Assignment - Research Project Proposal
Topic - Implementation of ceramic materials in disc brakes to increase braking efficiency, lower wear rate and ensure extended lifecycle.
Task - Submit a research project proposal that summarises the: research aims, scope and outcomes, literature synthesis, refined research question/s, research methodology, evaluation of safety, risk and ethical considerations, timeline of scheduled tasks, justification for necessary resources, need for research and research impact and team charter including team communication strategies.
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Answer - IMPLEMENTATION OF CERAMIC MATERIALS IN DISC BRAKES TO INCREASE BRAKING EFFICIENCY, LOWER WEAR RATE AND ENSURE EXTENDED LIFECYCLE
In this study the main components of carbon-ceramic present in the disc brakes are discussed in order to increase the efficiency of the brakes to extend the lifecycle of the vehicles. It has been illustrated that the process of manufacturing vehicles using ceramic components helps to offer a huge benefit to increase the performance of the discs brakes. carbon ceramic brakes are known of its great durability along with its high tech appeal and resistance, corrosion. It also helps to offer great comfort to the individual due to its low weight and expand its lifecycle as it can recover quickly.
Chapter 1: Introduction
It has been analyzed that all the vehicles comprise of brakes which are made up of steel as well as alloys in order to enhance the effectiveness of the vehicles. In this study, the main components of ceramic materials in the disc brakes in order to increase the efficiency of the brakes to extend the lifecycle of the vehicles. It has been analysed that the operational disc brakes struggle a lot due to increasing friction as well as it goes through the stresses along with the phenomenon of wear and tear. It has been analyzed that discs are normally constructed from the cast iron components because that material is cheap and consists of better quality along with anti-wear characteristics. There are other materials such as aluminium and ceramic which is used by the manufacturing industry. In this study the characteristics and benefits of carbon ceramic brake is discussed.
1.2 Background of the study
Ceramic disc brakes comprise of various advantages in order to enhance the effectiveness of the vehicles. As per the views of Fernandes et al. (2019), the carbon ceramic discs are used to raising the performance as its weight is much lower than that of other vehicles. It has been observed that the ceramic brakes are made up of a mixture of power along with fibers and resins by implementing and following a massive manufacturing procedure. It can be observed that from the year 2000, these ceramic brakes hold great importance of the production of sports cars. These manufacturing component i.e. ceramic discs were awarded a golden compass prize due to its great effectiveness and efficiency. It has been illustrated that the system helps to offer a huge benefit to increase the performance of the discs brakes; because it can offer great opportunity to run in both dry as well as wet climatic condition. The carbon ceramic brakes are known of its great durability along with its high tech appeal and resistance, corrosion. It also helps to offer comfort to the rider due to its low weight.
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It have been observed that carbon-ceramic brakes consist of some problem in the manufacturing process; its prices are very high than that of the cast iron components and due to its huge length and high energy intensive its initial price is high. It is noticed that the ceramic brakes consist of high operational temperature; due to this phenomenon it can offer less braking feels when these ceramic components are present in low temperature.
1.4 Research aim
The main aim of the research is to enhance the efficiency of the discs brakes of vehicles by implementing ceramic components to expand the lifecycle of the materials.
1.5 Research objectives
- To analyze the importance and advantages of Ceramic components implemented in the discs brakes.
- To depict potential complexities while manufacturing the disc brakes.
- To analyze the properties of carbon ceramic brakes in order to enhance the efficiency of the vehicles.
1.6 Research questions
- What are the characteristics of carbon-ceramic brakes and why it is used in the vehicles?
- Discuss the pros and cons of carbon ceramic brakes?
- How long the brakes made up of ceramic material exist or last?
1.7 Significance of the study
The main motive of the research is to enhance the efficiency of the brake in order to expand the life cycle of the vehicles. As commented by Chavan, More & Patil (2018), the ceramic brakes have quality characteristics than that of the other manufacturing components; it helps to transfer the heat evolved i.e. friction and it comprises of much more resistance than that of the iron or metallic discs. The carbon ceramic discs help to keep the fluid of the brake in normal condition i.e. it to cool down easier than the metallic pads. It has been analyzed that discs are normally constructed from the cast iron components because that material is cheap and consists of better quality along with anti-wear characteristics. It can offer better opportunities to the vehicles and expand its lifecycle as it can recover quickly and when the brake wear down it aids to form a finer and lighter waste material or dust than the metallic discs. In carbon ceramic brakes it can be observed that the dist did not stick to the wheel for a long period of time. As per the views of Kchaou et al. (2019), it can be noticed that the system constructed from ceramic material will help to gain huge benefit as it increases the of the discs brakes.
