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BIT 204 Data Structure and Algorithms Assignment - Design a Library System, Kent Institute, Australia

Unit Learning Outcomes addressed:

a. Evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of data structures and algorithms;

b. Demonstrate reasoning about efficiency of algorithms;

c. Assess and apply suitable recursive data structures and algorithms to IT systems and applications

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Assessment Task: The assessment is about the design of a system using appropriate data structures and algorithms.

Answer - Solution 1 - Data Structure and Algorithms: Design a Library System for Kent Institute

Introduction

A Design of Library System for Kent Institute is an errand which manage the library books, electronically stores book information reliant on necessities of understudies. This library structure can push us to understudies and head in library who can screen books availability in the library. The library system licenses understudies and library executive can glance through the perfect book. This part is significant for the understudies to keep on check books status, for instance, books issued on, return dates and figure late fine. The above task may be resolved physically yet this work could be dreary and change of getting messes up in tally. These oversights can keep up a vital separation from by electronic structure can pursue the all books related information, for instance, date of issue, return date of the book and fine information. This all information no convincing motivation to keep track physically consequently we can keep up a vital separation from changes of getting bungles. So electronic library system can diminish manual work and gives smooth movement of library works by empty the movements of botches. This system will help us with arranging the books, manage library and all related library exercises. It keeps up the database for new record entry books and record the all trade of the library books which have been issued or returned.

a) Decide the appropriate variables, keys and ranges to be used in the system. Justify.

The Kent library management system has various variables in different purpose. The variables are categories as follows

  • Library
  • Book
  • User
  • Book Issue Status
  • Book Return Status

Library Variables:

  • Library Name
  • Library Location

Book Variables:

  • Book Name
  • Book Code
  • Author Name
  • Book Price
  • Book Quantity
  • Book Rack No
  • Book Subject Code

User Variables:

  • User Id
  • User Name
  • User Address
  • Book Fine Amount

Book Issue Status Variables:

  • Book Name
  • Book code
  • User Id
  • Book Issue Date
  • Return Date

Book Return Status Variable:

  • Book Name
  • Book code
  • User Id
  • Book Issue Date
  • Return Date

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Entity Relationship Diagram for library management:

Design a Library System Assignment.png

The Kent library database maintain the following tables are

  • Member
  • Book
  • Book Status

The library database of each table has own attributes based on entities and it will maintain unique primary key. The attributes of member table are Member_No which is primary key to make relation with other tables, Member_Sname, Member_Stream, Member_Class, Member_Email, Member_PhoneNo. The book entity has following attributes are Book_name, Book_author, Book_publisher, Book_edition, Book_price, Book_quantity. The member and book table have one to many relationship. The library admin maintains the book status table which has following attributes are Book_Status_No, return date, issue date, fine, sname and book no. This table relationship with both member table and book table using book no and Member No.

Members table

S.No

Attribute Name

Data type

Key

1.

Member_No

Number

Primary Key

2.

Member_Sname

Text (30)

NULL

3.

Member_Stream

Text (30)

NULL

4.

Member_Class

Text (30)

NULL

5.

Member_Email

Text (30)

NULL

6.

Member_PhoneNo

Number

NULL

Book Table

S.No

Attribute Name

Data type

Key

1.

Book_ID

Number

Primary Key

2.

Book_BName

Text (30)

NULL

3.

Book_Author

Text (30)

NULL

4.

Book_Publisher

Text (30)

NULL

5.

Book_Edition

Text (30)

NULL

6.

Book_Price

Number

NULL

7.

Book_Quantity

Number

NULL

BookStatus Table

S.No

Attribute Name

Data type

Key

1.

BookStatus No

Number

Primary Key

2.

Return_Date

Date

NULL

3.

Issue_Date

Date

NULL

4.

Book_Fine

Decimal

NULL

5.

Sname

Text (30)

NULL

6.

BookNo

Number

NULL

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b) The operations that library system should support.

The Kent institute library system has following operations

1. Admin Login: The library admin has separate login to maintain and have rights to and new book to library , remove books and eBooks in the kent library system.

2. User Login: Here user represent Kent institute of students and faculties and they can register into library system and create new account for then into library to access library facilities. The library system will generate unique library number with personal email id.

3. Book: Add and Update Operations: The library admin can add books and update boos into library system using book details which includes book edition, book name, book price and publication year of the book etc.

4. Book Search: The book search operation facilitates can available for both library admin, students and faculties. They can search book using book name, author name etc.

5. Book Order Details: Admin can have rights to view the order of the books.

6. Place Book Order: The students and facilities can request the books and number of books to order by the management.

7. Calculate Late Book Fine: The library admin and students can use the option to calculate the book fine by book issue and book expiry date to calculate fine to pay.

