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NURS2101 Foundations of Professional Practice 2A - The University of Newcastle, Australia


Question 1: Write a report that covers the following areas:

a) Introduction: Justify why an understanding of this topic is important to nurses.

Answer: Introduction: Emotional support of caring guardian or parent is vital inclusion for treating a hospitalized child. It allows a child to heal fast and acquire needed motivation to fight against the disease. The caring aid of parent creates a positive environment for children in responding nursing goals and objectives set out to recover the condition of a child.

However, stress and emotional burnout are major resultant factor for parents with hospitalized child. It creates a sense of deprivation among parent while facilitating the medical growth of a child admitted in hospital. One of the major elements that cannot be ruled out is that parents expect instant improvement of their wards admitted under medical care. They seek higher priority from nurses to treat their children and help in recovery of child.

It can be considered natural response for parent to get hyper and experience emotional trauma due to hospitalization of their children. Recurrent experiences of ill health of child in medical centre lead parents to distress and unfulfilled expectation from nurses (Wiener et al. 2016). On the contrary, contemporary technological ways provide distress care to parent and allow them to recover from psychological trauma. It has been a repetitive incidence for parents to get stressed out and scoop to negative feeling due to the suffering of their children. The prevalence rate of parents getting higher anxiety and emotional wreckage due to hospitalization of child cannot be ruled out as it affects their mindset.

Modern ways of handling the needs and demands of parent with hospitalized child are met through family centred care (Yager et al. 2017). The consistent care and decision making process of a child's medical growth is being consulted with parent to make sure necessary reduction in anxiety and stress can be achieved. It cannot be ignored that most of the parent experiences symptoms of post traumatic stress regarding their ward's health. The PTS feeling of parents are mostly generated due to uncertainty, loss and concern for their child (Stremler et al. 2017).

This report has evaluated the understanding of parent's inner experience and feeling with hospitalized child which is important for a nurse for providing effective care. A comprehensive study on parent experience with child in hospital can help a nurse to prioritize those activities that can provide immediate relief to parent which can be used to heal a child. It is the most significant aspect in determining the present condition and helps in maintaining effective care of a child.

b) Briefly outline the search strategy used including key search words and data bases.

Answer: Search Strategy: In order to find relevant journal articles and key information on parent experience with child in hospital certain keywords such as experience in hospitalization of child, impact of hospitalization on parent and stress experience from hospitalized child are being followed. It has been effective in acquiring 3 relevant journals from Journal of Paediatric Nursing, Hospital paediatrics and Journal of Paediatric nursing are gathered to state the impact of hospitalized child on their parents. Updated version of online browsers has been utilized to find relevant information.


Question 2: Briefly describe and appraise each study. Include in your discussion the research aims, design, participants, data collection method, data analysis, main findings, ethical considerations and study limitations.

Answer: Literature review: Weiss, M. E., Sawin, K. J., Gralton, K., Johnson, N., Klingbeil, C., Lerret, S., ... & Schiffman, R. (2017). Discharge teaching, readiness for discharge, and post-discharge outcomes in parents of hospitalized children. Journal of pediatric nursing, 34, 58-64.

Research aim: The aim of this research was to acquire an understanding of parental experience with nursing practice and post discharge of hospitalized child

Research design: It has conducted a pilot study samples that have agreed to provide their clinical details during caring practice on their children. The research has been progressed with correlation design as it helped researchers to find a relevant correlation between coping difficulty of parents and child hospitalization. Lewis (2015) has stated that correlation design helps in identifying the common link between two variables of research study.

Participants: The research has acquired relevant data from a sample of 194 parents of two medical units

Data collection method: The research has acquired data through qualitative approach by sampling out relevant information from acquired data

Data analysis: The study has followed secondary analysis for making a critical viewpoint on parental exposure to discharge of their wards

Main finding: The primary findings of this research indicated that a guardian or parent goes through intense coping difficulty during the transition period of a child from being sick to getting discharge certificate. Most of the parents seek discharge approval of their child to get momentary relief from stressful situation. However, the coping difficulty of parent gets minimal in post discharge of their wards and lowers the impact of hospitalized child on parents. It cannot be denied that most parents seek quality care services and proper discharge of their children. The family or parents with history of chronic illness shows less coping difficulty in comparison to parents with non-chronic illness.

Ethical consideration: It has followed the code of conducts that restrict a researcher to manipulate data and present it for personal use.

Study limitation: The research has not produced coherent evidence of experiences of intervention parents and control groups. It is also limited in finding discharge experience rather than clinical experience of parents.

Jones, J., Nowacki, A. S., Greene, A., Traul, C., & Goldfarb, J. (2017). Investigating parent needs, participation, and psychological distress in the children's hospital. Hospital pediatrics, 7(7), 385-394.

Research aim: The primary purpose of this research is to garner the experience of parents that are participated in care practices of hospital and their needs fulfilment.

Research design: This research study has followed correlation design to garner the link between parent's participation in care and positive outcome of hospitalized child

Participants: In order to conduct survey, 186 parents are being considered as sample population within which only 166 responded to questionnaire surveys.

Data collection method: The data has been collected through Primary quantitative means through close ended questionnaire surveys. The participants were questioned in English and liker scale has been utilized by the researcher.

