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BIT 204 Data Structure and Algorithms Assignment - Kent Institute, Australia

Course Learning Outcomes addressed:

1a. To gather, critically analyse, manage and present in meaningful ways information and data.

4a. To monitor, research and interpret the fast changing and global world of information technology in terms of hardware, networks, software, and tools.

Unit Learning Outcomes addressed:

a. Evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of data structures and algorithms;

b. Demonstrate reasoning about efficiency of algorithms;

c. Assess and apply suitable recursive data structures and algorithms to IT systems and applications.

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Assessment Task: The assessment is about the design of a system using appropriate data structures and algorithms. You are required to design a library system for Kent Institute.

Answer - Management of library system

A library has various functions to do such as issue of book, return of book, add new member, update existing member details, delete existing member, add books and delete books. Doing all these functions manually is not possible so, there is high need of automating the processes of library for ensuring automated and error free work. We can automate all the functions of the library with the help of software called Management of library system. Management of library system is a system of managing all the entities of library without doing pen and paper work. It helps in improving the efficiency librarian in management of library. All the functions of library such as issue of book, return of book, add new member, update existing member details, delete existing member, add books and delete books, maintaining inventory of books, calculating dues on student for late retuning of books, issue of library cards for staff and students. In this report we will design Management of library system for Kent Institute. Kent Institute has its campuses in two regions named as Melbourne and Sydney. It has 300 VET level students and 400 higher education students. It has two types of staff that is academic staff and professional staff. The number of staff members of academic staff is 20 and that of professional staff is 40.The Management of library system of Kent institute has four Entities named as

  • Librarian
  • Teachers
  • Student
  • Study Material

Each entity has various attributes associated with it . The attributes associated with various entities are following:-

a) Teacher (Tid,Tname, Type, Tcontact, Campus, Tsalary, Books_issued)

b) Student (Sid ,Sname, Books_issued,Scontact, fine, Campus)

c) Librarian (Lid , Lname, Lsalary, Lcontact)

d) Study Material (Mid, Mname, Msubject ,Mauthor, Mpublisher, Mtype, units_available)

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Each entity has some type of relationship with other entities which defines business rules of Management of library system

a) Every teacher teaches many students-One to many relationship.

b) Teacher issues material from the library-Many to many relationship

c) Student borrows material from the library-One to many relationship

d) librarian gives books to different teachers-One to may relationship

e) Librarian issues books to many students-One to many relationship.

f) Librarian keeps stock of books in the library- One to many relationship.

E-R Diagram of Management of library system

Data Structure and Algorithms Assignment.png

Tables in Management of library system

Student

Field name

Data type

Sid(Primary Key)

Number

Sname

Text

Scontact

Number

Fine

Number

Campus

Text

Books_issued

Number

Teacher

Field name

Data type

Tid(Primary Key)

Number

Tname

Text

Ttype

Text

Tcontact

Number                                 

Campus

Text

Books_issued

Number

Tsalary

Number

Librarian

Field name

Data type

Lid(Primary Key)

Number

Lname

Text

Lsalary

Number

Lcontact

Number

Study Material

Field name

Data type

Mid(Primary Key)

Number

Mname

Text

Msubject

Text

Mauthor

Text

Mpublisher

Text

Units_available

Number

Mtype

Text

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Range of Operations for Management of library system

a) Insert new student into the database of Management of library system:-Whenever a new student takes admission to the institute, he or she has to be inserted in the database of the Management of library system.

b) Delete Old Student from Management of library system:-Whenever a student who has completed his education from institute, leaves the institute then, he has to be deleted from the database of the Management of library system.

c) Update fine due on student for late submission of book:- when the student submits the material issued from library then, fine is levied on the student for late submission.

d) Update the number of books issued to the student.

e) Update the number of DVD issued to the student.

f) Update the quantity of journals issued to the student

g) To see which student has been provided which book.

h) To see which student has been provided which DVD.

i) To see which student has been provided which Journal.

j) Insert new teacher into the database of Management of library system:- whenever a new teacher is employed in the institute then , he or she has to be added into the Management of library system of the institute.

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k) Delete the retired or left teacher from the database of Management of library system:- Whenever a existing teacher leaves the institute due to some reason then, he or she has to be deleted from the Management of library system.

l) Update the number of books issued to the teacher

m) Update the number of DVD issued to the teacher

n) Update the quantity of journals issued to the teacher

o) To see which teacher has been provided which book.

p) To see which teacher has been provided which DVD.

q) To see which teacher has been provided which Journal.

r) Insert new books, Journals, DVD into the database of Management of library system:- whenever new study material arrives in the library then, it has to added into the Management of library system.

s) Update number of units of each material that is available in the library:- whenever new material arrives or old material is issued to someone then, it has to be updated in the database of library.

t) Delete the material from the database of the library which is no longer available:-Whenever some becomes unavailable in the library due to being stolen or lost then, it has to be deleted from the database of Management of library system.

u) Search for a book details:-Whenever a student or teacher asks for a particular book then, it has to be searched from the database of the Management of library system.

