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Motivating Elements

Topic: Analyzing The Motivating Elements That Help Managers To Implement Change In The Organization


Introduction: Employee motivation is one of the most critical aspects of the workplace, which leads to the performance of the company and the person itself. Besides, by decreasing the unnecessary new recruitments, the authorities should look after the comfort of the existing employees by involving them in change.

Though initiating change is an important way of involving employees in the growth and development of the company, it also inherits some demerits. Often employees require time to adjust with the new changes into the company; the organization also faces various problems in handling the teams with various requirements. Additionally, there are often some scenarios, where, both the employees and the authorities have to juggle with various continuous processes with upgrading documents in aligning the challenging situations.

By describing, these articles, the paper tries to justify multiple factors that influence the employees into coping with the changes in the organization. Additionally, the paper also describes the renowned factors, which help the company managers to help the employees in adjusting the changes in the company.

Question 1: Background Information

A. First primary author/research study description

Answer: The first article described the situations of the employees like turn over and attitudes, which were impacted by the adverse impact of change management. The article questions on the impact of a faulty change management history into the employees' attitudes like job satisfaction, change cynicism, openness towards the change, intentions of the turnover and trust through a model.

The paper adopts a sociocognitive approach for understanding the employees' reactions towards the changes. As justified by Bordia et al. (2011), the paper proposed the belief-based system through two phase's model to understand the hypothesized model.

The paper concluded that the history of poor change management along with its poor change beliefs promotes lowered job satisfaction, trust, and openness towards change management. Additionally, it supports increasing the higher rate of intensions of employees turnover cynicism significantly. The paper also depicts the higher base rate of turnover and relationships between the actual turnover and turnover intentions as a strong impact of beliefs of PCMH.

B. Second primary author/research study description

Answer: In this article, the authors question the importance of cross-cultural approaches into organizational behaviors. In this paper, the authors try to demonstrate the processes by which the past research works into cross-cultural aspects support in reconceptualizing the revise models, boundary conditions and constructs in year-old organizational behavior theories.

The paper usually illustrates various traditional approaches to organizational behaviors like conflict management, intergroup relations, supervisor and subordinate theory, collective cognition, leadership and teams. As justified by Gibson & McDaniel (2010), the paper concludes the idea with significant impacts of organizational behavior like employees' productivity, motivation, job satisfaction, employee retention and company's growth and development into cross-cultural organizations over the world.

After analyzing the results, the paper supports the thought of traditional organizational behavior theory of varying across the cultures and identifies the significant requirements of advancing the theories through the cross-cultural aspects. The paper was successful in proving the fact that one of a kind of organizational behavior strategy is not always appropriate for culturally different organizations.

C. Third primary author/research study description

Answer: Though the organizational changes develop through the complicated set of languages based, discourse-based, communicative procedures, this article questions the process of implicating the organizational change and discourse. The paper also highlights the temporal and processual aspects of the multiple organizational changes for reviewing the change as the social accomplishment throughout the organizational sector as the ongoing, iterative style.

For conducting the research work, the paper adopts an analytical framework to draw the constructive, conversational, recursive, reflexive, political multilevel type of organizational change. As commented by Grant & Marshak (2011), the paper illustrates the topic through four main segments for considering the benefits and implications of the approach to change related practices and researches.

The paper develops the change-related approach for discussing the demonstration of an important contribution of the discourse-based procedures in managing and understanding the practices and processes of the organizational changes. The paper also suggested that the possible alternative discourses can be activated, deployed and blocked through key indicators of the change management into the organizations.


D. Fourth primary author/research study description

Answer: The article questions about the method to detect the response of artifacts of organizational changes through using the relational equivalence and measurement techniques. The paper evaluates the organizational change management through the designs of the significant experimental designs, which are often not provided as practical.