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c) Algorithms for the operations that your system should support. Also, justify the choice of algorithms.

Quick Sort:

Quick sort algorithm is efficient way to sort the large data. This algorithm based on divide and conquer technique. First this algorithm split an array into smaller array and keep on repeat the same procedure to sort array. The quick sort has capable to sort small array elements and large array elements in faster and quickly sort the array. The quick sort algorithm steps are followed by

Step 1: First select the pivot element to split the array into small two arrays

Step 2: The large array divided into two small arrays this step has to repeat until small size of array to sort easily.

Step 3: The small list of arrays to place on top and sort using recursion technique for other small arrays.

Step 4: The same approach as to follow and split the array and this feature is called as partition exchange sort.

Step 5: At last combined all sorted subarray into single sorted array.

The Kent library database management can use quick sort to sort the library books, sort the author name and book price which can be in both order in ascending or descending order.

Searching:

Searching is a technique to find a value in a large database or list of array values. The searching technique can return the position or location of the finding elements if it is available in the database or it will return element not available in the database or in the list.

Linear search:

For Kent institute library database management can use linear search algorithm which can suit for medium size of array list. The complexity of this algorithm is O(n) to find the element in the given list and here 'n' represents that total number of elements in the list. The linear search algorithm is also called as sequential search algorithm because it will start search one by one in sequential order that is pick the first element from the array and compare with searching element if it is match then this algorithm will return element found in the location or position of the element else it will pick the next element from the array and do the same process until last element in the array. In case till the last element the searching element not found then it will return element not found in the array. This algorithm can use in the library management system to search the book using author name, book name and publication name. The result of searching algorithm will be very useful to the students and faculties to identify the availability of the book. The linear search algorithm steps are given below

Step 1: The searching element can be library book name, book id, author name, publication name from the students or faculty or librarian to search in the database.

Step 2: Compare the search element with array elements one by one in sequential order

Step 3: If searching element and array element matched then this algorithm will return position of the element in the list and terminate the process.

Step 4: In case compared result not matched then continue the same steps until last element of the array.

Step 5: The same above two steps have to repeat until search element is compared with last element in the list.

Step 6: In case last element in the list also doesn't match library, system will display searching element is not found in the list and terminate the process.

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d) Changes for the larger university, if any, to be made in the original system. Justify.

Sorting:

Sorting is a technique to sort the elements in ascending or descending order. When we increase the number of students, faculties and working employees of the Kent institute, the quick sort will be suit and it will perform sorting in efficient way which can sort the library books by book name, author name and price of the book. So, we can select the quick sort when we increase the members of the library and not required any algorithm large university.

Binary Search:

For small and medium size of array, the linear search can be suit but when we increase the count of members or large database this algorithm will not suit because it will take more time to search the given element in sequential order. So, we prefer advanced algorithm for large database to search the element which is binary search. This algorithm can work on sorted array and it will search element in effective an efficient way. This algorithm works on middle value of the array and compare with searching element to determine the searching array in left side of the sub array or right side of the sub array. The binary search algorithm steps are given below.

Step 1: To perform the binary search algorithm, we need sorted list which can be either ascending or descending order.

Step 2: Find the middle element of the array and compare the middle element with searching element if middle element is matched with searching key element then it will return the position of the array and stop searching process.

Step 3: In case it is not matched with mid element then compare searching element is greater than listing value then repeat the same procedure and apply algorithm for before middle element list.

Step 4: In case searching element is lesser than middle element then repeats the searching process on after middle element.

Conclusion

A Design of Library System for Kent Institute is an errand which manage the library books, electronically stores book information reliant on necessities of understudies. This library structure can push us to understudies and head in library who can screen books availability in the library. The library system licenses understudies and library executive can glance through the perfect book. This part is significant for the understudies to keep on check books status, for instance, books issued on, return dates and figure late fine. The above task may be resolved physically yet this work could be dreary and change of getting messes up in tally. These oversights can keep up a vital separation from by electronic structure can pursue the all books related information, for instance, date of issue, return date of the book and fine information. This all information no convincing motivation to keep track physically consequently we can keep up a vital separation from changes of getting bungles. So electronic library system can diminish manual work and gives smooth movement of library works by empty the movements of botches. This system will help us with arranging the books, manage library and all related library exercises. It keeps up the database for new record entry books and record the all trade of the library books which have been issued or returned. This report discussed the elements, key and ranges used in this library structure, diverse library undertakings and supports. Also discussed about linear search, binary search, quick sort and help sort for viewing books in order which will help us to support a greater number of students and staffs.

