Basic concept of physical chemistry:
If we look around us, we may see that there are many chemical reactions occurring. For instance, when we strike a match stick to burn a candle a chemical reaction occur. If we mix milk with baking powder in our favorite recipe, a reaction takes place. Have you ever wonder what are the root causes of this reaction to occur? Why some reaction does produces heat? How that is certain reaction proceed fast, while other moves very slowly. All of these questions of your wonder can be solved through Physical chemistry.
Physical chemistry, as the name itself is self-explanatory is a field of study which combines the principles and concepts of physics and chemistry to study the physical characteristics, properties of the molecules. The major concept of physical chemistry is called the molecules. Molecules are the components formed by two or more atoms together by bonding. By understanding about the physical characteristic of such molecules we can learn about how the atoms are present in a molecules has been arranged to give such a molecules. Molecules can be put together either by synthesizing or through chemical reaction. Apart from this we can also learn how a different atom combines to produce a molecule. The second concepts that this field deals is matters physical and chemical properties. Matter is anything which has a weight and finds certain place for it in the space. By studying the physical and chemical properties of the matter, we can directly get idea about the atoms and molecules as all these together constitute matter. The other concept of the physical chemistry has been divided as subfields based upon the purpose it serves to the subject. It includes:
- Electrochemistry: This deals about the interaction of atoms, electrons, and ions in an electrical current.
- Photochemistry: This gives an idea about how the light plays an effective role on a chemical reaction.
- Thermo chemistry: As the names it suggests that, thermo means heat. This deals what is the role of heat in a chemical reaction. Chemical reaction may be either exothermic or endothermic.
- Spectroscopy: It talks about the effect of radiation on chemical reaction.
- Chemical kinetics: It gives a view about the speed of the chemical reaction. It says whether a reaction is taking place fast or proceeding in slow rate.
- Diffraction: It gives information about the shapes of the molecules.
- Quantum chemistry: Quantum mechanics principles are used as tools to solve chemistry problems.
- Chemical thermodynamics: It also deals with rate of the reaction. Like whether a reaction is first order or second order.
Importance of Physical chemistry:
This field is considered as very important because it leads to discoveries of many new theories. The concept called static electricity of physic is used in chemistry to explain about the bond types. The static electricity in nutshell says that opposite charge attract each other, whereas like charge repel each other. This basic idea has been highly used to manipulate a type of strong bond called Vander wall force.
The principle of X-ray diffraction methodology in physics has been used in chemistry to study about the crystals in terms of its structure and Bragg equation. Many laws like Hennery's law, Raoul's law, Mole fraction Boyel's law are used in analyzing of the solutions.
Physical chemistry studies the property of molecules in the following levels:
- Macroscopic: This studies the properties of the molecules that are observed by naked eye without using of any scientific devices. It gives idea about the arrangement and bonding of a molecule. For instance, carbon and diamond are made of carbon. In one substance they are loosely held, whereas in other because of the strong bond they are hard. It includes melting point, Boiling point, and Specific heat capacity and so on.
- Microscopic: In this the matters properties could be studied only using the microscope magnification. Properties like shape and structure of matter could be studied.
- Atomic: This gives an idea about the atomic constituents of the matter. It me be either an elements (made of many atoms) or the compound (made of many molecules). Atomic weight and number are examples.
- Sub atomic: This gives an idea about the inner most structure of atom which are highly vital for nuclear chemistry.
Predicting the properties of the chemical compound and their bonding system is one of the major goals of physical chemistry. To describe the atoms and bonds precisely it is necessary to know about the nuclei of atom and the electron arrangement in it. Quantum chemistry, a sub field of physical chemistry specially concern with the application of Quantum mechanics to chemical problems, provides tool to determine how strong the bonds are arranged. In order to study about the concept of particular molecules, properties of that molecule at the four different level namely macroscopic properties, microscopic properties, atomic and sub atomic properties play a major role. With the help of this field chemistry and physics can be correlated and studied together.
Tips to solve problem of Physical chemistry:
- Physical chemistry deals with lots of question which are related to numbers and consonants. Hence one must have good command over math and should have the consonants value at your fingertips.
- Practicing the sums and performing the calculations again and again will help you to achieve proficiency in that particular concept.
- Along with practice, concentration must be done on understanding the concepts as well. As it is a field of study which correlates two different subjects viz physics and chemistry it requires high level of understanding.
- Must have clear idea about which concepts of physics is used to study about which topic in chemistry. Laws and principles must not be confused with one another. Hence complete study is highly advisable.
- No concepts must be left unstudied, as it may cause problem in understanding the well-known concepts.
- Always revise what you studied before. This will help in prolonged remembrance of the topic.
- Solve and practice previous paper related to the concepts.
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