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Research Methodology, Unicaf University, USA


Topic - The Impact of training and development On Employees Performance And Productivity In small and medium Enterprises, The Case For Blantyre City, Malawi

Question: Develop your own Quantitative Research Methodology.

Answer: Research Problem Statement: In the present situation, SMEs from different sectors are facing stiff competition with continuously changing business trends. The rapid growth in globalization and the changing trends of customer needs have added the business challenges at a more complex level. Organizations, in order to deal with the issues, need to develop and train their employees that can in turn also help in enhancing their organizational productivity. In the view of (Alasadi, 2015), the current organizational at a global level needs to deal with the training requirements linked with the growing industrialization. On the other hand, the failure and success of an organization can be influenced by its human resource, where highly trained staffs can be considered as base pillars of organizations.

Providing training and development to the employees need to be quantifiable and immediate, which can act positively in terms of organizational productivity. On the other hand, (Bilauet al. 2015) has opined that the output quantity, output quality and output timeless determines organizational productivity. However, an integrated approach needs to be determined, which can address the multidimensional prospects of employees, which may include the interpersonal and technical skill enhancement and thus will lead to the leadership and creative skill.

Training and development of employees thus need to be considered as a growth opportunity along with an investment, which can, in turn, ameliorate the overall organizational, and employee benefits. According to (Bruhn, Karlan&Schoar, 2018), training and development processes can be included in order to contribute towards organizational goal accomplishment with reference to enhancing the professionalism of the employees. A more positive attitude can be cultivated in the employees through training and development which can provide a competitive edge to the organizational and thus to provide business sustainability.

Research Purpose Statement: The primary purpose of this research is to access the impact of training and development on employees' performance and p [productivity enhancement in the SMEs. The study also aims to recognize the interrelationship between contingencies and employee training. Additionally, the study also investigates the interrelationship between competencies and business performance. The study purposes to identify the ground aspects of mediation between the training and development to the employees with reference to business performance. This research sheds light on the managerial training impact on the SME's performance in the developing nations, such as Malawi. Therefore, the research highlights the significance of training and development in the SME's of the developing nations, which can help the SME's to develop their business performance. 

This research helps to identify the relationship between the performance level of the organization and training development staff. The performance of the employee is based on their understanding with productive assets of the business organization such as human resources, capital resources, physical resources (Georgiadis&Pitelis, 2016). Thus, the employees need to be trained properly to develop their knowledge and skills, which is more valuable to the small and medium enterprise. This assessment establishes the significant assumption of the organizational culture, which comprise the development, quality, efficiency, financial, and effectiveness performance. It identifies the effect on the training of both managerial and non-managerial employees of the small and medium enterprise.


Selected Research Method and Justification: The advantages and disadvantages of a quantitive approach regarding the research methods as well as the suitability of data collection are to be measured in this research method. As per the developing of the organizational structure, this selective approach determines the relationship between training and development procedure and the skills of employees in the business performance. The quantitative research method helps to get a response through measurable data analysis. It mainly provides an opportunity for the employees to interact directly with respondents regarding their issues from their own views (Karadag, 2015). The main reason for selecting these approaches is that it is less time consuming rather than other individual research approaches along with having an opportunity to dimensions of the training and development in terms of employees. Using the survey research method through approaching a questionnaire framework will help in describing the training and development aspects for a large population area in a broader manner and thus to ensure accurate conclusion. 

Additionally, the survey on the employees will help to know the motivations from the training and development, whereby an unbiased decision can be concluded based on the impact of training and development. On the other hand, in terms of measuring the organizational performance enhancement through training and development, the statistics and the financial projections will be used in order to measure the organizational performance and its growth (Krishnan & Scullion, 2017).

The lack of transparency, the reliability acts as less stable management rather than the large business sectors. This research is provided to the small and medium enterprise to get advance, develop, reinforce and endure their technology as well as to access the financial support that affects the growth of the small and medium enterprise in Malawi. The design of this research model is more reliable, valid thus it has been implemented in this assessment as well as the organizational strategy of the small and medium enterprise.

Research Questions or Hypotheses: The main hypothesis of this research module is the following: 

H1: A positive relationship persists in between training, development, and the performance of the employees.

The training increases the personal efficiency, professional growth of the employees as well as the smooth and effective operation of the organization. Successful proper training of the employees is increasing the productivity of the company. Employees can gather more knowledge or information regarding their work and develop new skills as well as understanding the organizational policies. The training enhances the abilities of the employees to operate the latest technological equipment and machines and reduce the overall effective costs, waste, and capital management. It acts as a positive relationship in the small and medium enterprise.

