Digital Forensics Report
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Question 1: Describe the process used in restoring the scrambled bits and insert plain text in the assignment.
Answer: Recovering Scrambled Bits
Scrambling is a digital encoding technique that is used in various modern data communication schemes. During scrambling the technique can provide aid and retrieve various information from the receive data thus encouraging synchronization between the receiver and the transmitter. In the application on the digital systems it is usually common for one to encounter a long sequence of 1s and 0s and this will eventually make it difficult to recover or retrieve the timing information. In the end the input device will be used to randomize data though the receiver may also fail in regard to obtaining them in their consistent countenance. In any case, adapting equalization, variations and digital forensics are going to be eliminated if the bit sequence is also randomized which is a procedure that a scrambling device is going to guarantee (Franke&Årnes, 2017).
During scrambling process, a sequence is granted from the pseudo-random sequence generator which is usually comprised of the 5 bit non- zero seed. The sequence of bits (s1) is then brought to the scrambler which is a summed modulo 2 of locations 2 and location 5 in the shift register. Before the transmission of data is initiated, the bits will be shifted up to a particular stage as follows: 5 shifts, 4 shifts, and 5 to 3 shifts to 4, and 2 shifts will be in line with 3 and 1 shift in line with 2. After the whole procedure has taken place, the next bits of the sequence will be imported and the procedure is again repeated. In the event that the transmission of data. The main aspect of scrambling entails the should be done in consideration to the circuit application. The theory on the polynomials that finds an implementation in the above sample to the following equation s2=1 + D2s2 (1). In this regard D is a unit delay operator that represents the sequence of delay by one bit (Franke&Årnes, 2017). This means that D5s2 and D2s2 will refer to the equivalent bit in relation to the scrambled sequences that are transmitted to the whole channel as represented in the script.
Question 2: Prepare a digital forensic report.
Answer: During investigations, the digital forensic examiners will often be confronted by ethical delimma that might be ill prepared. In this regard, the profession usually endeavour to give examiners with a proper framework within which the examine of digital forensics should not only be able recognized, manage and classify ethical delimma. However it is also important to watch and honour boundaries (Attoe, 2016). The framework as it provides for the code of ethics. It is also important to note the fact that most examiners will work under the aegis of the lawyer, which looks at the special concern which is often not provided the required attention in the discipline. At this the lawyer who employs the examiner is also obliged to server in the position of the supervisor and will be vicariously responsible for the conduct of the forensic examiner (Attoe, 2016). In this regard, the oft look inverse of the said rule will be that the ethical standard of confidentiality and fidelity which will bind the lawyer and he attorney that employs the examiner as the attorney's agent. Such obligations will generally fall under three main categories, the attorney-client privilege, the work product doctrine and the duty of confidentiality. In this case study, the main area to look at will be the work product doctrine.
In respect to the work product doctrine, the materials in the institution will be protected in the anticipation of any legal obligation from the discovery of the investigator. The doctrine also enhances the investigator to work with a certain degree of privacy. This should be free from any form of intrusion by the suspected individual or his counsel. Proper preparation for the case of digital infringement will also demand that all information is assembled, sift everything that is considered to be most important from the irrelevant facts. He should be able to prepare the different legal theories and plan the necessary strategies through needless and undue interference (Beebe & Clark, 2005). It is also very imperative that the different examiners will be required to understand the doctrine and ways that it is going to apply to examinations of digital forensics. By being in a position to enjoy the privilege of productivity of work and immunity is among the main reasons that experts need to be retained directly by the lawyer and not the lawyer's client.
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Carrying out digital forensics
This case is about the possibility of intellectual property theft by TomJohnson who is the cousin of Superior Bicycles, Inc. former employee Jim Shu. In this case, Bob Aspen got an email from Terry Sadler regarding Jim Shu's new project. Bob was interested in funding the project. The project was sent to the general counsel Ralph Benson to take a look at it, also emails and attachments were forward to an IT department. In the investigations, it was found that the same data was with ChrisRobinson, and Chris found that the information was similar to the Data related to Tom Johnson Assignment, meaning that it is possible the information might have contained propriety of Superior Bicycles Inc.
The process if investigating device can be divided in two classes, the multiplicative investigation and the additive investigation. In the first incident, investigators will most often likely to attain synchronization of the two ends by using a particular technique. There will be a specific pattern that will be placed at the beginning of each particle of evidence which will later be sent and be decrypted by the investigator(Larson, 2014). On the other hand, the multiplicative investigation is also referred to that way due to the fact that they are required to implement a multiplication between the input signal and the digital transfer function. The class of investigation is also viewed as being a self-synchronized investigation due to the fact that they may not need a sync word for the aspect of synchronization. In any case, the digital system will be used for different variation of applications. In most cases, this is used to enhance security systems by encrypting data and decrypting it by the descrambler that is installed in the terminal. One of the basic reason for investigation devices in communication data is to ensure that information from the data is received from the terminal, including the material used in timing and synchronization.
