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Applications of Remote Sensing Assignment Help

Research paper will be on the application of remote sensing in one of the following areas:

a. Plant Sciences

b. Earth Sciences

c. Hydrospheric Sciences

d. Land Use and Land Cover

What kind of information can be obtained and how is this data used? Why is your chosen application necessary? What's the purpose of your chosen area? Those are just a few questions to think of when writing your paper. Be sure to include the remote sensing systems used to obtain data in your chosen application.

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Introduction

Remote sensing applications in the land use and land cover analysis are some of the very recent and popular applications being used at present. Remote sensing does have numerous applications at present in practice. Remote sensing typically mean, acquisition of the information about an object or phenomena, without actually having necessity to contact it directly. The technique involved in creating electromagnetic signals and the sensing the same after getting reflected from the target objects. Remote sensing can be active or passive, in the sense, if the signals are directly employed either from satellite or aircraft and the reflection can be sensed. Alternatively, remote sensing can be employed indirectly like by measuring indirect solar radiation reflection. In any case, the final objectives of remote sensing are to investigate typical properties like geography, land surveying, Earth science disciplines like hydrology, ecology, oceanography, glaciology, geology etc. Applications of remote sensing can range from defence, spying, business, economic, planning as well for disaster relief like humanitarian applications etc. A large collection of licensed as well as open source software applications are available at present to process the information collected from remote sensing tools. Remote sensing is extensively employed for collecting information on the land use and land cover patterns extensively. Land use and land cover is related with the estimation of the land occupancy with variety of physical characteristics like earth's surface, vegetation distribution, water coverage, soil etc. Further coverage of the land by human activities like settlements is another important aspect of the land use/land cover. The increased demands of the human needs and welfare do work for changing the land usage and land cover patterns, variety of factors like socio-economic developments taking place in the region, political implications, natural disasters and natural disaster proneness etc do impact these developments in the region. A comprehensive evaluation of all these developments can be identified and analyzed employing the remote sensing tools in general. The changing demands due to the increase in population are some of the aspects of interests, which need to be investigated using the remote sensing for betterment of the planning and related developmental functionalities. The following part of the discussion will focus on these aspects in detail (White et al 2016, 621).

- Overview of remote sensing

- Remote sensing is the technology that consists in obtaining all the reliable information about physical objects as well as the environment by employing the tools for recording, measuring and interpreting the imagery and other digital representation of energy patterns which are obtained from variety of non-contact sensor systems.

- It is all about getting information about the physical objects present on the earth surface, without actually getting into contact or not even getting very close to them.

- The key principle of the technology contained in getting the radiant and emitted energy from the objects or the surface on the earth. Generating such radiant energy, impacting the same on the target objects and measuring the reflected using appropriate sensors consists in the remote sensing technology.

- Radiant energy reflected will be dependent on the type of the material it will impact upon, typically it will depend on the structure of the material, chemical properties of the material, surface characteristics(roughness) and even on the angle of incidence over the surface. Further the intensity of the radiant energy as it impacts over the surface of the material does matter. The wavelength of the radiant energy is also important factor that decides the characteristic of the radiant energy.

- Once the reflected radiation is sensed by the sensors, they will be transmitted backed to the receiver for accumulation of the comprehensive data over the target surfaces. The energy data will be collected to formulate readable imageries and this information will be analyzed further to yield useful inferences. The findings from this mechanism will be employed for the intended application in the later times.

- The radiation employed for all these applications is obviously electromagnetic radiation. Electromagnetic radiation consists of high intense energy to penetrate for long distances and it is more likely to provide much clear and reliable data presentation.

- Reflection of the radiation does depend on the surface quality of the target medium as well. When the surface is very smooth, it will result in mirror like images and when the surface is not very smooth diffused reflection will occur on the surface of the target substance.

- Object surface interpretation will happen based on the imageries obtained and this in- turn will be helpful in interpretation of the final surface characteristics(Jones and Grant 2016,199).

- Characteristics of the Electromagnetic radiation

Electromagnetic radiation characteristic can be interpreted using the principles of wavelength and frequency. Velocity of the radiation is provided by the equation V=nλ (where V is the velocity of the radiation, n is the frequency of the radiation and λ is the wavelength as well.) Higher the frequency more will be the energy intensity and the frequency is inversely proportional to the wavelength of the radiation. More the wavelength, the penetrating capacity of the radiation will get reduced drastically. As the radiation emitted by the emitters enters into the earth atmospheric medium variety of scattering do take place, Rayleigh scattering, mie-scattering, non-selective scattering, Absorption, Transmission and reflection are the ways in which the electromagnetic radiation will undergo changes as the radiation impacts the target objects.

