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Conduct an internet search on a critical wetland - Carpinteria Salt Marsh
Question (a) the history of the wetland
Answer: The present discussion is based on the selected wetland, "Carpinteria Salt Marsh". It is an estuary, situated on the south coast of Santa Barbara County, Southern California. The historical details about this wetland is less as evidenced with limited published reports. The history behind the formation of the wetland lies back in 1862-2 (Rosencranz, Thorne, Buffington, Takekawa, and Hechinger, 2017). A series of huge storms washed beach sand for more than a quarter mile Island, which resulted in the formation of Carpinteria Salt Marsh. According to Rosencranz et al (2017), the storms are hypothesized to have resulted from atmospheric rivers. The water vapour from the river gets concentrated high up in the atmosphere which accounts for further production of intense precipitation and then turned into a flood and form a"river line" along the coastline. It is also assumed that the storm season was unusually destructive as it separated the marsh from the ocean (City of Carpinteria, 2019). Furthermore, the destruction caused by the storm is known to be more intense and deleteriouscompared to that of the moderate tsunamis hurricanes. The reason is also associated with the fact that it was able to remove the coastal barrier which in turn causes coastal flooding in the present time. Based on the journal published by Marine Geology, the first evidence of the occurrence of coastal erosion and inundation from the storms.
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Question (b) the historic or current impact humans are having there,
Answer: The Carpinteria Salt Marsh is continuously being affected by the human activities conducted in conjunction with urbanization effect and commercial intentions. With the increase in population, human activities such as channel clearing and dredging are conducted to reduce the occurrence of flooding and stream meandering (Noto, &Shurin, 2017). However, these activities have been observed to be disruptive for the aquatic ecosystem within these water bodies. Further, it has some indirect impact from human beings such as land use practices in watershed, and sedimentation, which is known to cause disturbance in the biological productivity in the marsh wetlands. Recently a flood occurred in Montecito, on January 9th, 2018 (Rosencranz et al 2018), which can be considered as effect of ecosystem imbalance due to increased human activity. According to the report of Noto, &Shurin (2017), the local people and government are conducting dredging and dumping activities at the Carpinteria Salt Marsh sites, which might cause further ecological impact. However, the US federal agency are in process to regulate policies such as Clean Water Act, River and Harbour Act, and Coordination Act to protect further damage to the ecological balance and natural reserve system.
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Question (c) the current efforts being made to protect or restore the wetland, and
Answer: In order to protect the Carpinteria Salt Marsh, a project has been introduced which aims at enhancement and restoration of the Carpinteria Salt Marsh basin. The project is funded by the California state coastal conservancy and the University of California. The primary objective of the restoration plan is to enhance the degraded historic wetlands area, remove non-native vegetation, and improve flood control measures (Rosencranz, Thorne, Buffington, Takekawa, and Hechinger, 2017). The project includes a contract team which comprises of Eddie says biologist Eddie's of manager a professional planner and a cartographer and consultant. By implementation of this strategy, it is believed that the management, protection, and use of the physical and biological resources of Carpinteria Salt Marsh can be achieved at the ecosystem level (Vivanco, Irvine, &Martiny, 2015).
Question (d) any legal, governmental, or private obstacles faced by those wishing to restore the wetland.
Answer: The management and restoration plan of Carpinteria Salt Marsh had to face multiple problems prior to its actual implementation. The problems are related to permission from local government and funding issues. The wetland filling comes under the Clean Water Act Section 404, and thus to conduct the wetlands restoration plan, it is required to grant permits from the government (California Coastal Commission, 2019). In order to access grant, it is necessary to assure the government that the enhancement and restoration plan will able to preserve the coastal diversity and does not adversely affect the wetland (Vivanco, Irvine, &Martiny, 2015).
Further, as mentioned in the above section, the federal agencies such as Army Corps of Engineers, Soil Conservation Service, and Fish and Wildlife Service are actively implementing policies that can reduce the human activity and restore the natural reserve system.
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