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Assignment - Write an essay in which you will apply safety and health-related theory and technology to address environmental issues.

Discuss the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Technology Verification Program as discussed in the assigned article by Ashley, Waits, Hartzell, and Harten (2005). Discuss ammonia and mercury monitoring specifically.

Provide an equation used for computing water flow rate from pipe diameter. Describe the application and variables in the equation. Explain two methods for treating water. Explain two features of a solid waste landfill. Describe two hazardous waste onsite remediation technologies.

Explain the purpose of an electrostatic precipitator and the air pollutants that it removes, and show an equation used to determine its efficiency.

Provide the equation used to compute SPL (in dB) from sound pressure in µbars. If a bulldozer emits a sound level of 90 dBA, what is the sound level (dBA) of two bulldozers next to each other?

Answer - ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

Introduction

The environment of the Earth has been experiencing various issues, majorly due to the anthropogenic activities. It is important that the human beings monitor their activities and take measures that would facilitate the improvement of the environment. The following discussion focuses towards exploring and applying the various theories and technologies associated with safety and health for addressing the environmental issues.

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Technology Verification Program: Monitoring Ammonia and Mercury

Based on the US Environmental Protection and Technology Verification program, the work of Ashley, Waits, Hartzell, & Harten (2005) highlights various aspects of how possible it is to protect the environment from pollution. The study narrows down to how to manage the threat of Ammonia and mercury, which are potentially hazardous to the environment. The study emphasizes the need for the protection body to limit the amount of mercury emitted into the air, water sources, drinking water, and landfills and surface impoundments. The study equally proposes specific measures of controlling mercury pollution by first understanding the level of mercury that might be harmful to human health. After determining the right levels, it is imperative to establish a measuring and monitoring exercise, cleaning up mercury-contaminated sites, and providing both the state and consumers with proper guidelines to reduce mercury harm exposures.

The study equally provides useful mechanisms and measures for controlling ammonia pollution. The article highlights how ammonia exhausts are emitted into the atmosphere from industrial processes, and in various forms. According to EPA, the primary control to Ammonia involves venture and cyclonic spray towers. It also directs that secondary wet scrubbers can also be used in fluoride. In most cases, phosphoric acid is the most effective scrubbing liquor for controlling ammonia pollutants.

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The Equation Used for Computing Water Flow Rate from Pipe Diameter (Application & Variables)

The general equation for computing the flow rate of water in the diameter of pipes is represented by dividing the flow rate by the product of pie (pi) and velocity. The variables here are the flow rate and the speed since the relationship between the two can determine the diameter of the pipe.

Flow Rate = Q = π/4 . (d)^2 .V

Q = water flow rate

d = Diameter of Pipe

V = Velocity of flow in pipe

Explanation:

Using flow rate equation, the water flow rate can be determined. Diameter of the pipe is a sectional property of Pipe. It can easily be measured and velocity of water in pipe can be measured using modern instruments.

Methods for Treating Water

There are many methods for treating water. However, the two main ways of treating water according to EPA are flocculation, chlorination, and the use of electromagnetic radiation processes (Freeman, 2017). Through flocculation, small packet of powdered ferrous sulphate acts as a flocculent, while calcium hypochlorite acts as a disinfectant in the chemical process of treating water. However, the use of electromagnetic radiation involves Ultraviolet (UV) units that kill bacteria and other microorganisms to give pure water for safe consumption. These methods are equally essential in ensuring people utilize clean environmental resources.

Features of A Solid Waste Landfill

A solid landfill waste refers to the dumpsite disposal of waste materials within the environment. The landfill disposal site consists of organic and inorganic compounds as well as suspended particles. Depending on weather, the Leachate forms when rainwater filters through the garbage on the landfill. As the liquid gets into contact with buried waste solids, it leaches out and forms chemicals that are harmful to the environment. On the other hand, suspended particles refer to those solid materials in the landfill that cannot dissolve or disintegrate further by weather or environmental changes. Both the soluble and insoluble features in the discharge can be washed away by water into water bodies to cause environmental pollution. Other harmful chemicals can also form from the leachate that pollutes the airs and land as well.

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Hazardous Waste Onsite Remediation Technologies

Technology today helps us to remove environmental hazards and contaminants from water, groundwater, soil, or the surface. There are many types of techniques that can help to remediate various risks from waste sites, according to EPA. One of the most effective technologies is Testing Remediation Technologies. Currently, the majority of industries in the US have developed new standardized technology for testing the performance of any new products and its possible environmental consequences (Percival et al., 2017). The technology has proven reliable in safe industrial waste disposal practices in the US. However, it is imperative to note this technology may not have been so effective in site remediation. Another technique is the Federal Remediation Technologies. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has succeeded in collecting data from all the public dumpsites and ensured cleanups in time.

The Purpose of An Electrostatic Precipitator and the Air Pollutants That It Removes

An electrostatic precipitator refers to a device used in the filtration process by removing smoke and dust particles from a flowing gas. The device uses force induced from electrostatic charges to impede the flow of gases through the channel. The machine removes carbon soot and dust materials from the exhaust fumes that are potentially a threat to the environment. The device works in such a manner that it removes the pollutants before they escape into the smokestacks. The method is reliable in controlling common air pollutants. The equation of efficiency is by the ratio of power consumed (in watts) to the airflow per every cubic foot in every minute. The mechanical advantage of the precipitator makes it easy to remove particles from a stream of air.

The equation of determining its efficacy can be represented as follows.

E = ρJ

The Equation for Computing (SPL) in decibels (dB)

The sound pressure level (SPL) is primarily the ratio of absolute sound pressure and the reference level of the hearing threshold or the lowest strength of sound that one can hear at a particular time. SPL is measured in decibels (dB) since there is a credible variation in the hearing range intensity. Therefore, the formula of SPL is the absolute pressure in the sound system divided by the threshold of hearing range.

p = 1.002374467*10-11 μbar

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Explanation:

SPL(dB)=10log10(pop)2=20log10pop

94 = 20 log(p / 20μpa )

p = 1.002374467 Pa

p = 1.002374467 *10-5 bar

in terms of micro bar is

p = 1.002374467*10-11μbar

Favorite Part of The Course

I find the whole course primarily exciting since it dwells on the essential environmental control measures. However, I my most favorite part of the course is how the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is working round the clock to control hazardous environmental pollutants using technology (Percival et al., 2017). The topic makes me learn the scope of technological gains the world has produced. For example, Ammonia and mercury are products of industrial processes, which humans cannot avoid. Industrial processes release vast chunks of these harmful pollutants into the environment. In that regards, EPA does whatever it can to regulate the safe disposal practices and how to remediate polluted media to make the world a better place. I think that human activities around the world have undermined the environment and made it almost impossible to live. Nevertheless, the relevant organizations have ensured that they balance the gains against the harms of technology. That brings to me the thinking that if people can emulate the healthy environmental practices, the world can be a better place to be.

Conclusion

The discussion presented above, has detailed the various applications and exploration of the various aspects that can be used for overcoming the environmental issues.

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