Data analysis: It has conducted a linear regression analysis of the information that has been collected from quantitative data. As per the opinion of Abdulkadiroglu et al. (2017), regression analysis acts as a statistical aspect of data that helps in connecting two or more available variables.

Main finding: The assessment of parent survey with regression analysis determined that fulfilment of parent's needs and demands resulted in less psychological distress. It has also been pointed out that higher psychological distress and negative expectation on child hospitalization result in increased amount of care demands from parents. Narrating the expectation on child recovery process assist parents to make disregard stress and participate in care of their wards

Ethical consideration: The study has followed the ethical practices of hospital paediatrics to acquire data from parents that have authentically participated in hospitalized care of their child. It allowed the research to provide data without any manipulation and result in higher relevancy of parents needs from hospitals.

Study limitation: This research has not provided enough evidence on coping strategies implied by parents to handle their mental condition with admitted children. It has only included English speaking participants which did not allow it to explore parents with other cultures.


Rankin, D., Harden, J., Waugh, N., Noyes, K., Barnard, K. D., & Lawton, J. (2016). Parents' information and support needs when their child is diagnosed with type 1 diabetes: a qualitative study. Health Expectations, 19(3), 580-591. Retrieved on 29 April 2019.

Research aim: The aim of the study is to find the relevant experience and need of parent that has to seek hospitalized care for children with type 1 diabetes.

Research design: The research has followed inductive approach and also carried out the study with descriptive design. It has been highlighted by Abdulkadiroglu et al. (2017) that descriptive design helps in describing logically the events that leads to particular findings.

Participants: The samples space for this research was limited to 54 parents of diabetic children.

Data collection method: The research has followed qualitative method to acquire data from semi structured interviews. This particular approach helped in discussing the situation rather than closing in on particular response.

Data analysis: Thematic analysis has been conducted on acquired information. As per the opinion of Lewis (2015) thematic analysis results in logical understanding of collected information as it examine each answer with individual themes and conducts individual analysis of axial codes.

Main finding: Parents required reassurance from medical unit before their children got diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. It seemed that most of the parents are fell victim to psychological distress due to complex information on the management of diabetes. The parents of hospitalized child needed emotional and psychological support from experienced medical professionals to support their child during recovery in home and hospitalized care. On the contrary, nervousness and fearful nature of some parents did not let them to acquire empathetic support from nurses and also suffered from less peer support.

Ethical consideration: The research has followed ethical consideration of research committee of nursing practices and presented an authentic data without any unnecessary manipulation.

Study limitation: The research is limited as it had presented information from parents that have experienced hospitalization of child with type 1 diabetes of 11 years in previous records. It did not cover contemporary experience and practices of medical professional.

Question 3: Identify key common findings in the studies, or significant variations.

Answer: Key findings: Parental enquiries regarding their ward's health is a relevant approach for acquiring the present condition of child health. It has been highlighted by Weiss et al. (2017) that majority of parents experiences coping difficulty during the recovery period of children. The statement of author does not only points out the effectiveness of psychological support for parents but also brings out the primary issue of discontentment in hospitalized condition of child. 

On the contrary, Rankin et al. (2016) have stated that a parent gets confused due to complex set of information about management of hospitalized child. It does not only lower the confidence of parents in revival of their children but also does not allow them to help in the recovery process of hospitalized child. The major similarities between the two author's findings are that a professional guidance is required to manage intellectual and psychological support of parents. This could help in bridging the gap between responsible care and elimination of parental concern with post diagnosis condition.

However, Jones et al. (2017) has stressed that high caring demand are subjected to parents with low confidence and negative feeling. Their fear of slow recovery of child makes them demand more attention for their wards irrespective of critical nature of patient. It can be point out that there is a similarity with other journal articles regarding the satisfaction criteria of parents. In order to meet the necessary fulfilment and reduction in parental distress, more clinical assistance is required. The contrary viewpoint is that parents with negative expectation of their child tends to require more support whereas some parents wants to include themselves in decision making process by becoming an active participant of child recovery process. There is an impending amount of distress among parent that does not allow them to make positive environment for children.


Question 4: Reflect on what you have learned about the experience of the patient and/or family and discuss how you will apply this in your future nursing practice.

Answer: Reflection and application: The comparing and contrasting of relevant journals and articles allowed me to acquire in depth understanding of parental needs and their concern with ailing child in hospitalized condition. It is required by parents to get complete access to their ward's present medical condition for sufficing the need of acquiring positive feeling toward recovery process (Levett-Jones, 2014). I have noticed that all three journals pointed out the distressing condition of parents and emotional effect of child hospitalization. 

There is a need to provide effective psychological care for parents with hospitalized child because in my perception it could help in reducing PTSD and mental concern of either parent. The most prominent aspect that I learned from above sections is that there is a high expectation among parents regarding nursing care practices towards a sick child and also seeks participation in care. I also got to know about family centred care which has been adopted as the advanced care practices that occurs under the observational eye of parents/family.

Application: I can utilize the above acquired information on parental experience for setting up a support group for psychological comfort. This could not only allow me to have proper understanding of parent mental condition but also initiate recovery steps to prevent traumatic experiences. In my future practice as a nurse, post diagnosis report would be important as it might help in briefing parents about the management of disease in home care and the relevancy of their participation in recovery process. It cannot be denied that parents with positive expectation require less attention from nurses. So, my prime focus will be toward parents with negative expectation because active support of parents results in quick recovery of a child health.

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