducing the medical errors, the most suitable leadership style would be transformational leadership as the same would aid in motivating and encouraging the workforce in accepting the change as well as in providing them the guidance for the change implementation (Sarros, Cooper, & Santora, 2008).

Question 4: Define and explain workplace culture and how it can support or resist change.

Answer: Workplace Culture and Role of Leader: The key towards identifying the drivers that form as the intention of resisting the change in the minds of the employees and affiliates is vital, since the perception of the leader and evaluation of the importance of change must be delegated effectively towards the individuals working in the organizational system for them to perform unitedly and perform on the bigger sphere (Jacobs, Mannion, Davies, Harrison, Konteh, & Walshe, 2013). With respect to a health care organization, the leader is required to take into consideration the various aspects that surround the care delivery system and the approaches that are taken by the health care professionals in providing treatments to the patients (Baars, Evers, Arntz, & van Merode, 2010). The manner in which the health care professionals offer care and treatment to the patients is based on the work culture of that health care organization and therefore, the leader is required to gain a complete understanding regarding the work culture of that organization prior to implementing the required change.

The leader should develop the kind of environment that would encourage the workforce to adopt the change that is being implemented as the same would enable them to offer the patients and clients with improved health care with reduced errors. It has been mentioned by Casali, & Day(2010) that poor work culture inhibits the change that is to be implemented. Therefore, it is important that the leader encourages a healthy work culture so that the change in the care and treatment processes by implemented for reducing the medical errors. Furthermore, it can also be stated that emotional intelligence of the leaders plays a crucial role in the establishment of the change and integration of the same within the work culture (Foltin, & Keller, 2012).

Overcoming Resistance to Change Management: Besides managing the elements in the change process, it is important that a leader understand about the needs and motivational levels of the organizational members and workforce. Before advocating for the change, it is essential to understand the ways in which the employees and others associated with the organizational culture will get benefitted from the change (Fernandez, & Rainey, 2017). Thereafter, spreading awareness for the need to change and evaluating the factors that will motivate the employees' desire towards participating and supporting the change will facilitate the planning process during change management. Setting up a forum for direct communication from the lowest level of workforce to the leaders managing the change will ensure that the perceptions and doubt of the employees are sufficiently answered and communicated thus attracting their complete concentration towards being a part of the change.

Since the healthcare sector relies on the front-line service of the organizational employees therefore, the centripetal method of organizational change management. The mixture of the prognostic and diagnostic methods will suit pertinently for the change management in healthcare service, based on which the mission of the organizational services can be formulated (Crisp, Swerissen, & Duckett, 2000). The mission statement for the change management process must be formulated ensuring strategic alignment at all organizational levels, so that the employees, while performing their daily activities can be unified for the greater organizational goal. The vision statement will provide trust and support in the minds of the employees to embrace the change for their own as well as the organizational benefit, thus giving them a glimpse about the future of their workplace.

Conclusion: Based on the discussion that precedes, it is evident that there are several medical errs that exists within the health care system and the same has been affecting the health and life of majority of the patients and clients availing health care treatments from these organizations. As can be evidenced from the above discussion, the leader of the health careis required to appropriately conduct an evaluation of the entire situation so as to determine the extent to which the change is required and thereby develop the change plan, so that the desired results can be obtained. Furthermore, it is also important to take under consideration that the leader develops suitable strategy to incorporate the change within the organizational cultures, so that the health care professionals are able to reduce the risks associated with medical errors and improve the quality of the care and treatment that are provided by them. Moreover, the leader should also ensure that they identify the barriers and resistance of change at the initial stage itself, so that the same can be mitigated while implementing the change within the firm.


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