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Patients with HIV Infection Assignment Help

Hospitals and nursing home should not refuse to admit patients with HIV infection. Discuss.

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Patients with HIV Infection

Introduction

HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection is considered as a fatal and incurable health complication. Researches are being conducted to develop drug therapy for treatment of HIV, however, the success rate for cure is limited. It is often found that medical professionals feel the risk of acquiring HIV infection from the patients, during the assessment and intervention procedure. The healthcare providers generally are known to have significant stigmatizing beliefs and attitudes towards the HIV patients and the people living with them. This corresponds to the belief that the only solution for preventing them from being exposed to virus is to refuse for treatment. Such a discriminatory action should not be an option for healthcare professionals and the associated clinical settings, which receive Medicaid and Medicare funding (Kumar, Unnikrishnan, and Thapar, 2017). The avoidance can occur in several forms such as increased physical distance, awkward social interaction, referrals to other nurses or doctors, discouragement of treatment, neglect, excessive protective measures and confidentiality breaching. However, all the patients hold the right to treatment as well as the right to refuse treatment.

HIV patients all around the world

In the present section, the discussion illustrates about the response and perspectives adopted by professionals during acceptance and intervention process for HIV patients. This include examples and its discussion from possible continents.

Africa

In the present time, HIV is almost every corner of the globe. The vast majority HIV affected populations are found in sub-Saharan Africa. According to statistics, 36.9 million people as a footing from HIV globally and 25% of them unaware of their status (Chan, & Tsai, 2016). In countries like Kenya, South Africa, Uganda, Zimbabwe, Tanzania, Zambia and Botswana international HIV organizations are actively working. Kenya is the fourth largest HIV epidemic country in the world. It has more than 1.5 million a population carrying HIV virus. Despite of high awareness related to HIV and AIDS in Kenya, there exists HIV stigma and discrimination to a certain extent. For this purpose the local government organise anti-stigma campaigns, HIV awareness and education. According to the report of Kenya demographic and health survey 2014, 26% of women and 44% of men accepted of showing discriminatory behaviour towards HIV patients. Moreover, 44% of female sex worker, and 57% of people injecting drugs were severely beaten by the police. On the other hand, the government is spending $US 153 million in 2012 in response to HIV treatment. Thus, the data revealed that the society as well as healthcare providers show discrimination towards HIV patients. Botswana is another country in Africa having 380000 population surviving with HIV. However, 86% of them unaware of their HIV status and more than 95% are on HIV treatment. According to a study of Botswana in 2014, 20% of HIV patients have experienced verbal insult while 10% have through physical harassment (Treves-Kagan, Ayadi, and Pettifor, 2017).

North America and South America

In North America and South America, there are minimal population of HIV patients. For instance in United States, there are 1.1 million HIV patients and one in seven are unaware of their HIV status. The surprising that, people anyways are also suffering from stigma and discrimination. As per the stigma index report of Michigan 2018, 80% of respondents have experienced guilt feeling for being HIV positive, 73% experienced social discrimination, and 20% have experienced discrimination from healthcare community (Darlington, &Hutson, 2017).

Asia

Asia and the Pacific that are almost 5.2 millions of people with HIV virus. However 74% of them are unaware of their HIV status and 71% on HIV treatment. According to the stigma index 2016, 48% of the people do not prefer to go for testing sites. The reason is lack of trust on the healthcare workers for keeping their results confidential. In Thailand 50% of new infections are identified, while there are only 22% of HIV prevention programming (Prasitsuebsai, Sethaputra, and Lumbiganon, 2018).

Europe

Eastern Europe is only part the world where the HIV epidemic is increasing at a concerning rate. In this region that are 1.4 millions of HIV patients and to 73% of them are ignorant of their disease (Pachankis, Hatzenbuehler, and Hickson, 2015). Most of the HIV patients are those people who inject drugs most frequently. And this reason also the rate of stigma and discrimination towards HIV patients remain high. Due to the implementation of new conservative legislation, the patients are reluctant to access the HIV services. However in some of the regions like Armenia and Belarus efforts are made to eliminate the risk of HIV transmission from mother to child.

Australia

Australia is the least affected continent having only 25313 HIV patients and when only 10% are unaware of their HIV positive status. According to the reports of stigma indicator monitoring project, 74% of HIV patients experienced social discrimination and 52% experienced discrimination from the health workers.

Recommendation

Based on the learning about behavioural and social stigma existing among the health care professionals for HIV patient, the following recommendation is framed to achieve optimal care outcomes and wellbeing of community members.
- Specific regulatory mechanism must be implemented for reviewing the work procedure and approach of communication by professionals during treatment of HIV patient.
- Feedback must be collected from patient and further actions must be taken to account for ethical practices.
- Reward and acknowledgement system must be initiated, which can motivate professionals to avoid any social stigma or disbelieve.

Conclusion

There are numerous examples where the healthcare workers and organization have been account for disciplinary action by the government, for discriminating HIV patients. For example, Beth Israel hospital was sued when it refused to perform surgery HIV positive patient. The healthcare center violated Section 504 of Vocational Rehabilitation Act (Greenhalgh, Rana, and Samanta, 2015). Thus, the government and non-government organization shouldwork in coordination to prepare standard orientation program for healthcare workers, for taking a better care of HIV positive patients (Pachankis, Hatzenbuehler, and Hickson, 2018). The program should include the basics of HIV, universal precautions, social aspects and the responsibility of nurses and doctors.

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