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Solution 2 - Data Structure and Algorithms - Design a Library System for Kent Institute

Introduction

The Kent institute introduced a system to keep a track over the all the details about the book, like the name of the author, how frequently it has been issued and various other details over an online database [Mahapatra,2015]. There are certain advantages of using this Digital Library System (DLS) which are as follows:-

  • It gives details over the status of the book in the library stock
  • It allows one to know the check the book details easily
  • It allows one to determine the details like the Issue date, the date on which it is to be returned, late returns and the fines.
  • Thereby avoiding human interference and avoiding human errors
  • Making library system more effective and accessible
  • Smoothen library operations like input of new book names

a) Detailed analysis over the various variables, points and the limit to be used in the system, Clarify.

The Library System is main part of the Kent Institute which has following variables

Library:

Name of the Library:

The library name is used to show the difference from other libraries which are available in Kent institute.

Location of the Library:

This variable is used to define the location of the library. For example, the location of the library has block number and name of the block.

Name of the Book:

The name of the book is plays vital role to build this system and any library management system.

BookName:

Book name is required to be entirely different and one-of-its kinds.

BookCode:

For the easy identification of the book, it must have a specific code associated with it.

AuthorName:

The book writer name is who has written the ebook [Large,2014]. The e-book's collection turns into famous by means of writer through author's call rather than book name.

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BookPrice:

The book price is required to maintain in database some time we required to sort the book based on price of the book [Large,2014]. The price of the book also required for compensation for loss of book or damage of the book to charge fine.

QuantityBook:

Quantity of the book is represented number of the book availability on each book. So that we can easily track Whether final copy issued or stored as library reference ebook.

BookRackNo:

The book rack number is used to get the exact location of the book which can help us to search book easily and sort the book at the time.

SubjectCode:

The subject has various sub categories to identify the book using unique id [1]. This id can easily distinguish the books, sorting of books and arrange books.

User:

The main beneficiary of the library is user who is accessing the library and serves the purpose of this system which has following variables.

UserName:

The name of the scholar and college who gets the e book issued, or who will skip once more the ebook.

UserId:

Each user has unique user id which is given by the college [Dhiman,2013]]. The same way faculty also use their unique id to access the library.

Address:

Address attribute represents the use's residence location which is a composite attribute such as house number, street name, city and state.

FineAmount:

The fine amount attribute is used to indicate the amount of fine by the student or faculty to deposit and keep it up to date.

Book Issue Status:

The book issue status is used to make the notice to the librarian, student and faculty that how many books they have already got issued and last how plenty extra can they get at the modern thing of time which has following variables

BookName:

Book name is required to be entirely different and one-of-its kinds, which makes it easy for the students and the teachers to identify it.

BookCode:

For the easy identification of the book, it must have a specific code associated with it.

UserId:

Each user has unique user id which is given by the college. The same way faculty also use their unique id to access the library.

IssueDate:

The date on which client were given the e book issued to study from it.

ReturnDate:

The return date is used to indicates the date to return the book.

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Return Status:

The return status variable is identified the status of returned books per user.

BookName:

Book name is required to be entirely different and one-of-its kinds, which makes it easy for the students and the teachers to identify it [Srinivasan,2007].

BookCode:

For the easy identification of the book, it must have a specific code associated with it.

UserId:

Each user has unique user id which is given by the college. The same way faculty also use their unique id to access the library.

IssueDate:

The date on which user got the book issued to read from it.

ReturnDate:

The return date is used to indicates the date to return the book.

Entity Relationship Diagram for library management:

ER Diagram.png

The libraray management system maintain three entities are student, report and book. Each entities has their own attributes and primary key. The student table has following attributes are sname, stream, class, email, regno and phone no. In student table has primary key on regno to create relationship with book entity [Dhiman,2013]. There are certain parameters associated with this system which are:-

  • Applicable number of books
  • Name of the writer
  • Cost associated with the book

However, when it comes to maintaining the details the table-way method is very effective which carries details the DOR (Date of Return), DOI (Date of Issue), Code of Book (COB), Fine details, Registration number. Further, the table associated with the same are stated as follows:-

Student table

S.No

Attribute Name

Data type

Key

1.

RegNo

Number

Primary Key

2.

Sname

Text (20)

NULL

3.

Stream

Text (20)

NULL

4.

Class

Text (20)

NULL

5.

Email

Text (20)

NULL

6.

PhoneNo

Number

NULL

Book table

S.No

Attribute Name

Data type

Key

1.

BookID

Number

Primary Key

2.

BName

Text (20)

NULL

3.

Author

Text (20)

NULL

4.

Publisher

Text (20)

NULL

5.

Edition

Text (20)

NULL

6.

Price

Number

NULL

7.