With the increasing technological change, there is increased complexity and rise in population is increasing the number of vehicles. It can be observed that every year the manufacturer invest huge money in manufacturing of the car in order to enhance the safety and security for the residents. In this section, it has been observed that ceramic brakes help to increase the braking efficiency due to its lightweight and its power to dissipate heat is much better than the metallic brakes. The ceramic brakes offer huge advantages to the manufacturing industry in order to increase the effectiveness of vehicles.
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Chapter 2: Literature review
Properties silicon carbide
It can be said that carbon ceramic brakes are effective in enhancing the performance of the vehicles and the properties of C/ SiC is also discussed. As per the views of Xicola et al. (2019), the carbon fiber is been reinforced and enhanced with the help of carbon and silicon carbide. It can be used to investigate the wearing mechanism along with the tribological characteristics to enhance the efficiency of the brakes. It has been observed that the components offer quality benefits to the vehicles due to its excellent performance and its friction ranged from 1.5 to 0.6. It can be noticed that the silicon carbide comprised of effective bond in the crystal lattice structure.
Advantages of ceramic material in disc brake
In the modern world carbon Ceramic brakes offer a huge number of benefits to the manufacturing industry of vehicles. As stated by Fan et al. (2018), the carbon-ceramic brakes discs are of low weight which helps to increase the performance of the brake. The weight of the ceramic components is much lower than that of the metallic components. It can be observed the carbon ceramic components are about 50 percent lighter and effective compared to the cast iron components. It is mainly due to the low density of the cast iron components present in the manufacturing industry. It can be beneficial of the vehicles as it reduces the weight of the car which further helps to improve the dynamics of driving. As commented by Bernard & Jayakumari (2018), it can easily reduce the wear rate due to its high hardness property. The structure of ceramic brake disc is solid which help to provide long life and it eliminates the chance of waste and wears. It consists of high abrasion resistance which depicts that the brake will run up to 300,000 kilometres. It illustrates that ceramic discs brakes are of high thermal stability which increases their resistance power on a large scale. The last benefit of this break is that it helped to minimize brake fade phenomenon. It has been observed that carbon fibers can easily dissipate the high temperature compares to the cast iron components.
The material structure of carbon ceramic brakes
There is a effective feature of carbon-ceramic discs because it is made up of some effective materials. According to Sugozu, Mutlu & Sugozu (2018), it can offer huge benefits to the automobile and manufacturing industry due to its great properties mentioned above. It is of utmost importance to notice that the structure of ceramic brake disc is solid which help to provide long life and it reduces the phenomenon of wear and tear. According to various authors, it is illustrated that the carbon-ceramic discs brakes offer better opportunities to the vehicles and expand its lifecycle. It can recover quickly and when the brake wears down it aids to form a finer and lighter waste material or dust than the metallic discs. The structure of the ceramic brake comprises of silicon carbide i.e. SiC which help to reinforce the performance of the disc brakes.
It is been noticed that the quasi-ductile characteristics of the material help to enhance the strength of the components used in increasing efficiency. As per the views of Raj Jeganmohan, Gnanaraj Solomon & Christy (2018), the density of C/SiC is 1.45 g cm cube whereas in the cast iron estimated density is about 725 g cm cube. It is illustrated that the tensile strength of the silicon carbide and ceramic brake fall under the range of 20 to 40 MPa, whereas in case of cast iron it is up to 200 to 250 MPa; this depicts the resistance of the components used in the manufacturing process. It can be noticed that the modulus of elasticity is 30 GPa and these carbon-ceramic brakes have the thermal stability up to 1350 degree Celsius. Another term which is crucial in increasing the braking efficiency is thermal which about 40 Wm-1 K-1 is. It can be stated that the above-mentioned details show the variation in the features of cast iron and carbon-ceramic brakes. The manufacturing process of ceramic disc brake comprises of three stages namely the testing of the prototypes, actual car testing, and numerical modelling process. As stated by Jamal & Saleh (2019), it is illustrated that the diameter of the brake along with its thickness and height; everything is been evaluated using a computer. It can be depicted from the research that ceramic discs will help to transfer the heat generated i.e. friction. Further, it is noticed that these materials comprise of much more resistance than that of the iron or metallic discs. As commented by Agunsoye et al. (2018), the carbon ceramic discs help to keep the fluid of the brake in normal condition and it will cool down easily however in case of cast iron it is not easy to cool down the material quickly. The structure of ceramic brake discs holds great importance because it is more effective than that of cast iron components and it helps to minimize the wear as well as tear process form the brakes.
