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PPMP20010 Executing and Closing Projects - Central Queensland University

Topic: The Sydney Opera House

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Question 1: Introduction: Is the introduction of the chosen failed project appropriate?

Answer: Introduction: The Sydney Opera House is one of the significant locations of Australia and is designated as a global icon. The failure of the project in many aspects is lessons for many architects and future project managers to look out for those factors that can hamper their construction project. It is viewed as one of the biggest hindrances in the field of construction, and the whole blame was credited to the management and their plans which failed to make the project successful. When the project was announced in 1955, various countries had come forward to design the project and build it. There were more than two hundred entries from over 32 countries (Freeman, 2017). The Opera house was supposed to be used for meetings, lectures, orchestral concerts, ballet performances, and many other purposes. The architect that was finally selected of all the entries was JørnUtzon who was a Danish architect. The study deals with the essential problems that arose in the course of the project and the factors leading to such issues. The critical evaluation of the determinants of project management like stakeholders, budget, time, project team has been done in the study.

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Question 2: Major Issues: Are the issues and problems described about the project failure appropriate?

Answer: Major issues: There were several issues that ultimately led to the failure of the project of the Sydney Opera House. The significant factors that guide the management of a project are time, quality as well as the budget. The client and the project manager must be clear in what they want to achieve through the project and how they are going to build the design stepwise (Hogg, 2016). The integrity of the team is, therefore, a necessity is this kind of construction. In the construction of Sydney Opera House, full freedom was granted in terms of time and budget and the project team was given just one crucial responsibility- to ensure that the quality of the project is of the highest level.

The main issue that was identified was the lack of understanding the importance of time and budget in the project. The primary stakeholder was the architect, Utzon who was focussed more on carving the exact design of the project and looked less on the matters of expenses and the duration of completion. Another problem that surfaced was the governing authority of the construction. The stakeholder, Australian government in New South Wales, had built a team to monitor the proceedings of the construction (Jennings, Lodge, & Ryan,2018). Unfortunately, the people who were appointed were not experienced enough and did not possess any technical skills. Therefore, the government has not had enough knowledge on the matter ultimately resulted in unnecessary inhibition from the government which resulted in an unexpected delay of the project as well as overruns. The society was also a stakeholder, though indirectly, they were looking forward to the completion of the project with much patience.

The framework of the project's design was differentiated into three main stages. The first stage was the podium, second being the outer shells and the third stage was the interior design and the windows. Utzon was not satisfied and revolted stating that the designs were not even prepared for the given structure. The Australian government still insisted that the work has to be initiated and consistently began to ask for making sudden modifications to be made in the project. These changes required time to be executed, and hence, the construction got delayed eventually. Another issue that arose was the unplanning of the budget of the project (Nowotarski, &Paslawski, 2015). Since the designs were incomplete and continuous modifications, the project team and the architect were not able to come to a final decision regarding the expenses. The result was that the first stage completion required extra costs of about 5.2 Australian dollars and the schedule extended for nearly a year.

The second stage came out to be the most controversial part of the construction. The payments stopped from the government as no development of the project was being witnessed. Utzon backed off from the project as he felt that he was not given the space to execute his plans by the government although he was sure that he would be called back (Sanchez, Hampson, & Mohamed, 2015). But this did not happen. Three Australian engineers were given the responsibility which increased the complications as Utzon had walked off with the designs. Gradually, the cost of the project rose to a whooping 85 million Australian dollars.

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Question 3: Control Systems: Is the explanation of the range of control systems used for cost, schedule, quality and scope reasonable?

Answer: Control Systems: Almost a duration of sixteen years was required to complete the entire project, and the actual costs were around ten times the initial budget that was finalized. Jorn Utzon had given the design for the roof without prior consultation from the team. It was identified that the model that was presented for the roof of the Opera House required extensive structural evaluation and it was getting difficult to find out the buildable material for the roof. Several tests were also conducted for the designs, as for example, the stress distribution test (Wynn, Smith, & Killen, (2016). The test was conducted on the Perspex design of the roof and also on the Structural Laboratory at Southampton University (Yaneva,2016). The head engineer, Arup realized that the roof that Utzon had designed was structurally not feasible due to huge bending moments and it was a thin shell. The ultimate design that was chosen for the roof was precast concrete ribs, the post-tensioned position of every shell and the outside region was defined by the same sphere. The spherical geometry aided in creating the repeating designs in the shell construction. The complications with the models arose as they were constantly subjected to change. Even one small change in the roof design led to the modifications of the structural analysis of the entire model. With the rise in difficulty of the job, Arup decided to allow the use of computers at a scale that was never done before in a construction project.