H2: Enhancing the capabilities of employees through T&D improves organizational productivity.

This is the element for both the individuals working capacity to develop organizational growth. The simultaneous growth of the employees can provide them the quality of service. An employee can give their best performance and boost up their natural capabilities with the help of the training development procedure (Mkandawire&Duan, 2016). Utilization of new technological equipment can build more effective and highly motivated workers team in an organization. Training gives the opportunity to each of the members in the organization to improve their working skills as well as the knowledge gathering capabilities, which is beneficial to both employees and the small and medium enterprises. Job satisfaction arises to the employees due to their high performance, high productivity after the complete training session properly. It influences the training and development, employee skills as well as the competencies based on this conceptual model.

Intended Data Collection Tool and Analysis: Data collection tool is considered as the device, which can be used in order to collect the data through different approaches. In terms of the current research, as the study focuses on the impact of T&D on employee performance, the data collection tools, which will be used in this research is both the primary data collection tool and secondary data collection tool. In terms of the primary data collection tool, the survey questionnaire will be approached in order to survey the employees that will help to underpin the grounds of T&D impact on their performance. With the survey questionnaires instrument, a set of the questionnaire will be applied to the chosen number of samples, which will include standard questions based on the T&D (Nallusamy, 2016). On the other hand, in terms of the secondary data collection tools, the organizational performance will be measured using the financial statements, company information, policies, business journals, and other instruments.

The secondary data collection tool will help to support the primary observation from the secondary findings in terms of underpinning the ground of the relationship between employee performance enhancement and organizational productivity with growth (Ogunyomi&Bruning, 2016).

On the other hand, data analysis is used in order to analyze the findings from the research using both the secondary and primary data. Data analysis, in this research, will be considered through using the statistical data analysis (SPSS), where the survey will be analyzed through including bivariate, univariate and multivariate analysis.


Sampling Method to be Used: The sampling method can be classified as population, size of the sample, sample design and procedure, and management of data analysis. In this research, the population acts as an entire group of persons that is comprised of 200 staff from 20 SMEs in Malawi. The sample size is very dependent on the population procedure. It is an observation gathering from the population by sample techniques. The size of the samples is manageable that anyone can access the sample. The sample size of this research has to be 100 respondents including the managers and the staff members of the small and medium enterprise. The total population is classified into small groups to complete the sampling procedure. After the division of the sample data as well as population into smaller parts, the researcher can easily select the sample randomly. Researchers are divided into five subgroups and the combination of 20 members in each group. 

Researchers are randomly selecting each of the individuals from the subgroup of 20 SMEs. The data or information is collected through computer-based data analysis technology. The multivariate, bivariate, and univariate data analysis are included in this process. This measurement is human error fewer as well as it reduces the risk of quality, development, effectiveness, skills, and knowledge. All of these areas are well performed in the training and development session of the small and medium enterprise. This sampling method is associated with the survey-based research where researchers can extract the population from their sample to fulfill the research method (Pérez-Bustamante Ilanderet al. 2016). The simple random sampling is the most reliable techniques that are implemented for a special case. The research design of sample techniques can be defined by collecting information from the people through mail, face to face or telephone conversation. This method allows the researcher to understand the important facts, which enhances the validity of findings. For simplification of the outcomes, this sampling method has been utilized to select a sample such as population. For that reason, this sampling technique is established in the report. In this research, the population is considered as the Malawi small and medium enterprise. It discovers the unit of research of the manager or owner of the small and medium enterprise.

The sampling method is a survey-based technique. Researchers can obtain the result according to their survey or study on their research topic. They gathered the information from various sources, which are utilized as a common factor as well as common elements of the sampling techniques of the small and medium enterprise of Malawi. Researchers have selected the sample file randomly, which is the most straightforward techniques of the sampling procedure in the organization. Researchers are first to separate the source or information files in subparts that give help to them as well as the management of the organization to do the sampling of the data easily. The implementation of the new system can enhance the sampling process as well as it helps to the organizational management to store and implementing data or information with less human error and good quality. This method is more cost effective which is directly affected on the operational structure of the small and medium enterprise or organization. Before due to existing system more additional labor needed to complete the sampling procedure, which increases the cost value of the company. However, this operation technique is straightforward whereas, no additional labor has been needed for completing the sampling techniques of the small and medium enterprise (Nallusamy, 2016).


The survey of information influences the workers as well as the management of the organization and motivates them to perform better according to their current performance level. Thus in this assessment the secondary data analysis techniques have been used to sample the information or data respectively. The information, which is collecting from the journals of the secondary data analysis those, is more reliable and valuable in the impact of training and development of employees in the small and medium enterprise of Malawi.

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