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Research overview and Gap in literature
It is observed that carbon ceramic brake discs offer huge advantages to the manufacturing companies due to its quality properties. As per the views of Moore et al. (2018), it has been noticed that due to continuous polishing of the pads lead to increased braking and it will minimize the efficiency as well as the effectiveness of the brake. In order to conduct the research huge studies is been conducted in order to gain more knowledge on the carbon-ceramic discs which comprise of carbon and silicon carbide elements. In the whole research the information about the properties and characteristic so the ceramic material is observed to gain effectiveness in automobile sectors. From the above research, it can be illustrated that the carbon-ceramic discs brakes offer better opportunities to the vehicles which further help to expand its lifecycle (Dohle & Lesch, 2018).
Apart from this, there is some gap in the literature due to insufficient time and resources. While conducting the research there is a gap due to the utilization of 60 percent carbon and silicon carbide i.e. C/SiC SF and about 20 percent of TIC is been used which reduced rthe effectiveness of the research. It can be stated that due to lack of money and resources some portion is missed which can be discussed in further research taking help from this research.
In this section, the properties of silicon carbide are discussed in order to gain knowledge about the components of the ceramic brake discs. The benefits of carbon-ceramic brake discs are also illustrated in this part, as the weight of the ceramic components is much lower than that of the metallic components. Due to its lighter weight help to raise the efficiency and it helps to illustrate those ceramic discs brakes are of high thermal stability which increases their resistance power on a large scale.
Chapter 3: Research scope
The research is going to analyse the effectiveness and importance of ceramic components in the disc brakes. The research will increase the efficiency of the disc brakes that are being used in the vehicles. The automobile companies are going to provide some assistance for the research and their contribution could make the research a success. As suggested by Bianco, Mironets & Richards (2018), the research is also going to discuss the potential complexities that occur during the manufacturing of the disc brakes. The research is going to follow the methodology so that the readers could understand the information and knowledge provided in the research. The research is going to be completely based upon the real finding and statistics because the research topic is very sensitive and crucial (Dohle & Lesch, 2018). There will be no assumption made in this research because assumption and probability degrades the research quality or even the research could be turned out to be false. The research will involve interview and questionnaires so that the information and data gathered for the research are genuine and authentic. The
The research also analyses the properties of carbon ceramic brakes so that the efficiency of the vehicles could be increased (Krenkel, 2017). The automobiles organisms are going to be attracted through this research work because this research is going to provide huge benefit to the automobile organisations. The main motto of the research is to increase the efficiency of the disc brakes used in the vechiles through the ceramic components (Moore et al. 2018). The ceramic components also improve the lifecycle of the disc brakes. The ceramic material will provide several advantages as well as benefits to the automobile section (Bian & Wu, 2015). The ceramic components are very lightweight and its efficiency is also higher. The ceramic component has high stability. The study uses positivism as the research philosophy mainly because of its characteristics and advantages when compared to the interpretivism. Primary research method will be selected for the research because the research will be based upon the real statistics and data. The research will maintain authenticity through the primary research method.
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Chapter 4: Research method
4.1 Research onions
4.2 Research philosophy
There are basically two types of research philosophies and those are interpretivism and positivism. This research will use positivism as the research philosophies mainly because of its characteristics. The positivist philosophies are completely based upon the belief and makes sure that the research is going to be conducted on proper observation and data analysis. As commented by Heeks & Bailur (2017), this research will help the researchers to make future prediction mainly based upon this research. The positivist philosophies will make sure that the information provided by the research is completely genuine and authentic. The research is going to be based upon real life observation and no assumptions will be made. The aim of the research is to implement the ceramic material for the disc brakes and this could be only possible if the research is carried out appropriately and the needed information that is going to gathered and collected is going to genuine and real.
The positivist philosophy allows the researchers to make suitable decisions for the research as well as enhances the quality of the research. The positivist philosophy also allows the researchers to carry out the research after analysing, evaluating and applying the rational thinking based upon the observation upon the research topic as well as upon the objectives of the research. The collected data will be completely based upon the positivism philosophy.
4.3 Research method
They are basically two types of research and those are secondary and primary. The primary research is based upon the scientific calculations, mathematical calculation or face to face communication. The primary research makes the research more interesting and genuine. Primary research is not based upon assumptions or probability; it is completely based upon proofed information or data collected during the research. The primary research method attracts the readers through the graphs and statistics used in the research. As stated by Green, Camilli & Elmore (2015), the primary research mainly involves questionnaires, surveys, interviews and few others. The primary research increases the effectiveness of the research. The secondary research is a cost-effective method because it is mainly based upon assumption and the data or information gathered from the previous researches. The research conducted through the primary research method can be also used for future researchers. The secondary research uses the data and information that are available through internet, journals, articles and books. As stated by Shim et al. (2017), primary research method will be selected for this research because the use of ceramic in the disc brakes in a unique and innovative idea and appropriate and mathematical data needs to be gathered for carrying out this research and make it a success.