The most significant process that was done during this project was the introduction of computers to make the construction easier. Previously, logarithmic tables, rulers, hardly calculating devices were used. The engineers had always made their calculations regarding the structural analysis using the mentioned techniques and therefore the time spent was huge behind such solutions. Computers made the calculations easier and rapid for the engineers. The Sydney Opera House is an icon for one of the complicated architecture designs that would not have finished without the use of computer-based calculations and geometrics. Curta calculator was one of the short, mechanical, hand-used devices that were applied for the count. In addition to this, the FACIT calculating machine was also used (Brazil, 2016). The use of such devices and computing machines opened the doors of contemporary use of technology as well as a new revolution in engineering applications. Ferranti Pegasus Mark 1 computer from 1957 was one of the first computers that were used in the project. The machine was hired for a specific duration and not bought as their application was not widespread.

A Pegasus computer from Southampton University was already accessible to the team of Arup and was involved entirely in the construction project. Programmers were recruited by Arup who created software programs for the development of the project, and that will help to analyze the structure using every detail. The entire process involved multiple steps. Firstly, each program required about 12 to 14 hours running, and secondly, data preparation would need a few weeks. The last and third step involved the translation of the data into the results. Compared to the manual processes, which required a few months, computers made the whole operation faster to a great extent. It was later revealed that if the machines were not used for the project, it would have taken at least ten years more and the building of Sydney Opera House was possible because of the inclusion of computers. The original data that had been made for the project can be accessed even now from the Arup Archive. It involves thousands of computational calculations as well as manual ones that were used in structural analysis. The Pegasus computer and its various models are also still present. The involvement of computers designs was observed as a noteworthy accomplishment in the history of engineering and architecture.

Question 4: Analysis of cost and/or schedule overruns: Are the reasons given for the cost and/or time overruns encountered during the project appropriate?

Answer: Analysis of cost and schedule overruns: While carrying out of any project, it is profoundly significant for the project managers of the company and the task group to investigate the part of the expense and overwhelms of the timetable identified with the usage of the task in a compelling way. As indicated by the given case situation, it has been come to locate that the whole task group associated with the project in regards to the execution of construction inside the association assessed an enormous measure of the budget for leading it. Furthermore, it is of high importance for the project managers to evaluate the budget estimated so the individual in question could ascertain the time required to complete the exercises related to the construction of the Opera House. It is important to do as such in light of the fact that the part of the expense is straightforwardly corresponding to the part of the time while carrying out any sort of project (Pdfs.semanticscholar.org, 2018). At the same time, the project managers must make sure the proper scheduling of the project tasks so as to control and manage the time associated with the exercises. Besides, overseeing and monitoring the factor of time in context to the scheduling of the tasks makes it workable for the project managers to break down the cost required and plan the budget of the project in the most effective way.

In context to this case scenario, it very well may be expressed that the project managers associated with the construction of the Opera House were unable to comprehend the importance of the connection between the role of time and cost as far as calendar invades. Moreover, dealing with the schedule overwhelms makes it feasible for the project managers to control the angles, for example, cost and time in a successful way. The board of time and expense on account of Opera House by the project managers was not fitting and successful too (Core.ac.uk, 2018). Because of this, the association was bound or made to face such severities in the usage of the proper methodologies for the construction. In this manner, it could be expressed that it is critical for the project managers to contemplate such angles and break down them so as to pick up a superior and nitty-gritty comprehension of the importance of expense and calendar invades for coordinating the arrangement of the site in the most effective way. Doing as such would make it feasible for the project managers to accomplish the target of the project in the most efficient way.

Then again, it is fundamental for the project managers to determine that the time and the cost required for completing the exercises for executing the task. Considering in the meantime it is of high significance for the project managers to oversee just as control the invades of the planned exercises productively (Jiem.org, 2018). Thus, in the wake of experiencing the contextual analysis in an extensive way, it could be expressed that the reasons depicted considering the time and cost identified with the consolidation of the construction are very fitting and sensible.

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Question 5: Analysis of the project execution team: Is the analysis of the extent to which the project execution team could be held responsible of the incurred time and/or cost overrun appropriate?