The paper utilizes the case of sexual harassment into the U.S military base within the year 1995 to 2002 as the context of using the method of relational and measurement equivalence techniques. As described by Nye, Brummel & Drasgow (2010), the reported change often illustrated as the factors of the correspondence structure related to the broadened definitions of sexual harassment for including the post and pre-training of administrations.

The paper suggested the art factual decrease of the harassment into the reported case used in this, also illustrated incorporation of the additional steps towards the assessment of the relational equivalence. Additionally, the paper described a method for the purpose of illustrating the various meaning of the organizational change that will be helpful for the evaluation of the observed changes into survey responses.

E. Fifth primary author/research study description

Answer: This article questions the real-life incident like paternalism through the context of the western business world. As described by Pellegrini, Scandura & Jayaraman (2010), paternalism is one of the most emerging concepts along with the important potential of the research of the international leadership styles. It is one of the renowned styles of leadership among the organizations situated in non-western countries.

For conducting the research work, the writer compares the employees' attitudes from India and the United States along with the paternalistic leadership styles and its multiple correlates. Though the results show a positive and important impact on job satisfaction within India, it does not have any significance in the scenario of the United States.

The results concluded as some generalize impacts of the paternalistic leadership styles among the culture as it related to the organizational commitment, organizational change management and leader-member exchange. It also depicts the important aspects of paternalistic leadership styles that often influence other leadership styles with leadership dynamics in different cultural contexts.

F. Sixth primary author/research study description

Answer: Failures into the methodology felt huge impacts on the growth and development of any company. This paper questions the proper adoption of the methodology and its impacts by contrasting various methodologies and possible failures. The paper also justifies multiple failures of the implementations and program theories by shedding the light completing into the topic.

For conducting research work, the paper describing various failures of implementations and program theory, also it gets support from the recently raised issues raised within various approaches related to every failure. As commented by Stame (2010), the paper describes the failures in the programme as the rival explanations and complexity.

Additionally, in the implementation failure, the paper focuses on the process of using the guidelines and taking context into the account. The results like in failures in methodological aspects the paper focus on the process of moving to external from internal validity through the context of the organizational changes management.

G. Seventh primary author/research study description

Answer: The seventh article focuses on the relationship between organizational procedures, strategic motivation and self-complexity as an important indicator of organizational behavior and human resource management. As commented by Zoogah & Abbey (2010), the relationship between the employees and authorities among different cultural contexts influences the success of the change management among any company.

For conducting the research work, the paper examines two studies related to potential employees' self-complexity with or without the cross-cultural factors as the determinants as the employers' preferences through the strategic motivations of the company. The paper also collects 40 samples from the emerging economic market of Ghana.

The paper concluded as the importance of the employee with cross-cultural experiences by the hiring employers. The paper also concluded that employees with cross-cultural experiences often perceived in facilitating the achievement of their respective strategic motivations.

H. Eighth primary author/research study description

Answer: The next article focuses on the styles of leadership as an important factor in change management in any organization. As described by Holmberg & Tyrstrup (2010), the paper also describes leadership styles as an important approach to motivating employees. The paper is mainly based on the general aspects of the segmentation into the managerial work and the unfortunate lacking of the relationship within the managerial work and the entire working process of the company.

The paper utilizes the leadership approaches through a carried out examination on 62 managers or project leaders, who are competing among perceive, cutting edge situations. The article also demonstrated multiple integrations of managing jobs as an important aspect of managing change management within the cultural driven organizational contexts.

Here, the study concluded the leadership style as the striking activities consisting of interpretations, formulations of the part-time solutions and continuous adjustments. Additionally, the paper also depicts the leadership as the event-driven consolidated event than the intention driven activity that should be focused on the organizational skills like tuning and improvisation abilities.


I. Ninth primary author/research study description

Answer: The ninth article describes the importance of change management and factors resisting the change management within the company. The paper focuses on the employees' leadership styles, education, communication, involvement and participation as the influencing approaches of resisting change management among any organization in any cultural context.

