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2011PHM Clinical Pharmacology for Allied Health Assignment Help

You are required to write an essay on the pharmacological management of a given medical condition with the purpose to educate other allied health professionals. 

Address the four points outlined below.

(i) Describe and rationalise the pharmacological management of a given medical condition;

(ii) Provide an overview of consideration which may influence the outcomes of pharmacological management;

(iii) Describe the current and emerging role of your health profession in relation to management of the medical condition; and

(iv) Explain and justify the role of inter professional communication and collaboration in relation to the medical condition.

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Introduction

Pharmacological therapy is fundamentally the science of making and using drugs, along with the impact these drugs make on the body. The pharmacological therapy or interventions comprise of one or multiple medicines and the training associated with it are divided into various sub disciplines such as chemical, infectious, molecular and so on. There exist certain fundamental principles associated with pharmacology that focused towards the interactions and effects of drugs on the human body. There are various kinds of pharmacological therapies that are employed based on the kind of the medical condition of the individual. The following discussion shall focus towards the pharmacological intervention for the treatment of tuberculosis, using the drug cycloserine.

Brief Background

It has been determined that tuberculosis causes the second largest mortality in the world and therefore is considered as one of the deadliest diseases. Over two billion population of the world are affected by tuberculosis and in 2015, about 10.4 million people were reported ill with tuberculosis (Bernardo, 2019). Tuberculosis is caused due to the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis and these bacteria has the affinity of affecting the lungs. The contamination of tuberculosis majorly spreads through the air that is contaminated with the bacteria after talking, coughing, spitting, laughing or sneezing of an infected person (Bernardo, 2019). The major treatments that are associated with tuberculosis includes use of antibiotics, primarily a cocktail of multiple drugs that would ensure that the strains of bacteria are unable to resist the actions of the drugs. The rising prevalence of the multiple drug resistant tuberculosis requires consideration of the pharmacological interventions using multiple drugs that would ensure that the bacterial strains are being affected by the actions of the drugs. The standard treatment of tuberculosis comprises of the use of four antimicrobial drugs, namely, ethambutol, pyrazinamide, rifampin, and isoniazid for a course of about 6 months (Schluger, 2018).

Pharmacological Management

Pharmacological Management of Cycloserine To Tuberculosis Patients

Cycloserine is used for the treatment of tuberculosis and it is prescribed if the other most frequently prescribed medicines of anti-tuberculosis are either not suitable or have not been effective. Cycloserine works by acting on the bacterial cell walls and as a result of the same, the cell walls do not form correctly, thereby resulting in its breakage and killing the bacteria in the process (Stewart, 2019). Basically, cycloserine is a cyclic analogue of the D-alanine and has the potential of targeting the D-alanine ligase and racemase, thereby blocking the cell wall. However, there exists the issue of neurological toxicity that is associated with the application of cycloserine that limits its usage by the clinicians (Li, et al., 2019). There exists limited pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic data on the application of cycloserine in the tuberculosis patients (Alghamdi, et al., 2019). Cycloserine is considered as the kind of drug that is reserved for special situations like drug resistance or intolerance. The treatment using cycloserine based on the epidemiological information and the treatment can last for about 2 years. Cycloserine comes under the category of fourth class of anti-tuberculosis drugs (Sotgiu, Centis, D'ambrosio, & Migliori, 2015). The prescription of the drug has been suggested during the intensive phase of the disease. It is important that the drug is administered for a period of no more than 20 months (Sotgiu, Centis, D'ambrosio, & Migliori, 2015). Therefore, it is important to monitor the pharmacological administration of the drug Cycloserine for the cases of tuberculosis.

Overview of Consideration of Prescribing Cycloserine To Tuberculosis Patients Which May Influence the Outcomes of Pharmacological Management

The major considerations that are associated with the administration of cycloserine includes ensuring that the patient does not have the conditions of epilepsy or other associated seizure disorder, mental illness, anxiety, depression, consumption of large amount of alcohol or severe kidney disease. Furthermore, cycloserine is also not approved for those patients that are younger than the age of 18 years (Multum, 2019). It is important to ensure that an individual does not miss the daily dose or consumes two doses at one time as the same would result in confusion, tingly feeling, slurred speech, loss of consciousness, seizure, problems with movement of muscles, and severe drowsiness (Multum, 2019).