Answer: Analysis of the project execution team: From the case, situation gave it could be seen that the implementation of the construction by the association bombed because of a few reasons. While completing any construction project, it is vital for the project managers of the associations to choose a proper group for the execution of the undertaking tasks in a successful way. In any case, the implementation of the Sydney Opera House required highly skilled and talented experts. In view of the situation, the execution group involved in the project of actualizing was not up to the stamp while playing out the undertakings allotted to them by the project managers (Kerzner and Kerzner, 2017).

It is designated as one of the international symbols for architecture, but the processes that were involved in the construction were not near to any professional. There were a lot of problems that were not clearly addressed at the beginning of the project which resulted in the delay for a number of years. Utzon was replaced by Australian architects who completed the design and the budget increased to about ten times than the expenses that were calculated at the initiation of the project. The project was one of the first that included the use of computers on a large scale. Programmers designed programs for the development of parts of the Opera House. The study also reveals the methods that would help in the complete success of the project. The previous architect who was appointed for the job, Jorn Utzon did not realize the significance of the time, budget and scope of the project. He focussed primarily on the quality of the design which ultimately resulted in complications. The committee that was set up the Australian government continuously asked for changes in the design without any knowledge that it would cause overruns and delays.

Considering the way in which the execution group completed their exercises it could be expressed that they flopped in some significant zones because of which the execution of the construction project by the association fizzled. It is of high criticalness for the execution group to do the undertakings apportioned to them inside the stipulated time to get the ideal outcomes. Moreover, finishing the errands inside the restricted time span makes it workable for the project managers to hold the expenses within proper limits. The overwhelming of the time puts enormous weight on the expenses of doing every one of the exercises identified with the task. On the off chance that the project implementation group can't complete the undertakings given to them inside the due date of the stipulated period, it builds the expense of conveying such exercises essentially. The methodology of usage pursued by the task execution group was not proper in addition, viable for utilizing the construction design inside the association in a most extreme compelling way (De Bakker, Boonstra, and Wortmann, 2010). Besides, considering the way in which the undertaking group worked to accomplish the goals of the project was not applicable because of which the execution turned out wrong. In the apparent reality, it could be put sent that the task group couldn't be considered in charge of the brought about overwhelms of the expense and time. Moreover, the project group more likely than not discussed the results with respect to the advancement of the construction design so as to help the online offers of the organization. It is vital for the project group to survey the site to check it and have a nearby take a gander at the angles, for example, UI, execution, speed, etc. It makes it feasible for the group to actualize the construction design in the best way. It is vital for the undertaking group to ensure that they meet the prerequisites of the organization just as works in a proficient way (Bloch, Blumberg and Laartz, 2012). The task group must complete the testing of the construction design to assess the productivity of the site to check whether it is up to the stamp and would have the capacity to help the association or not.

Question 6: Analysis of relationship between overruns and the stakeholders: Is the analysis of the relationship between the problems you identified in cost and/or time overruns and the stakeholders expectations appropriate?

Answer: Analysis of the relationship between overruns and the stakeholders: According to the provided situation in regards to the disappointment of fuse of the Sydney Opera House, it very well may be seen that someplace in the middle the project managers neglected to evaluate and distinguish the connection in the midst of the partners and the invades of the project. This further made it very hard to accomplish the execution of the construction project in a period productive manner. It is sufficiently noteworthy for the project managers to check out the issues of invading and connection them in such a way in this way, to the point that they can get mindful of the effect made by expense and time overwhelms on the partners (Ahsan, K., and Gunawan, 2010). Furthermore, overcomes of cost and time are in a roundabout way relative to the desires for the partners engaged with the project. Considering the point of view of partners one might say that they have exclusive requirements from the association with respect to the deliverable or the result of the task. Anyway neglecting to meet the prerequisites and fulfilling the desires for the partners, makes an unfavourable effect on the association (Doloi, 2012).

So as to address the issues and needs of the partners, the project managers must join powerful instruments and systems just as proficient methods for completing the task and accomplish the target inside the arranged spending plan and stipulated time. It is of high centrality for the project managers to make sure that the deliverable of the undertaking can take care of the issues and difficulties looked by the partners with respect to the construction designing of the Opera House. In addition, distinguishing the connection between the part of expense and time invades and partners makes it workable for the project managers of the associations to concoct better quality items and administrations (Doloi, 2011). Therefore, it could be expressed that it is essential for the association to make a positive effect on the points of view of the partners by providing them with the item or the administration as guaranteed. In conclusion, surveying the relationship gives the project managers to concoct compelling and useful piece as the result of the undertaking.