- Application of the Remote sensing tools and techniques:

Land use and Land cover sensing is vast domain in remote sensing. There are diverse domains where in the remote sensing tools and technique is being employed at present. Geological mapping consists in developing the contours for understanding the geological conditions. Hydrological applications consist in mapping the snow surfaces, their spread as well as other related observations. Agricultural applications of the remote sensing include identification of the type of agricultural crops available in the region, the type of crop characteristics, soil tillage trends, crop residue applications etc are all determined using the remote sensing applications. Forestry applications include determination of the spread of the biomass, fire scar mapping etc. Also there is considerable focus on the oceanographically applications where in the sea ice spread, depth and conditions are evaluated, Coastal wind field identification, analysis of the wave slopes, tornadoes and cyclone orientation, movement etc are found through these techniques, Also there is considerable scope to find the ship detection and classification using remote sensing tools and equipments. Coastal zone mapping is more commonly employed technique to find the slicks as well to find the vegetation mapping. Location of the military movements, metal object detection and related functions are commonly catered in the military or defence applications.

Specific applications in the land use and land cover aspects:

There are variety of applications in the land use and land cover applications being realized with the usage of remote sensing applications. Typical applications ranges from the usage of natural resource management, baseline mapping for GIS input, Finding urban expansion and encroachments. Working for determination of the recovery operations after seismic impacts, Developing logistics and route mapping for the resource extraction requirements, Working for natural disaster delineation(viz., flooding, volcanic, seismic and fire mishaps), Working for the legal boundaries identification for policy and legal procedural implementation for tax collection and related functional aspects. Target detection employing the principles of landing strips, roads, clearings, bridges etc. Working for the evaluation of the land/water interfacing etc all makes up important applications of remote sensing. Land use and Land cover trends are very much needed for variety of land management techniques. Typically future land impact analysis due to civilization progression, green house emissions and climatic changes can be very much predicted based on the remote sensing findings using historical data need correlation of the same with the current scenarios. More accurate predictions and more insightful predictions of the same can be possible by employing exhaustive data and accurate findings. Modernization is found to have great impacts over the land usage patterns. The changes in the land usage patterns are greatly predicted using the remote sensing technologies. Remote sensing technologies helped a lot for countries like China, where there are drastic changes in the land usage patterns due to urbanization and increased modernity.

Remote sensing - Trends and Features

Remote sensing technologies undergone drastic changes in their performance profile with the advent of advanced sensors. Advanced sensors enabled more detailed digital imaging of the spectral images. Very High Spatial Resolution (VHSR) is working for the betterment of the total metrics as well for the sake of sub metric pixel resolution quality. Recent innovations in the image processing technologies made the tool more and more convenient to apply for the VHSR image processing. The findings are more versatile and can be employed for image processing for specific applications of LC and LU (Land cover and Land use). Further the typical technologies like object based image analysis like (OBIA) worked well to evaluate the images to the finest quality. The technique of OBIA contained in first grouping the image pixels and later working for homozination of the images using segmentation methods. Hyper-spectral imaging is one of the key developments in this domain, where in highly segmented image development procedures will work for the betterment of the image viewing as developed from the satellite remote sensing technologies. Another important barrier in the previous remote sensing technologies is image transmission, large volumous image transmissions are now being enabled with the application of the image compression and transmission service technologies at present. Apart from these technologies there is much to do with the image resolution technologies. Some of the strategies being employed for image resolution include ERDAS Imagine, PCI Geomatica, IDRISI etc.

Further there are several open source systems like Opticks, Orteo tool box etc. 

As of now the key challenges in the application of the remote sensing technologies are contained in making quite accurate and high resolution satellites for developing images of maximum reliance and fitness to understand the Land use and land cover trends. Also remote sensing is progression to become more versatile and useful tool so that the findings can be of great usage to all concerned people and also more and more people are expected to get benefits from these outcomes. Internet can be a versatile tool for using Remote sensing data for diverse applications. Hence integration of the same with the remote sensing technologies is one of the key aspects. Remote sensing technologies at present have evolved to integrate information from variety of sensors and the information collected so is employed for the sake of developing more informative images that are of use for the intended objectives.