There are mainly two types of research and those are quantitative and qualitative research. Sometimes both of the research methods are combined together to enhance the research quality as well as make the research more authentic and genuine. As opined by Jackson (2015), the quantitative method mainly involves, interview, survey and questionnaires. For this research both quantitative and qualitative methods will be used so the data and information gathered from the interview and questionnaires could be aligned with the existing data and information available on the internet and journals. Both of the methods are going to allow the researchers to collect authentic and powerful data through consulting and questionnaires with the engineers and experts. The research will take some time and also requires funding.
4.4 Research approach
There are mainly three types of research approaches and those are deductive, abductive and inductive. The research approach that is going to be used in this research is deductive approach. The deductive approach allows the researchers to create some arguments in respect to the continuation theory. The deductive approach will also allow the researchers to find some links between the circumstances and situations. As commented by Kumar (2019), the deductive approach is going to be used in the proposals and it is the most effective and efficient approach for researchers because of its interlinking and authenticity. The data and information gathered could be aligned or compared with the existing information. The deductive approach also assists the researchers to understand the observations as well as authorise the observations by comparing with the other observations. The deductive approach also provides a benefit of developing a relationship between the variables and arguments of the topic. The deductive approach will also help in completing the research in the given period of time. The deductive approach provides argument mainly upon the research topic which eventually helps in getting the rational outcomes. The deductive approach will involve interview with the engineers of automobile companies so that they could guide and provide important information for the research.
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4.5 Research design
There are mainly two types of research design and those are exploratory and conclusive. For this research, conclusive design will be selected because this design provides an understanding as well as insight of the decision-making process and theories. The conclusive design allows the researchers to form and construct the finding that could help in acquiring the results that are related to the research topic. As suggested by Williams et al. (2017) the conclusive design will also assist in taking effective designs for the research. The conclusive research provides a well organised structure for the research which eventually makes the research simple and less complicated. The research will follow a pattern through this design and they will be able to complete the research on time. For this, research, the interviews and questionnaires will be carried out on a fixed time so that the research work does not get delayed. The time will be utilised adequately with the help of this research design. As commented by (Patten & Newhart, 2017), the research is going to involve feedbacks from the engineers, experts and automobile companies so that the research becomes a success and information provided by the research is authentic and genuine.
Chapter 5: Project budget, resources and timeline 200
5.1. Project Budget
Book and Articles
Interview and Questionnaires
5.3 Cost estimation
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Chapter 6: Team charter and communication strategy
It is essential for the group members to work effectively as well as participate in the group activity to complete the research on time. The group members needs to be encouraged and motivated enough to carry out the role effectively. As stated by Meyers, Gamst & Guarin (2016), every group member performance and productivity creates a huge impact on the group productivity and performance. Communication is the key to success and every members needs to practice effective communication. Effective communication helps to resolve or even avoid any kind of miscommunication or misconception among the group members. The group leaders need to possess certain attributes and skills in order to guide and assist the group members. The leaders of the group are accountable to keep the group members encouraged and motivated.
The group members must focus on collaborative working so that the research work could be carried out on time. The group members will have to help each other's so that no one is left behind. The group members will have to develop a bonding and friendly relationship among themselves. Collaborative working increases the group performance and efficiency.
The group leader has to adopt some of the leadership approaches so that the role is performed effectively. Situational leadership is one of the effective and efficient leadership approach and the group leaders should use this approach to guide and increase the performance of the group members. Through this leadership approach, the leader of the group could assign different tasks for the group members as well as take decisions based upon the situations (Morse, 2016). The group members must try to gain experience and knowledge through this group activity as well as their attributes and skills are also going to be improved through the group activity.
Chapter 7: Summary
7.1. Anticipated outcomes
The study concludes that the research work will increase the efficiency of the disc brakes by using the ceramic components. The ceramics components are lightweight as well as provides better stability and this is the reason ceramic components should be used in the disc brakes. The research is going to be completely based upon the real data and information gathered through the interview and questionnaires. The research is going to involve interview of experts and engineers of automobile organisations. The information and data gathered through the interview and questionnaires will be authentic and genuine. The research is going to provide great assistance to the automobile organisations. The vehicles efficiency will increase through the information and data that is going to be provided by the research work.
The research could use some of the existing journals and articles mainly related to the disc brakes and ceramic components in order to understand the topic in depth. The automobile companies must try to use the ceramic components because of the light weight and stability. The research could needs to show the difference between the existing components used in the disc brakes with the ceramic components so that the readers could understand the motto of the research.
The research could be carried out more efficiently and effectively if funding was provided. The research work is sensitive and crucial and needs more time and the allocated time. The research will not be able to cover up the components that are being presently used in the disc brakes. The research will also not be able to describe the carbon components in brief due to lack of time. The future research could cover up this limitation and use the information and data that the research will provide.
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