The paper mainly adopts the secondary approach in conducting the research comprises of the previous works and resources from the offices. Additionally, the importance of the communication ideas in the requirements of the logic of change management is described by the paper (Kotter & Schlesinger 2008).

The paper concluded the importance of organizational analysis that helps in analyzing the organizational situations that aids in identifies in recent problems, forces, situations that raise problems into change management. Additionally, conduction of the factors of the analysis for production of the required changes that are also supported in designing the changes and resistances of the changes into the organizational sector.

J. Tenth primary author/research study description

Answer: The paper followed a cognition-based operation in human consciousness to understand the past experiences of change management. As commented by Latta (2009), these artifacts of the organizational change management often are confounded by the numbers of the threats towards its validity.

Additionally, the paper also provides importance to the economic, social, global and technological changes within the economical sector in influencing the mindsets of the employees towards a company.

The paper also inquires some of the managers, who have beliefs into the communication, education, involvement, participation within the organizational activities among the other cultural contexts.

Question 2: Discussion of how the results of these studies provided information that improves the overall knowledge

Answer: The first article adopts the socio-cognitive approaches by developing a belief based procedures for understanding the employees' reactions towards the change management that introduces the significant relationship between the past experiences of the change management and employees' behavior and attitudes. The second article discusses the requirements of including the alternative culture conceptualization, the importance of determining the cultural phenomena as the dependent variable into the various cultural interactions. The third article proposed the fact that there are significant numbers of important constructs, which aids in determining the framed organizational change management and the procedures by which it influences the changes procedures and outcomes. The fourth article helps in identifying the serious aspects of sexual harassment as an important part of impacting on organizational change management. The fifth article demonstrates the important influences of paternalistic leadership styles on organizational commitment and change management into different cultural aspects. Unlike others, the sixth article supports understanding the factors of failures and the success of the methodologies that impact organizational change management significantly. Unlike the above article, the seventh paper focuses on the important aspects of human resource management as the influencing indicators of the employees' growth (Zoogah & Abbey 2010). The eighth article supports the distinctive characteristics of the leadership styles towards an event-driven and considerable extent scenario.

Question 3: Discussion of gap or information that was not provided to address the question

Answer: In article one, the model only able to measure the absence or presence of the proper change management history thus, the future should be more elaborated and the impacts of the predictors of employees' turnover must be analyzed throughout. Though the second article describes various models, reconceptualizations developed by cross-cultural organizations, there is more room for advancing the study of teams, conflicts and leadership study. The third article has a lack of sufficient applied orientation into the organizational change by which the discourse can be more constructive ways of action. The fourth article uses only the relational non- equivalence method for describing the facts and analysis that may not be error-free in broader aspects. As the fifth article studies on trends of the organizations in non-western countries, selecting any one company in both India and the United States may vary the results as it is a huge country comprises of many cultures. Situational responsiveness like alternatives designs for the causal explanation and limitations like counterfactuals in various positions restricted the study in the sixth article. In the case of the seventh article, limitations like the adoption of the global self-complexity approach, lacking preferences in western and African countries can be overcome in the future. Despite the overall analysis, there are lacking places like newer managers' thoughts towards the leadership styles, restrictions of examination scenarios into the eighth article (Holmberg & Tyrstrup 2010).

Conclusion: In conclusion, it can be said that motivating a company's employees should be exercised by the authorities regularly in various ways and means. The employees of the company should be clear about the company's goals and expectations.

The paper describes some of the influential factors that impact the employees' attitudes and turnover in terms of change management. The transparent and well-documented writing shed light on the negative impacts of change management into the employees' turnover and attitudes.

Be analyzing ten different articles, the paper concluded employers, employees, human resource management, participation and communication as the important factors in initiating the change management. The paper has the implications for human resource management and change management as the future implications as an influential part of the employees' hiring. Due to time and material constraints, the paper could not cover most of the contents, in the future, it can be expected to explore more organizational sectors and preferences.


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