Land use and Land cover with more insights

Land use and land cover has gained more significance in the recent years due to the increase in the population and the increase in the overall land consumption. The key reasons responsible for such increased significance can be attributed to the historical investigations and postulations about the land productivity and correlation of the same with the population increase. It is more than 200 years ago itself; Malthus (1798) indicated that the increase in the population will ultimately outstrip the production capacity of land. Malthunian projection looks like more a reality and in this connection people are increasingly worried of protecting the land masses and preserve the overall production quality of the land in general. Land use typically will vary depending on the purpose of the land being used for . The usage trends will depend on the particular utility factors like whether the land is being employed for food production, whether it is being employed for the sake of shelter applications, whether it is employed for recreation, extraction or processing of the materials etc. For each of these cases, the land utility will vary differently and the final benefits of such usage pattern will decide the significance of the particular land use behaviour and implications of the same to the manpower. The pressure to extract the best possible production capabilities from the land use are enforcing more and more attention over the land usage patterns by the remote sensing technologies. Land cover refers to the physical and biological cover over the land surfaces. There are variety of land covers some of them include water, vegetation, bare soil as well other related artificial structures as well. Land cover is a qualitative representation of the land occupancy at any given time and this provides implications for better land usage planning and strategic decision regarding the same. Land cover can be a good input for effective land use. However investigation into both the land use and the land cover can be made employing improved sensor capabilities in terms of spatial resolution, spectral variability, temporal frequency etc. The minute changes that do happen over the earth's surface every instant can be estimated very conveniently with the usage of Remote sensing technologies(Pim et al 2015, 687).

Typical expectations from the findings will include land cover classes identification, land usage determination. Determination of the secondary processes, which do contribute to the degradation of the ecosystems of the earth. As in the contemporary conscious growth towards environmental management has increased tremendously, there is more and more importance grown towards curbing the loss of vegetation on the earth. Further there is considerable study of the impact of the human beings over the eco-systems and curbing the negative trends for keeping up the sustenance prompted more significance to the application of the remote sensing for Land use and land cover studies.

Some of the key drivers of this application study include the following,

- Food and water security

- Ensuring protection of the environment from climatic changes

- Working for protection of the land detoriation by employing scientific procedures

- Appreciating the relationship between different stakeholders and developing strategies for the betterment of remote sensing technologies

- Land use and land cover trends do have cyclic inferences and hence better practices need to be employed.

- Land use and land cover studies by understanding the biotic drivers as well as the abiotic drivers and the composition of these drivers will lead to betterment of the prevalent land use and land cover of region.

- To curb unwanted alterations of the land usage patterns.

- Literature Review

Remote sensing and versatility for land use and land cover study applications is emphasized by (Giri 2016). However there is much to do with the issues like interoperatablity and data integration from multiple sources of data sets. Further it is indicated by (Giri 2016) that the carbon dynamics, climate change, hydrology and biodiversity have been recognized as the primary focus objectives of remote sensing application sin LC and LU. Spatially explicit high resolution imageries as outcomes are considered to be the best sources for LULC evaluation. Chen et al(2006) done remote sensing based geographical imaging and analysis to provide empirical relationship between the heat island the Landuse and Land cover spread at the given region. (Houghton et al 2012) done investigation to relate the flux of carbon emissions and linked the uncertainties of the same with LULCC trends. The findings provided more reliable framework for the evaluation of the carbon emission as well to provide realistic measures to curb the same. Hu et al (2013) worked on to evaluation GE imagery with Object based classification model and done similar evaluations on the quick bird imagery and indicated that the for within the scope of his classification methodology, there is no much difference between GE imagery and Quick Bird imagery for the sake of LULC classification. (Leh et al 2013) indicated that there is considerable reduction in the erosion risk possible with better usage of the remote sensing methods for the sake of LU and LC classification requirements. (Wulder & Franklin 2012) indicated how the sensor designs maturity and developmental quality impacting the quality of the outcomes of the remote sensing. Further it is indicated that the instruments being employed for data extraction and developments of the same, the imagery analysis technologies and their developments have changed the range of the applications and feasibility of the Remote sensing methodologies. Remote sensing applications are applied and the application of these technologies for the study of deforestation trends is done and the versatility of the Remote sensing techniques is illustrated (Wulder & Franklin 2012). (Kindu et al 2013) demonstrated a range of application of remote sensing. Typical applications of the remote sensing included the land use and land cover change analysis using object-based classification approach in Munessa-Shashemene landscape of the Ethiopian highlands. (Wu et al 2014) indicated the impact of the land use spatial structure land usage on urban heat islands employing HJ-1B imagery technologies. (Araya & Cabral 2010) demonstrated the possible remote sensing applications on the Portugal land usage and land coverage applications. Zhu & woodcock (2014) provided several illustrations of the land use and land cover trends analysis employing remote sensing applications. (Giri et al 2013) provided a range of illustration and characterization procedures and characteristics of the land cover and land use models. (Hu and Jia 2010) successfully demonstrated the application and integration of multi-sensor based data outcomes for the sake of betterment of the remote sensing deliverables quality and for making inferences from the same. (Laurin et al 2013) provided very detailed focus on the application of the remote sensing technologies based on SAR sensory instrumentation for deforestation analysis and evaluation.

