Policy Proposal - Cell Phone Use and Driving
Generating a policy proposal: as a political advocate interested in this issue, you will be writing a policy proposal that utilizes the current research to propose a solution to the issue.
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1. introduction: you should set up the purpose of the proposal, provide a bit of background on the topic, and present your thesis.
Distracted driving is dangerous. Any activity which diverts the attention of driver is the cause of distracted driving including talking, eating, fiddling with the stereo, texting on phone and listening to music. Cell phone use during driving is the common practice but it is considered highly dangerous because it causes distraction which consequently leads to accidents(Peter & Gostin, 2010). For instance, sending or reading a text on the cell phone is most dangerous because it takes the eyes off from the road for 5 seconds. If the person is driving at 55 mph, while using cell phone then it could be said that one is driving the length of a footballfield with closed eyes(Linda, et al., 2015).
In a one-page summary, compare and contrast the results of the various studied regarding the cognitive abilities that are affected during cell phone use during driving.
1.1 Statistics of Distracted Driving in USA
In the USA, approximately 1000 injured and 9 people killed in the crashes which involved distracted driving(cdc.gov, 2017). Moreover, according to the National Safety Council report, cell phone use during driving lead to 1.6 million crashes per year. Alone due to texting while driving is the major reason of 390, 000 injuries per year. The report has further revealed that 1 out of every 4 accidents in the USA is due to texting and driving. Additionally, it has been noted that teens are the major age group who get distracted while driving.
Policy: select at least three research reports from peer-reviewed journals relevant to the cell phone use while driving making sure they address one of more f the following issues:
How do texting, hand-held phones, and hands-free phones compare with each other in their effects on driving?
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2. Major Factors of Distraction
Sheila et al. (2014) have revealed that distracted driving is the major cause of accidents in adults who are experienced drivers as well as in teens who are novice drivers. Primary research was conducted for evaluating the results. participants of research mainly included 42 newly licensed drivers while 109 were adults who experienced drivers. Researcher installed cameras, global positioning system, accelerometers and other sensors in the vehicles of participants for facilitating the objective assessment. Research findings clearly indicated that for teen drivers cell phone is a major distraction because 167 crashes or near crashes occurred when the teenwas either reaching for a cell phone, dialling a number and was involved in texting (Sheila, et al., 2014). Along with cellphone, the other distractions included staring at the roadside object and eating. On the other hand, for experienced drivers crash risk increased when they were dialling a number on the cell phone,however, texting and driving and internet assessing risks were not found. Moreover, over the time novice drivers were more careful about the secondary distractions while experienced drivers' behaviour was same. It could be said that cell phone is the major distraction for teens as well as adults.
How do often traditional distractions compare to cell phone use in their effects on driving (such as eating, attending to children, talking to passengers, listening to music/news etc.)?
Can cell phone use while driving be compared with drunk driving? Why or why not ?
What other variables (such as age) can affect driving while using a cell phone ?
3 Behavior and Age impact on Distracted Driving
Julie et al. (2011) have also claimed that as more drivers take their cell phones in vehicles the more chances are for crashes and near-crashes. Cell phone use during driving has increased the problem of maintaining safe driving. The USA is the major country which is facing this problem and it has responded to it by texting and cell phone ban. During November and December 2010, NHTSA conducted a national survey via telephone from 6, 002 drivers, age 18 and above. All the 50 states were included in the survey. The findings of the survey unveiled that most of the drivers answer their phone calls while driving and drivers of age between 21 to 24 reported that they had sent text messages and e-mails while driving. Half of the drivers have claimed that they do not think that there are any dangerous consequences for using the cell phone while driving. Moreover, the passengers have claimed that they feel unsafe if their driver is talking to someone on the handheld phone while driving. The behaviour of drivers is changed with respect to their age. For instance, the drivers who are between age 18 to 24 have claimed that they can easily take their eye off of the road for 3 to 10 seconds while others said they can concentrate on other things for more than 10 seconds till the situation become dangerous.
On the other hand, the experienced drivers who are above age 25 said they do not want to take such risks. Moreover, cell phone using behaviour is also related to the income group such as high-income people like $100, 000 per year or more will use cell phone extensively during driving while low-income people will be more careful(Julie, Chaudhary, & Cosgrove, 2011). It could be said that people with a high income are less careful about driving. Teens are also not serious during driving they indulge in dangerous activities without thinking about its consequences.
Kelsey et al. (2012) have inspected the driving habits of older and middle-aged drivers during distraction. Majorly during distraction, both age group has a low grip on steering. The middle-aged drivers exhibit speed variation while older age drivers slowed their speed and exhibited very low steering variation. Moreover, both age groups were more careful during distraction about their driving (Kelsey, et al., 2012).
Based on gaps in current research, describe the variables, populations and situations that you would like to see future research address.
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4 Impact of Distracted Driving on Traffic Safety
Stavrinos et al. (2013) have observed the impact of distracted driving on traffic safety. The researcher has evaluated that major distraction for the drivers is texting and during that, they have a negative impact on the traffic flow. This is mainly because, drivers exhibit high fluctuation in the speed, change lanes and majorly focus on the phone instead of paying attention to the road due to which the crashes and near-crashes chances elevate. Moreover, the stimulated vehicles can easily pass the distracted driver because of slow speed. While the driver is not distracted it was very difficult to pass him because one is paying complete attention to the driving. The findings have further confirmed that no matter what age, gender or class the person belongs to, distracted drivers have a negative impact on the traffic flow (Despina, et al., 2013).
Conclusion Review the important current research, your conclusions from that research, and how the future can lock in both policy and research, keep your goal in mind to convince the reader to support your current policy proposal and future research to examine the issue more closely
Using that research, develop and explain particular recommendations for policy makers. for instance, restrict texting, or regulate the use of hand-held phones. Al your recommendations must be supported by your research findings.
5 Policy Recommendation
It could be said that distracted driving is a common phenomenon in all the drivers regardless of their age. However, older and middle-aged drivers are more careful when they are using the phone or indulged in the other activities while driving. The major problem is about the teens and the experienced drivers who are between age 21 to 24. The policy should address the problem of cell phone mainly because other distractions are not much observed in the research. texting and dialling a number are two major distraction because the driverneeds to take eyes off of the road. AI can help in dealing with the problem. now the advancement in cell phones has taken place. For instance, various operating systems have introduced their assistance such as Alexa and Google assistants can assist the drivers during driving. Drivers can train their assistant for informing them about only important texts and reads it aloud for them so they could fully concentrate on the road. Moreover, when the assistant will be trained, it can dial the number and type the text for them. The drivers can also make the custom answers for replying the urgent texts in a short period of time. Additionally, the policy should restrict the drivers from listening to a call during driving because it can divert their mind. They need to stop somewhere and then receive the call. In emergency situations, only speaker calls should be allowed because handheld phones reduce the grip on steering which consequently increased the risk of an accident.
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