Quantity

Number

NULL

Report table

S.No

Attribute Name

Data type

Key

1.

ReportNo

Number

Primary Key

2.

Return

Date

NULL

3.

Issue

Date

NULL

4.

Fine

Decimal

NULL

5.

Sname

Text (20)

NULL

6.

BookNo

Number

NULL

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b) Features of the Digital Library system.

The following are the features associated with the digital library system:-

Admin Sign-up: Complete rights are held by the Admin to manage the books collection.

User Sign-up: Here the users can easily get themselves enrolled for the library services by signing in and getting their unique library access code inclusive of all their personal details like contact number, mail ids, etc

Manage books inventory: The admin holds the rights to modify the inventory, by adding/deleting the books, updating the details like edition of the books, the price, etc.

Identify the book: This feature enable hassle-free search of the books from the library using the name of the writer/book code/name.

Order of the book - Admin holds the right to know the status of the pending orders.

Issue a book - It enables the users to issue a book, by placing an order.

Determine the fine- It enables users to know the Date of Return and the late submission along with the applicable fine.

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c) System requirements and clarification over the feasibility of the system selected.

Quick sort:

This sorting technique is very efficient algorithm which is based on splitting of an array into smaller array. The quick sort is more capable of sorting a small list and large list of data elements in faster [Thomas,2012]. This algorithm comes under the divide and conquers approaches to solve the methodology. The following steps to follow in this algorithm

Step 1: Select the split value is called as pivot element

Step 2: Divide the list into two and repeat the step 1 and step 2 until list size small enough to be structured.

Step 3: By the use of the recursion methodology, we brings the sort-out list over the top.

Step 4: The above methodology is adopted to structure the associated array which is known as partition exchange sort.

Step 5: Now bring all these sorted out arrays into a single entity.

The quick sort algorithm is very useful in Digital Library Management (DLM) to sort the book , sort the name of the author or sort the book price in both ways like higher to lower or vice-versa.

Searching:

This is used to explore the database and thereby get the exact location of value in the list.

Linear search:

The Linear search algorithm suits for Kent foundation since this estimation can apply for medium size of rundown. This algorithm is utilized to locate the given sections inside O (n) complexity where n is tended to as firm number of sections in the quick overview [Steven ,2006]. The straight pursue estimation begins to look from the rule part and intricacy and looking through fragment in the quick overview. In the event that looking through part and separating fragment is same at that point part is found else it will check with next section till last part in the quick overview. In the event that the last part additionally not created then it will return part not found in the quick overview. The straight intrigue figuring can use in library framework to look through the book utilizing writer name, book name and age name. The result of looking through calculation will be incredibly pleasing to perceive the accessibility of the book. The going with advances can follow in this estimation

Step 1: Go through the array which can be book name, book id, and writer name, creation name from the understudy, workforce or regulator.

Step 2: The array is separated and initial segment in the quick overview

Step 3: In the event that both pursue and initial segment is encouraged by at that point show Given part is found in the quick overview and end the looking through technique.

Step 4: in the event that both are not created by, at that point distinction search portion likewise, the going with part in the rundown.

Step 5: Re-practice the stages 3 and 4 until solicitation part is separated and last portion in the rundown.

Step 6: If the last portion in the rundown besides doesn't encourage library, framework will show looking through fragment isn't found in the outline and end the method.

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d) Modify the more prominent school, tolerating any, to be made in the central framework Legitimize.

Coordinating:

When we degree the measure of understudies, resources and working specialists additionally the brisk sort will perform productively to sort the library books by book name, writer name and cost of the book. So here no persuading inspiration to go for any new estimation for university [Subha Rao,2005].

Binary Search:

The linear search can suit only for small list but when we go for large university the linear search will take more time to search and produce the result. So, we have selected Binary search algorithm and this algorithm is best way to determine the best applicable option [Thomas,2012]. The same way to search process continue for smaller sub list. The following steps have to follow in the binary searching algorithm [Steven,2007 ]

Step 1: List must be in sorted order. It may be ascending or descending order.

Step 2: Determine the mid value and check with searching element. In case middle element and searching element is matched then stop the process.

Step 3: If it is not then find out the bigger entity comparatively bigger than the standard figure, carry off the step again and re-apply algorithm prior to the mid-value.

Step 4: If the value is smaller than the standard one, then apply this search after the mid-value.

Conclusion

Thus the Digital Library Management system introduced by Kent institute allows easy track of all the details about the book, like the name of the author, how frequently it has been issued and various other details over an online database. There are certain advantages of using this Digital Library System (DLS) like it gives details over the status of the book in the library stock, allows one to know the check the book details easily, smoothen library operations like input of new book names. Further, we studied binary, linear and Quick sort methods.

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