The major side effects that are associated with the allergic reactions of cycloserine include overactive reflexes such as shaking, or tremors, severe spinning sensation, troubled speaking, muscular weakness, depressed moods, confusion, usual behaviours or thoughts, headaches, and numbness or burning pain. It is important that while administering cycloserine, the dosage of the drug is monitored and prescribed as per the requirement of the patient and the various health issues of the individual should also be taken into considerations (WebMD, 2019). It is important that the patient follows all the information that is associated with the use of cycloserine as well as the symptoms of its allergic reactions so that they are able to detect the side affects at the earliest and thereby take the necessary steps.
Current and Emerging Role of Physiotherapists in Relation to Management of Tuberculosis Patients

There have been considerable observations associated with the application of physiotherapy for the management of tuberculosis patients. Physiotherapists have been identified to play a critical role in the management of those tuberculosis patients who have presented the resistance towards multi-drug therapy of tuberculosis. Tuberculosis has been identified to cause major injuries which eventually result in triggering fibroblastic reaction, chest wall retraction, chest wall retraction, fibrosis, thereby compromising the pulmonary expansion that eventually translates into functionally and clinically moderate restrictive patterns as well as dyspnoea during exercise. This eventually leads to lung disability, thereby causing social and economic dependence on the nuclear family (Wilches, Rivera, Mosquera, Loaiza, & Obando, 2009). The measures of controlling the tuberculosis disease have merely been focused towards healing and this has been insufficient in several cases. Therefore, habitation and rehabilitation through the physiotherapy must be administered to the patients for better outcomes.

The significance of the pulmonary rehabilitation as a process of nonpharmacological treatment in the cases of patients suffering from tuberculosis, has been gaining more recognition for restoring the health related quality of life, social integrity and autonomy (Wilches, Rivera, Mosquera, Loaiza, & Obando, 2009). As a result of the same, physiotherapists have also been gaining equal importance due to their in the pulmonary rehabilitation process used for the treatment of the patients. It can be stated that the application of the physiotherapeutic process along with the pharmacological intervention is of high significance for the treatment of the patients suffering from tuberculosis.

Role of Inter-Professional Communication and Collaboration in Relation to Tuberculosis

The communication and collaboration amongst the professionals that are associated with the care of patients with tuberculosis play a vital role in ensuring the health and improvement of the patient. The competency of the health care professionals to be able to communicate and collaborate with other professionals associated with the management of patients suffering from tuberculosis, ensures that seamless treatment and care is being provided to the patients (Busari, Moll, & Duits, 2017). Communication in the context of health care professionals implies the ability of being able to collaborate in an effective manner. The training that is provided to the nursing and health care professionals focuses towards developing their communication and collaboration skills so that they are able to provide the patients with quality care and treatment, thereby improving their health conditions (Wallis, et al., 2016). The practitioners from the professional fields of nursing and medicine are needed to collaborate with each other and communicate the needs of the patients with tuberculosis in such manner that they are able to deliver the kind of therapy that would ascertain that the patient is able to recover from the medical condition and gain the kind of health that would allow them to lead an autonomous and healthy life.

Conclusion

The discussion that has been presented above, provides the impression that tuberculosis is indeed a critical health disorder that requires taking into consideration various factors that highly influence the treatment process that are being employed. The traditional pharmacological interventions using the multi-drug treatment, are not always as effective and therefore, cycloserine is an efficient option for overcoming such situations. Furthermore, physiotherapeutic treatment has also been determined to be as an effective means in the treatment of patients with tuberculosis. Moreover, the presence of efficacious communication and collaboration amongst the health care professionals is also vital for effective treatment of the patients with tuberculosis.

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