- Important strategies in the application of Remote sensing for LULC studies

LULC studies are mainly employed for the study of the land use and land cover studies for a range of benefits to the human habitation in the region in specific and to the global mankind in general. Typically remote sensing can be considered as a versatile tool for the study of these developments. However still the remote sensing application based strategies mainly consist of the following key strategies,

- Developing the scenario

- Key evaluation of the findings to understand the drivers and driving force analysis

- Working for the development of the model and validating the procedures employed for model build-up.

- Bringing out the inferences from the entire study

Subsequently policy makers and other relevant stakeholders will develop strategies to curb the misuse of the land and land cover and can recommend appropriate procedures for betterment of the land usage patterns. Remote sensed outcomes can be linked with the social science analytics for making more versatile recommendations for betterment of the entire strategies. There are numerous instances in the contemporary times, where there is detailed focus on the ways and means the deforestation is happening, the procedures and the processes by which the forest conversion is happening and also the study of the climate impact and the ways and means in which the climate change can be managed etc. It is very much possible with the integration of the spatial resolution and the change models to find insights into the tropical landscapes and related rapid anthropological changes happening. Overall the betterment of the quality of life, sustenance of the man kind, taking up responsibility for the future generations is now possible only with the application of the remote sensing at present.

- Future scope and developments

- There is much to do with the development of unmanned aircrafts for using and application of the sensors for remote study of the geological applications and the surface studies. Defence applications can employ greatly the unmanned aircraft systems to monitor the critical locations for peace operations(Khorram et al 2016, 280).

- LIDAR is the recent technology that can provide very good images for the Remote sensing applications. It has much to do with the RS technology for producing high resolution accurate data. LIDAR technology can be employed both for the sake of studies from elevation as well for the study in the water depths.

- Airborne Lidar technology and the developments of the same will be of good use for the future remote sensing applications.

- Any developments in the sensor technologies can contribute very effectively for the sake of overall development of the efficiency of the Remote sensing techniques. The most important of the techniques employed for Remote sensing include, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). SAR employs active radars and they will be employing micro waves for the sake of collection of data. Also SAR sensors are useful in all type of weather conditions.

- Both the day time and night time, SAR can be employed for the collection of data and this can be of good use.

- NEW SAR technologies are being developed from several countries and their utilities can be tapped much in future.

- Data fusion can provide more impactful information to the end users. When information is fused from variety of sensors, the final data quality and the data applicability can be improved a lot.

- More accurate and better information can be obtained by using multi sensor data fusion techniques.

- More the number of satellites available in space, better will be the overall performance and better will be the quality of the outcomes obtained in the later times. RS satellites are being employed by almost all countries and they are increasing in number as well.

Conclusion

Remote sensing is a very broad domain and there are numerous applications where in the advantage of remote sensing can be used for spatial imagery making for data analysis of the same. More significantly it is possible to use the remote sensing applications to assess the trends and impact of the contemporary urbanization, population growth, emission and civilization growth on the forestation trends. Land use and land cover analysis can provide effective inputs for the policy makers to take better consideration to sustain and conserve the resources for all concerned. Further limitless applications are possible in agricultural applications, crop recommendations, land change over trends studies etc. The recent developments increased the usability of the technologies and future scope for developments making much more promises for betterment of land use and land cover studies for future.

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