As part of carrying out the digital forensic investigations there investigator needs to come up with a plan for identifying the methodology and process. This is because, above is a case of sheer violation of the company policies by Tom Johnson. There needs to be an investigation laid to verify if there are were warnings put in place in regard to the crime of intellectual property rights violations. There is also need to establish where there are clear guidelines in regard to the type of penalties one is bound to incur and the charges. In respect to the Superior Bicycles Inc. policy documents. If this is found to be so, then there will be evidence of a criminal act against Tom Johnson and the management needs to be informed (Larson, 2014). This is followed by the corporate counsel being appointed for the search and take up all evidence, who in this case is Ralph Benson. The counsel will be guide the search and seize all available evidence. Here there will be an affidavit obtained from the court for similar work.
The first step thus in coming up with this plan will be to acquire the evidence from the emails and the flash disk from the suspects and the victim. After this is acquired the evidence needs to be secured in an evidence bag like an antistatic bag for ensuring that the evidence is kept safe from any form of interference. At this an evidence tape needs to be used to ensure that all the evidence is sealed. For one to keep it secure and safe, all the internet related evidence needs to be named with the initials of the acquirer and should be kept under specific accounts or folders.
Secondly, the investigator is going to identify and acquire evidence by following rules of evidence (Larson, 2014). Because the above case clearly show company policy violation, digital evidence will definitely have business records.
After the evidence has been acquired, in the form of computer and web based generate records that are considered in any way to be authentic under the court of law, there should be an indication form complete by the acquirer to ensure that it serves as a document which will inform what is done with the forensic copies and the original evidence. In respect to the above mentioned case, it is important to ensure that the acquirer has also filled a number of evidenceforms that also represent all the evidence in a single page (Pearson & Watson, 2010). In this regard, a chain of custody will have been established after the indicationsafekeeping form is filled that routes the said signal from the period it was acquired and put in to custody till the moment that it is going to be taken to court to the time the case will be finally closed.
Also after all this is done, the evidence needs to then be taken to forensics lab and a bit by bit copy of the flash disk needs to be made in respect to the format of the flash disk. This is important as it ensure the original and the identicaldata is maintained for authenticity. The emails should also be printed on hard copy and screenshots taken. After a copy has been created from the original evidence. It is important that the evidence is moved to a secure evidence container as this ensures that originality is maintained. Due to the fact that this is a case of violation ofpolicyby Tom Johnson, only the authorised staff will be allowed to gain access to the container. Also access to the said container is going to be monitored closely to prevent data alteration. During investigations thus, a forensic workstation is going to be put in to place to continue with the forensic analysis (Pearson & Watson, 2010). The workstation needs to also have a specially configured computer out of the network with forensic analysis tool, write-block devices, and software and windows operating system. During this time the forensic lab professional Bob Swartz will also have a bigger part to play in this.
There is going to be a basic infrastructure that is used in the provision of adequate security in regard to the stored evidence stored there and the workstation of the forensics. In this regard, the following infrastructure will be necessary during investigations. A closed room with ceiling and floor, secure containers holding the evidence, door access with lock mechanism, a visitors log to monitor access to the investigation lab by authorised personnel, evidence containers locker also need to be placed to hold up secure containers (Pearson & Watson, 2010). There needs to be access to locker with a password in the event that there is security breach, intrusion of alarm detection or scan through the 24/7 CCTV and security guards.
Action to be taken by Superior Bicycles Inc.
In respect to the above investigations, after it is done and the identification of what kind of company data was compromised by Tom Johnson's action, it will be important that the company calls for the resignation of Tom Johnson and shall be taken to the court of law for the violation of the company intellectual property rights or other forms of punishment against him (Pearson & Watson, 2010). In very extreme situations when the data of the company was leaked to third parties, and especially Jim and shared with the company competitors, it warrants for Tom to be sentenced to jail for the minimum period as specified by the law.
Conclusion: In conclusion, digital forensics investigative plan is based on the fact that the degree to which the offender needs to be punished will depend on various factors that include privacy, anonymity, amount of los and selectivity, of the information which was accessed and what was done in regard to the said information. The plan is thus important as it has clearly pointed out areas to be accounted for in the time investigations are being performed and it also identifies each individual action at each process or step.
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