v) Search for a teacher details

w) Search for a student details

x) See teacher details

y) See Student details

z) See Material details

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Algorithms for performing various operations of the Management of library system

Mainly, four types of operations are performed on the library management software that is Insertion deletion, updation and searching. For all the insertion, deletion and updation operation on a particular entity search on that entity has to be performed first. There are two types search algorithms available in the data structure. One is Linear search algorithm and other one is Binary Search Algorithm. Linear search algorithm check each and every record the particular entry to find a particular element of the given entity. So, when the database contains large number of records it becomes very time consuming process. The database of Kent Institute Contains large number of records so, linear search algorithm is not suited for search operation on the database of Kent Institute Management of library system. The type of searching algorithm is binary search algorithm. Instead, of searching each and every record of the entity , it keeps on dividing the records in two halves and side by side search the particular record in the halves. The worst case of the binary search algorithm occurs when the element is not present is any of the halves. it is either at the first Position of the list or at the last position of the list. Binary search algorithm is best suited for the databases which contains large number of elements. Since, the Management of library system of kent institute contains a large number of records so, binary search algorithm is best suited for such institute. The algorithm is known as binary search because it divides the whole into two halves.

Algorithm for Execution of the binary search

1) First, sort the given list of the elements of the array either in ascending order or in decending order. After, sorting the given list we have to find the upper bound and the lower bound of the array. The upper bound is highest index of array on which data item is stored. Lower bound is the lowest index of array on which data item is stored. When we subtract lower bound of array from its upper bound then, we get size of the array.

2) Now, the data value which we want to search in the given list is assigned to a variable and the whole array is being divided into two halves using the mid element. One half contains all the elements greater than the middle and the other half contains all the elements less than the middle element.

3) The value which we want to search is first searched in the second half. If the value is found then, the search is stopped otherwise, it is searched in the first half.if it is found then, the algorithm returns the values and the index of array on which it is contained to the user. Else the half is further divided into two more halves and value is again searched in the halves. The search keeps on going till the element is not found or whole list is not searched.

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Sorting

Sorting is the process of arranging the elements of the array in either ascending or decending order. Data structures provides us with a number of sorting algorithms like Quick sort, Merge sort, heap sort, insertion sort , bubble sort, shell sort and selection sort. The merge sort is suited for those operations in which we have to merge data from two different sources. Bubble sort is suited for those databases in which number of records are low but the database of the Kent institute contains a large number of records. if we will use bubble sort for the database of the Management of library system then, it will take a lot of time in sorting. So, insertion sort is best suited for the database of the Management of library system as it supports both insertion and sorting operations. Management of library system requires insertion of the new student in to the database , insertion of new teacher into the database, insertion of new book into the database.

Steps in insertion sort

1) The list of array is sorted either in ascending or decending order.

2) The element which is to be inserted into the database is assigned to a variable.

3) Then, the element is compared with the sorted list of elements contained in the database of Management of library system.

4) Then, the elements of the list are shifted according to the value of the element that is to be inserted.

5) After finding the suitable place the element is inserted there.

Management of library system for larger University

For Larger University We will make two tables to keep records of the teachers one is professional teachers and other one is academic teachers since number of teachers are higher in this university. Making of tables will avoid confusions and save time for insertion ,updation, deletion and search operations.

Academic Teachers

Field name

Data type

Tid(Primary Key)

Number

Tname

Text

Tcontact

Number

Books_issued

Number

Professional Teachers

Field name

Data type

Tid(Primary Key)

Number

Tname

Text

Tcontact

Number

Books_issued

Number

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The number of students in this university are also greater than the kent institute so, we will make three tables for the students of this university that is Postgraduate student table which will keep record of only those students who are persuing there post graduate degrees, Undergraduate student table which will keep record of only those students who are persuing there under graduate degrees and Reasearch student table which will keep record of only those students who are persuing there research from the university. This will avoid time and space complexity and avoid any kind of confusions.Since there is only one campus so we will remove campus attribute from all the tables.

Tables

Undergraduate Student

Field name

Data type

Sid(Primary Key)

Number

Sname

Text

Scontact

Number

Fine

Number

Books_issued

Number

Postgraduate Student

Field name

Data type

Sid(Primary Key)

Number

Sname

Text

Scontact

Number

Fine

Number

Books_issued

Number

Research Student

Field name

Data type

Sid(Primary Key)

Number

Sname

Text

Scontact

Number

Fine

Number

Books_issued

Number

Librarian

Field name

Data type

Lid(Primary Key)

Number

Lname

Text

Lsalary

Number

Lcontact

Number

Study Material

Field name

Data type

Mid(Primary Key)

Number

Mname

Text

Msubject

Text

Mauthor

Text

Publisher

Text

Units_available

Number

Mtype

Text

Conclusion

Management of library system software replaces pen and paper work of management of library with the automatic work by automating all the functions of the Management of library system such as issue of book, return of book, add new member, update existing member details, delete existing member, add books and delete books, maintaining inventory of books, calculating dues on student for late retuning of books, issue of library cards for staff and students. All the operations of the library management such as insertion, deletion, updation and selection can be easily performed on database of library using this software.

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