The most significant process that was done during this project was the introduction of computers to make the construction easier. Previously, logarithmic tables, rulers, hardly calculating devices were used. The engineers had always made their calculations regarding the structural analysis using the mentioned techniques and therefore the time spent was huge behind such solutions. Computers made the calculations easier and rapid for the engineers. Thus, it is of high importance for the project managers to make sure that every aspect involved in the project is aligned with one another. This makes it possible for them to cater the clients with an appropriate solution in a timely manner. Furthermore, overruns within the project create a subtle disappointment within the clients.

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Question 7: Analysis of possible actions for success: Are the analysis of the project management actions that could have been taken to better control the project and stakeholders in order to increase the chance for successful delivery appropriate?

Answer: Analysis of possible actions for success: There are some actions that can be taken in the time of construction of monuments like Sydney's Opera House. The first possible action that can be taken for ensuring successful completion of such project is the fixing a budget and time limit for construction by an expert committee which will contain the architect of the project, project manager and three or four technical member who having knowledge about how much time and budget can be needed for this type of construction. In addition, if the designs are changed, this committee should also calculate the extra time and budget that will be required by the project manager to complete the project with the modification and authorized it. The second suggestion is the monitoring committee of such project should have adequate technical knowledge about this type of construction and should be able to give the government useful and accurate update about the progress of the construction (Jones, 2016).

The third possible action that is suggestion given in this context is that conducting different group activities and events for stakeholders or representative of the stakeholders for the purpose of increasing communication between the stakeholders of the project as one of this case study show lack of communication and coordination between the stakeholders of the project as a reason of the delay in the project. The fourth possible action that is suggested for successful completion of the project is the formation of a conflict resolution committee to resolve any conflict efficiently and effectively (Hasnain, &Thaheem, 2016). This committee formation suggestion is given because of the fact conflict occurring in a time of such significant project construction is natural but resolving those conflicts in an effective and timely manner is also necessary for smooth continuous of project work and this committee can be a tool for this purpose.

The fifth suggestion in this context is the allocation of the role and responsibilities to each member of the project including project manager and communicating these allocated roles and responsibilities to those project team members and this should be done to ensure there is accountability in the project construction work. The sixth possible action that can be taken in this context is the proper motivation of the team members to complete the work on time without compromising with the quality of the work. Furthermore, for different purpose incentives can be given to the team members if they achieve a high quality of work in a short time and for this action to give a good result, proper quality checking is also necessary of the work to ensure their no lack in the standard of the work done in the short time.

Question 8: Conclusion: Is the conclusion which identifies the key lessons that project management can learn from the experience of the project appropriate?

Answer: Conclusion: From the study, it can be concluded that there are a lot of lessons that can be learned from the failure of the Sydney Opera House project. It is designated as one of the international symbols for architecture but the processes that were involved in the construction were not near to any professional. There were a lot of problems that were not explicitly addressed at the beginning of the project which resulted in the delay for a number of years. The previous architect who was appointed for the job, Jorn Utzon did not realize the significance of the time, budget and scope of the project. He focussed primarily on the quality of the design which ultimately resulted in complications. The committee that was set up the Australian government continuously asked for changes in the composition without any knowledge that it would cause overruns and delays. Utzon was replaced by Australian architects who completed the design and the budget increased to about ten times than the expenses that were calculated at the initiation of the project. The project was one of the first that included the use of computers on a large scale. Programmers designed programs for the development of parts of the Opera House. The study also reveals the methods that would help in the complete success of the project.

Likewise, the task additionally stressed on principle issues and difficulties associated with the disappointment of the Sydney Opera House construction Project. The construction actualized by Sydney Opera House was not fitting because of which it fizzled, costing a significant amount of money. Moreover, the task additionally showed the control frameworks utilized by the relationship so as to assess and estimate the viewpoint cost, time, timetable, quality, and extension connected to the execution of the Website. The task further primarily investigated the part of the expense and invades of the timeline, which was experienced amid the implementation of the undertaking. Besides, the task likewise portrayed the evaluation of the venture group entailed within the execution of the construction design in the affiliation. In this task, the relationship in the midst of the partners and overwhelms of the playing out the undertaking was analyzed so as to pick up a basic and shrewd comprehension of the causes because of which the construction projects anticipates flop hopelessly. Moreover, the task likewise investigated the most conceivable moves, which must be taken up by the undertaking group so as to make the venture fruitful by means of compelling administration of the task.

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