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Answer the questions succinctly and clearly, explain your answer, and show your work. Answers, even if right but without an explanation and proper citation/reference, will get no credit. The explanations need to be brief, but complete, logical, and to the point. Do not quote anybody else, use your own words. Answer in the space provided or add lines if really needed.

Q1: Determine which layer(s) of the seven layers of the OSI model has (have) the following functions. List all the layers if more than one layer have the function, e.g. PL (Physical Layer), DL (Data Link Layer), NL (Network Layer), TL (Transport Layer), &amp; AL (Application Layer - OSI layers 5 - 7). (Hint: week 8 slides &amp; "OSI Basic" slides.) (10 points - 1 points for each sub-question)

(a) modulation

(b) flow controls

(c) error detection &amp; error controls

(d) multiplexing 

(e) collision detection 

(f) addressing 

(g) end-to-end network packet delivery

(h) connection-oriented or connectionless

(i) segmentation or streaming

(j) end-to-end user data delivery 

Q2: How WiFi mechanism was used to detect/avoid/correct data transmission collision?

Q3: Describe Frequency Modulation (FM), Amplitude Modulation (AM), Time Division Modulation (TDM), and Pulse Modulation (PM).

Q4: Draw VoIP architecture

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The report discusses about the different threats that are levied on the computer systems that leads to the corruption of data. The cryptography is one of the effective methods which help in self-help privacy and can be for concealing the criminal conspiracy and activities. The discussion is about the different tools for espionage and sedition which has led the government to classify and limit it for its use and export. The cryptography is the process for the ordinary information into unintelligible form which is called as ciphertext. There are detailed operations to control the algorithm and the instances by a "key" which is for the decryption of ciphertexts.

Computers used to keep information private

The information is private with setting the web browser to reject the cookies that will help in keeping the data private. The system is designed to prevent any type of the unauthorised access to or from the private network (Icard et al. 2017). The firewalls can easily be implemented as a specific software which is considered to be a combination for both. The corporations, banks and the other research facilities are making use of the firewalls depending upon how they are able to keep the information private and secured. The firewalls are for the prevention of the unauthorised access from the use or accessing the private networks which are connected to internet. The messages are entered or left through intranet pass through firewall which will help in examining the messages with blocks that does not meet the specific concerns of security. The computers are set for using to keep the information private where Advanced Persistent Threat is for the well-hidden and continued hacking process which is designed for infiltrating the system. The leverages are important for command and control with variety of the malicious tactics. Encryption of the data is also important where one must keep the browser on the computer device safe. To safeguard all the online transactions, one must use encryption-based software that can be scrambled data that is being sent over the internet. Hence, to access the information, there are username and passwords for handling and working on the authorisation of people to access information which is stored on the network (Rahim et al. 2016). The password and the username are entered on the server machine by administrator and then communicated to the other users as well. Hence, to increase the security, memorize the password.

New threats to computer to personal privacy

The wireless networks are for ensuring the susceptibility to secure problems with focusing on employees that pose the security threats for the system. There is a major lack of awareness about security vulnerabilities where employees fail to safeguard the passwords and leaving the system open to theft and the misuse of data. The employees might tend to enter into the faulty data of the system which leads to the failure of processes. There are misuse and abuse of the organisation hardware, software and the data functions. The computer privacy also relates to the collection and use of the personal information which includes the larger database, private network and internet. Hence, the potential logical threats that are requiring major attention are the transfer of data, Trojan, spyware, denial of service attack, phishing and worms. The impacts of the threats are mainly on the pharmacy that affects the information which is sensitive and has to be protected. There is logical security which is not provided as a remedy for protecting information but ensure that there is location for the information which needs to be protected. The information needs to be handled in diverse and then there are confidentiality like identification of the patients, data insurance and other financial information in the healthcare (Jana et al. 2016). The laws of security by US government highlights about information which is more secured and include HIPAA Act.

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Threats or enhancement by computer system

The computer network security has been a major concern for the development of the new and innovative ways to breach the system of network. There is a focus on development of new and innovative ways to breach the network system which is a continual process for countering the security measures, that is installed by the security experts. The social engineering is to gain the illegal access for information system, where the common phishing scams are to display the features where the attempts are made to acquire the personal information like the social security numbers. The information gathering and the attackers prepare the attack by collecting all the details which enables the hackers to formulate the texts which are easily able to lure users. The attackers tend to circumvent the cryptography where the hacking is into the computers which is for the data encryption and the decryption. It leads to the exploitation of the weak implementations like the use of the default keys. The cryptography makes it hard for the attackers to access the messages and the data to be protected by the different encryption algorithm. There has been a growing concern about the power of processing and handling the standards which are set for the new public key cryptography standards (Gennaro et al. 2016). The larger scale quantum computer needs to focus on the standardisation and understand algorithm for a secured approach. The viruses also infiltrate the external hardware and the removable storages mainly because there are devices which are including the selection of drives for the scanning of virus by antivirus. Hence, the computers are used for the maintenance with handling infection through office networks or the internet that affect the ICT networks with malicious coding. The project files also contain the malicious code which results in the leakage of data or the infection.

Cryptography hinder privacy and public safety

The cryptography has been based on the different secret and the public key setup which protects the privacy. This is like a double edge sword that depends on how one uses it. The example is about the use of knife for the kitchen work (Kumar, 2015). There are differences related to listening the hacking, theft or the damaging purposes. The problems are about protecting the innocent prey from being hacked, theft or any damage of the equipment. The person who is trying to access the website has the idea about the reasons of accessing it, whether he is doing for fun, socialism or for the malicious purpose. Hence, hacking in the website is like breaking into house to damage or steal the information. This act is considered to be punishable. The computer system threats lead to the loss and corruption of data with physical damages to the hardware or the infrastructure. Hence, it is important to protect the system which could be intentional, accidental or caused through the natural disasters. The security threats have been increasing where there is a possibility that some hackers are stealing the data which could be through the virus attack. There are physical threats like the internal, eternal and the human. There are non-physical threats which are related to the loss of corruption of the system data and the loss of any sensitive information with the breach of cyber security measures.

Policies in networking

The policies that are for the cryptography are the data privacy. Here, the data protection is considered as an important concern about using computer and then transmitting the data through network. The cryptography is able to protect the users from being compromised in different attacks. The example is about the website of a bank, where the user tends to enter his account with providing right security key and answering for different security walls. If one is missing, then the user might not be able to access the account. The other policies are to monitor the first policy which is to be used. The monitoring does not affect privacy of person, but it affects he tool misuse. The monitoring is done to find the weakness in system and focusing on the updates to assure about the planning along with complete privacy.


The malicious software is one of the common threats where the intruders have downloaded the virus and spread across the system. It affects the computers which are on the network. The major focus is on handling the disruptions of the operating system which can directly affect the ranges from causing the PC to crash. Hence, cryptography is one of the techniques to protect the public from reading the private messages. It is effectively able to help in saving the details of the computer passwords, digital currencies and other payments done through the online transactions.

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