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Antibiotic Therapy Assignment Help

Discuss the use of antibiotic therapy when treating ear and throat pain in both children and adults. What is considered standard of care? 
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Antibiotics can be described as the pharmacological agents who selectively kill or inhibit the bacterial cell growth, and have little or no effect on the host. If we talk about antibiotic therapy, it is diagnosis. An antibiotic is the diagnosis for that particular disease for which it is prescribed. Several times antibiotics are misused so it becomes resistant to diseases. It has to be selected and continuous therapy for better treatment and recovery.

Use of antibiotic therapy in ear pain

Antibiotics can kill bacteria in case of ear infections. Doctors often prescribe oral antibiotics which can be swallowed in pill or in liquid form. But instead of all, oral antibiotic are likely to cause resistant bacteria outside the ear. It causes harder illness and a costly treatment. Antibiotic ear drop kill the bacteria more frequently than oral antibiotics. But the drop doesn't enter into the bloodstream, so the medicine effect the target more specifically. Antibiotics administered orally have many side effects than using antibiotic eardrops. Some examples where we can use eardrops are as follows:

Swimmer's Ear, caused in the people when water enters in the ear. Scientific name fir Swimmer's Ear is Acute otitis externa(AOE).
Sometimes children have tubes in their ears. It causes infection in the middle ear. Antibiotics eardrops are prescribed in that case and administered through the tube. Middle Ear infections are called Otitis Media, and it is of two types: Otitis Media with effusion (OME) and Acute Otitis Media(AOM).

Antibiotic therapy in Sore throat

Sore throat is termed as pharyngitis which is typically caused by a viral or bacterial infection. The bacteria that most commonly cause sore throat are from the family Sterpttococcus, so called infection caused is strep throat. Virus causes infections through cough and cold or flu. Unless and until the cause of sore throat infection is bacteria, doctor don't prescribe antibiotic, because viruses has no threat from antibiotics. The reason behind this loss of target specificity of antibiotics against viruses, virus hide in their host cell using their mechanism so antibiotic are not able to identify their target. ("Treating Sore Throat", 2019)

Penicillin is most common antibiotics treating bacterial infections. But the fact is that antibiotics may not make the patient well in shorter time. It prevents serious and rarecomplications like rheumatic fever common in children.

Some recent recommendations and guidelines are presented here for appropriate antibiotic prescribing in case of adults. It establishes guidelines for standards of care and focus quality improvements efforts.

Acute rhinosinusitis, diagnosed as acute bacterial rhinosinusitis. Severe (>3-4 days) fever and purulent nasal discharge occurs in this disease. Sometimes it persist for long, cause nasal discharge or daytime cough or it may be worse such as new onset fever, daytime cough etc. Other like sinus radiographs is not routinely recommended.

Acute uncomplicated bronchitis is the cough which is most common in adult patients. They visit primary carecenter. They are diagnosing as affected as pneumonia which is are among otherwise healthy adults. It has several abnormal vital signs, abnormal lung examination findings like focus consolidation, egophony etc. sometreatmentsare recommended as suppressant, first generation anti-histamine, decongestants.

Common cold, also termed as nonspecific upper respiratory tract infection. In adults, it occurs twice or thrice in a year.In case of children, there are some importantrecommendations for the treatment using antibiotics. Acute sinusitis, a kind of sinusitis which is caused by virus or bacteria. Some diagnosed symptoms are halitosis, fatigue, and headache. Appetite also mitigate in this disease. It also include persistent symptoms without improvement, nasal discharge, worse symptoms of new onset fever, daytime cough and many more. Sometime doctor prescribe watchful waiting for 3 days. Antibiotic therapy is prescribed for children with acute bacterial sinusitis with severe disease. Some antibiotics are Amoxicilin or clavulanate. Recommendations like history of type I hypersensitivity alsoincluded in this standard care. Some children cannot tolerate medication, so they are administered with alternative treatments.

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